1. Eugene M. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1950-1960 (NASA. 1961), p. 77.
2. Minutes of 14 Nov. 1956 Meeting of the Fuels and Propulsion Panel of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board and the USAF reply (excerpts declassified by USAF). A chronology of major ARPA events including the Air Force actions on large engines was part of the testimony of Dep. Sec. of Defense Donald A. Quarles, Herbert F. York, Dir. of Defense Research and Engineering, and Roy W. Johnson, ARPA Dir., in hearings before the Subcommittee on Defense Appropriations, House of Representatives, 86th Congress, 1st sess., 14 Apr. 1959.
3. A.O. Tischler, "Proposed Minutes of Sixth Meeting, Informal Technical Advisory Committee for Propulsion: NASA- USAF-ARPA-AOMC. 9 Oct. 1958," 31 Oct. 1958, Tischler's retired files; interviews with A.O. Tischler, NASA, Washington, 25 Jan. 1974; and with Abraham Hyatt, Rockwell International, El Segundo, CA, 26 Apr. 1974.
4. J. B. Medaris and Arthur Gordon, Countdown for Decision (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1960), p. 101; Thomas Watson Ray. "Apollo's Antecedents: The Conceptualization, Planning, Resource Build-Up, and Decisions That Led to the Manned Lunar Landing Program" (Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Colorado, 1974), p. 20. Ray's thesis contains an excellent account of early Saturn work.
5. Interview with Krafft A. Ehricke, 26 Apr. 1974.
6. Ibid.; Wernher von Braun to Monte D. Wright, NASA, 29 Dec. 1975.
7. "Proposal: A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program," ABMA, Huntsville, AL, 10 Dec. 1957, 2d summary, 14 Mar. 1958; interview with Frank L. Williams, NASA, Washington, 11 Mar. 1974.
8. Wernher von Braun, ABMA, to Carl B. Palmer, NACA Hq., 10 Mar. 1958, with copy of teletype attached, NASA History Office.
9. Interview with Francis L. Williams, NASA, 3 Oct. 1975.
10. A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program." interim report to the NACA Special Committee on Space Technology by the Working Group on Vehicular Program, 1 Apr. 1958, NASA History Office.
11. The NASA Hq. copy, with red tag and comment still attached, is in the NASA History Office.
12. Dryden to Commander ABMA, Attn: Mr. F. L. Williams, 15 July 1958, files of F. L. Williams, NASA Hq.
13. "Report to NACA Special Committee on Space Technology by Working Group on Vehicular Program," 18 July 1958, NASA History Office.
14. "Recommendations Regarding a National Civil Space Program," by the NASA Special Committee on Space Technology. NASA. 28 Oct. 1958, NASA History Office.
15. "Report to NACA Special Committee on Space Technology by Working Group on Vehicular Program," 18 July 1958, NASA History Office.
16. ARPA to C. G., U.S. AOMC Scientific Satellite Program, 17 Apr. 1958, cited in R. C. Callaway, D. M. Hammock, H. H. Koelle, and F. L. Williams, "Preliminary Information on an Advanced Orbital Carrier and Space Vehicle (Juno IV)," report DSP-TM-4-58, Future Projects Design Br., Structures & Mechanics Lab., Development Operations Div., ABMA, Redstone Arsenal, AL, 16 June 1958. This report. in the files of F. L. Williams of NASA. contains a brief history of Juno IV. For another account of Juno IV, see: Wernher von Braun, Redstone, Jupiter and Juno," in Eugene M. Emme. ed., The History of Rocket Technology (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1964). pp. 107-21.
17. Sources on ARPA for 1958-1959 include: ARPA chronology in H. R. hearings (note 2); "Saturn Chronology." in ARPA files. accession 68-A-6057, box 1, folder titled "Order No. 14-59, Large Space Vehicle Booster Approx. 1.5 mil lb Thrust." Federal Records Center, Suitland, MD, apparently written in 1959 by an ARPA staff member familiar with the events; "Background of Saturn Development and Management," an attachment to "Report to Administrator, NASA, on Saturn Vehicle Development Plan by Saturn Vehicle Team," 15 Dec. 1959. NASA History Office: David S. Akens. Saturn Illustrated Chronology, 5th ed. (NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center. 1971 ). Interview with Richard Canright, Penn. Health Research Inst.. Camp Hill, 7 Mar. 1974; and interview with Richard S. Cesaro, TCOM Corp., Rockville. MD, 12 Mar. 1974.
18. Interview with Canright, 7 Mar. 1974.
20. Interview with Cesaro, 12 Mar. 1974.
21. ARPA, "Saturn Chronology." The remainder of this chapter, except the last two sentences, is based on this source.
22. "Agreement on the AOMC between NASA and the Department of the Army." 3 Dec. 1958, as quoted by Thomas Ray, "Apollo's Antecedents." See also Robert L. Rosholt. Administrative History of NASA, p. 47.