Source Notes

[292-294] Chapter 5: NACA Research on High-Energy Propellants



1. Robert H. Goddard, The Papers of Robert H. Goddard, ed. Esther C. Goddard and G. Edward Pendray, 3 vols. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970), p. 1237.


2. Ibid., p. 1238.


3. Ibid., p. 1079.


4. Ibid., p. 1083.


5. Telephone interview with Robert E. Littel, Falls Church, VA, 20 Aug. 1973.


6. R. O. Miller and P. M. Ordin, "Theoretical Performance of Rocket Propellants Containing Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen," RM E8A30 (NACA, 1948).


7. V. N. Huff and C. S. Calvert, Jr., "Charts for the Computation of Equilibrium Composition of Chemical Reactions in the Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen-Nitrogen System at Temperatures from 2000° to 5000° K," TN 1653 (NACA. 1948); V. N. Huff, C. S. Calvert, Jr., and Virginia Erdmann. "Theoretical Performance of Diborane as a Rocket Fuel," RM E8117a (NACA, 1949); Virginia E. Morrell, "Effect of Combustion Chamber Pressure and Nozzle Expansion Ratio on the Theoretical Performance of Several Rocket Propellant Systems, RM E50C30 (NACA, 1950); V. N. Huff, Sanford Gordon, and Virginia E. Morrell, "General Method and Thermodynamic Tables for Computation of Equilibrium Composition and Temperature of Chemical Reactions," report 1037 (NACA, 1951; superseded TN 2113 and 2161 reported earlier).


8. P. M. Ordin, R. O. Miller, and J. Diehl, "Preliminary Investigation of Hydrazine as a Rocket Fuel," RM E7H21 (NACA, May 1948); W. H. Rowe, P. M. Ordin, and J. Diehl, "Investigation of the Diborane-Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Combination," RM E7KO7 (NACA, 1948); W. H. Rowe, P. M. Ordin, and J. Diehl, "Experimental Investigation of Liquid Diborane-Liquid Oxygen Propellant Combination in 100-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engines," RM E9F01 (NACA, 1949). P.M. Ordin and R. O. Miller, "Experimental Performance of Chlorine Trifluoride-Hydrazine Propellant Combination in 100-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engines," RM E9FOI (NACA, 1949).


9. J. L. Sloop, "NACA High Energy Rocket Propellant Research in the Fifties," read at Panel on Rocketry in the 1950s, AIAA 8th Annual Meeting, Washington, 28 Oct. 1971, condensed in Astronautics and Aeronautics 10 (Oct. 1972):52-57; Sloop, "Memoir: High Energy Rocket Propellant Research at the NACA/NASA Lewis Research Center, 1945-1960," read at the 7th International History of Aeronautics Symposium, 24th International Astronautical Congress, Baku, USSR, 8 Oct. 1973~ Walter T. Olson to the author, 21 Jan. 1972; interview with P. M. Ordin, NASA Lewis Research Center, 30 May 1974.


10. J. L. Sloop, P. M. Ordin, and V. N. Huff, "Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Diborane as a Rocket Fuel," NACA Conference on Fuels-A Compilation of the Papers Presented by NACA Stafl Members, Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory, Cleveland, 26 May 1948.


11. P. M. Ordin, H. W. Douglass, and W. H. Rowe, "Investigation of the Liquid FluorineLiquid Diborane Propellant Combination in a 100-Pound Thrust Rocket Engine," RM E51104 (NACA, 1951).


12. The date--even the year-of the meeting referred to is, unfortunately, in question. The author, a participant in the meeting, believes it was 1950 and so stated in a paper given before the International Astronautical Congress in 1973. On 26 Apr. 1974, another parlicipant, William Lawler Doyle of Redondo Beach, CA, asserted during an interview that the date was 19 May 1950. The month and year are supported by an internal memorandum of Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford, CT, entitled "Rocket Motors" by C. Branson Smith on 31 July 1956 (PWA files). In discussing choice of propellants, Smith cited a reference given as "Minutes of Meeting for Selection of Rocket Propellants-NACA, May 1950-best overall discussion." The official NACALewis laboratory file copy of the minutes, prepared by the author, was destroyed in a purge of classified documents in 1969. The NASA-Lewis "shelf list" of documents (Records Management) indicates that a document entitled "Conference on Rocket Propellant Selection held at Lewis on 19 May 1950" was destroyed 15 Sept. 1969. Undoubtedly a rocket propellant selection meeting was held 19 May 1950, but what is not completely proved is whether this was the particular meeting the author is referring to. The recollections of the author, of Doyle, the Smith document, and the NASA-Lewis record all but settle the matter except for one major problem. The caller and chairman of the meeting, Abe Silverstein-a man proud of his memory-insists that the meeting was held as late as 1952. Since the meeting was one of the early indications of positive NACA-Lewis interest in liquid hydrogen for rockets, the author hopes that documents by other participants at the meeting will surface and resolve the issue. Until then, the 1950 date has been adopted.


13. Interview with William Lawler Doyle, Redondo Beach, CA, 26 Apr. 1974.


14. House Committee on Armed Services, Authorizing New Construction of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 82d Cong., Ist sess., 1951, H. Rept. 452, p. 14.


15. NACA Conference on Supersonic Missile Propulsion: A Compilation of the Papers Presented, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, 13 March 1952.


16. "Rocket Engine Research Program at National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Active as of June 1952," NASA History Office.


17. B. E. Gammon, memo for the record, "Resolution Passed at the June 26-27 Meeting of the Special Subcommittee on Rocket Engines," Washington, 30 June 1952, NASA History Office.


18. "Minutes of Meeting, Special Subcommittee on Rocket Engines, Committee on Power Plants for Aircraft," 13-14 Nov. 1952, NASA History Office.


19. Abe Silverstein to NACA Hq., Attn: Mr. A. M. Rothrock, "Discussion with Dr. M. J. Zucrow of Proposed Addition to Rocket Research Facilities," Nov. 1952, NASA History Office.


20. Herbert York, Race to Oblivion: A Participant's View of the Arms Race (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970), p. 83.


21. A copy of the von Neumann committee recommendations is in "Documents in the History of NASA: An Anthology," NASA History Office, June 1975, pp. 24-29.


22. Logbook of Cell 22, Rocket Laboratory, NACA Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, from files of Frank J. Kutina, Lewis Research Center, copy in NASA History Office; Sloop to Chief, Fuels and Combustion Research Div., "Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion at Hydrogen-Rich Mixtures," 6 Jan. 1955, NASA History Office. The mixture was 46 percent hydrogen by weight, pressure was 29 atm., exhaust velocity was 3033 m/s.


23. NACA research memos E53J20, E551327, and E551329.


24. "Resolution Concerning Increased NACA Effort Adopted by the Subcommittee on Rocket Engines," 28 Nov. 1955, NASA History Office.


25. Forty-First Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (Washington, 1957), p. ix.


26. Harold G. Price, "Hydrogen Work at Rocket Lab," a summary sheet, 23 Apr. 1946, NASA History Office. The Cell 22 Logbook notes a 15-second successful run.


27. Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965), p. 208.


28. Forty-Second Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (Washington, 1957), p. ix.


29. Hugh L. Dryden, NACA, to Thomas E. Myers, Chairman, NACA Subcommittee on Rocket Engines, 3 July 1956, NASA History Office.


30. Thomas E. Myers to Hugh L. Dryden, 17 July 1956. NASA History Office.


31. "Member Suggestions to Agenda Items for Advanced Concepts of Rocket Propulsion," ca. Fall 1956, NASA History Office; "Research Recommended by the NACA Subcommittee on Rocket Engines as Requested by the Department of Defense," appendix II, transmitted to the subcommittee members with a cover letter by Benson E. Gammon, subcommittee secretary, on 15 May 1957, NASA History Office.


32. Richard B. Canright, "Rocket Propellants: Views of an Airframe Manufacturer," 31 July 1957. transmitted to the members of the NACA Subcommittee on Rocket Engines with a cover letter by Benson E. Gammon, 21 Aug. 1957.


33. Ibid.


34. Cell 22 Logbook.


35. Carmon M. Auble, "A Study of Injection Processes for Liquid Oxygen and Gaseous Hydrogen in a 200-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engine," RM E56125a (NACA, 1957). The report was written 26 Sept. 1956.


36. M. F. Hiedmann and Louis Baker, Jr., "Combustor Performance with Various Hydrogen-Oxygen Injector Methods in a 200-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engine," RM E58E21 (NACA, 1958).


37. J. E. Dalgleish and A. 0. Tischler, "Experimental Investigation of a Light-Weight Rocket Chamber," RM E521_19a (NACA, 1953).


38. A. 0. Tischler, "Rocket Branch: Engines and Injectors. 100 Hr. Ests. Only," a status data sheet, 2 Mar. 1956, NASA History Office~ Sloop to E. J. Wasielewski, "Fabrication of Rocket Engines." 20 Mar. 1956, NASA History Office; Edward F. Baehr, "Construction Method for Lightweight Rocket Thrust Chambers," appendix A of "Experimental Performance of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Fluorine in Regeneratively Cooled Rocket Engines," by Howard W. Douglass, Glen Hermings, and Harold G. Price, Jr., TNI X-87 (NASA, 1959); also "Making High Thrust Rocket Chambers," Astronautics 5 (Mar. 1960): 34.


39. Work diary of Dr. W. T. Olson, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, vol. 8, for the period Mar. 1957-July 1958.


40. NACA 1957 Flight Propulsion Conference. Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland. 21-22 Nov. 1957.


41. Sloop, "NACA High Energy Rocket Propellant Research in the Fifties'; Sloop, "Memoir: High Energy Rocket Propellant Research at the NACA!NASA Lewis Research Center, 1945-60"; interview with Howard W. Douglass, NASA Lewis Research Center, 28 May 1975; logbook of Cell 22.