LIQUID HYDROGEN AS A PROPULSION FUEL,1945-1959

 

Source Notes

[294-296] Chapter 6: NACA Research on Hydrogen for High-Altitude Aircraft

 

 

1. NACA Conference on Fuels: A Compilation of the Papers Presented by NACA Staff Members, Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, 26 May 1948.

 

2. Walter T. Olson, J, Howard Childs, and Edmund R. Jonash, "Turbojet Combustor Efficiency at High Altitudes," RM E50107 (NACA, 27 Oct. 1950), p. 2.

 

3. Walter T. Olson and Louis C. Gibbons, "Status of Combustion Research on HighEnergy Fuels for Ram Jets," RM E511323 (NACA, 3 Oct, 1951), p. 33.

 

4. Benson E. Gammon, "Preliminary Evaluation of the Air and Fuel Specific-Impulse Characteristics of Several Potential Ram-Jet Fuels IV: Hydrogen, Methylnapthalene, and Carbon," RM E51F05 (NACA, 1951).

 

5. Hugh M. Hermeberry, "Effect of Fuel Density and Heating Value on Ram-Jet Airplane Range," RM E511_21 (NACA, 25 Feb. 1952), p. 1.

 

6. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Boron High Energy Fuels, 86th Cong., lst sess., 1959, H. Rept. 1191, pp. 2, 5-6.

 

7. "Minutes of Meeting of Fuels and Propulsion Panel of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board," 16-18 Apr. 1952; and USAF response by Maj. Gen. James E. Briggs, 12 Aug. 1952. Author's notes, declassified by the USAF, are in the History Office.

 

8. 4-5 Feb. at WADC, 21-22 Mar. at WADC, and 24 Mar. 1954 at Langley AFB. Author's declassified notes in NASA History Office.

 

9. Addison M. Rothrock, "Turbojet Propulsion-System Research and the Resulting Effects on Airplane Performance," RM 54H23 (NACA, 17 Mar. 1955); "Minutes of Meeting of Fuels and Propulsion Panel of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board," 29 Sept. 1954. Author's declassified notes in NASA History Office.

 

10. Edmund R. Jonash, Arthur L. Smith. and Vincent F. Hlavin, "Low-Pressure Performance of a Tubular Combustor with Gaseous Hydrogen," RM E541_30a (NACA, 9 May 1955), p. 1.

 

11. Interview with Abe Silverstein, Cleveland, 29 May 1974.

 

12. "Minutes of Meeting of Fuels and Propulsion Panel of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board," Mar. 1955, declassified notes in NASA History Office.

 

13. Abe Silverstein and Eldon W. Hall, "Liquid Hydrogen as a Jet Fuel for High-Altitude Aircraft," RM E55C28a (NACA, 15 Apr. 1955), pp. 1-2.

 

14. Ibid., pp. 18-19.

 

15. T. W. Reynolds, "Aircraft-Fuel-Tank Design for Liquid Hydrogen," RM E55P22 (NACA, 9 Aug. 1955).

 

16. Jerrold D. Wear and Arthur L. Smith, "Performance of a Single Fuel-Vaporizing Chamber with Six Injectors Adapted for Gaseous Hydrogen," RM E55114 (NACA, 1955).

 

17. Interviews with Sol Weiss, William Rowe, Tom Gelder, Thaine Reynolds, and Loren Acker, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, 29 May; Paul Ordin, Lewis, 30 May, and Abe Silverstein, Cleveland, 29 May 1974.

 

18. David B. Fenn, Willis M. Braithwaite. and Paul M. Ordin, "Design and Performance of Flight-Type Liquid Hydrogen Heat Exchanger," RM E57FI4 (NACA, 1957).

 

19. Edward Otto, Kirby W. Hiller, and Phil S. Ross, "Design and Performance of Fuel Control for Aircraft Hydrogen Fuel Systern,- RM E57FI9 (NACA, 1957).

 

20. Interview with William V. Gough, Jr.. Alexandria, VA, 6 May 1975.

 

21. Glen Hennings in a group interview that included John Gibb, Harold Christenson, and David Fenn, NASA Plumbrook Station, Sandusky, OH, 28 May 1974.

 

22. David M. Straight and Arthur L. Smith, "Brief Studies of Turbojet Combustor and Fuel System Operation with Hydrogen Fuel at - 400° F." RM E56K27a (NACA, 1957).

 

23. Joseph N. Sivo and David B. Fenn, "Performance of a Short Combustor at High Altitudes Using Hydrogen Fuels," RM E561324 (NACA, 1956).

 

24. W. A. Fleming, H. R. Kaufman, J. L. Harp, Jr., and L. J. Chelko, "Turbojet Per formance and Operation at High Altitudes with Hydrogen and JP-4 Fuels," RM E56EI4 (NACA, 1956).

 

25. Harold R. Kaufman, "High-Altitude Performance Investigation of J65-13-3 Turbojet Engine with Both JP-4 and Gaseous-Hydrogen Fuels," W1.1 E57AII (NACA, 1957); Willis M. Braithwaite, David B. Fenn, and Joseph S. Algranti, "Altitude- Chamber Evaluation of an Aircraft Liquid-Hydrogen Fuel System Used with a Turbojet Engine,"RM E571713a (NACA, 1957).

 

26. Gough interview, 6 May 1975; Donald R. Mulholland, Loren W. Acker, Harold H. Christenson, and William V. Gough, Jr., "Flight Investigations of a Liquid-Hydrogen Fuel System," with appendix, "Flight Instrumentation for Liquid-Hydrogen Fuel Systems," by Scott H. Simpkinson and Jacob C. Moser, RM E57F19a (NACA, 1957).

 

27. As deduced from their personal flight logs by Gough and Algranti, 21-22 Feb. 1978.

 

28. Lewis Laboratory Staff. "Hydrogen for Turbojet and R.Amjet Powered Flight," Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, 26 Apr. 1957.

 

29. Arnold E. Bierman and Robert C. Kohl, "Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids," memo 3-6-59E (NASA, 1959). A centrifugal pump was also investigated: George W. Lewis, Edward R. Tysl. and Melvin J. Hartmann, "Design and Experimental Performance of a Small Centrifugal Pump for Liquid Hydrogen," TNI X-388 (NASA, ca. 1959).

 

30. David B. Fenn, Loren W. Acker, and Joseph S. Algranti, "Flight Operation of a PumpFed Liquid Hydrogen Fuel System," TMX-242 (NASA. 1960).

 

31. NACA 1957 Flight Propulsion Conference, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, 21-22 Nov. 1957. The remainder of the chapter is based on this report.


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