LIVING ALOFT: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight

...the early phases of a science require...a certain disregard for the formalisms and pedantic, creeping construction of the ultimate scientific edifice. Perhaps what is essential is a foundation of sensible, if vague, ideas and orienting attitudes- correct in their broadest sweep if not in their precise predictions.
 

Jack P. Hailman

Science, 168, 701 (1970)


 

- Table of Contents -

 

Acknowledgements.
 
 
CHAPTER I - LIVING IN SPACE.
BACKGROUND.
A FRAMEWORK FOR FORECASTING.
Guiding Assumptions.
Theoretical Orientation.
The Available Data.
SPACE ENVIRONMENTS.
The Physical Environment.
The Social Environment.
Basic Reactions to Space-like Environments.
Temporal Fluctuations.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER II - BEHAVIORAL AND SELECTION IMPLICATIONS OF BIOMEDICAL CHANGES.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DECONDITIONING.
Simulation Studies.
Resistance to Deconditioning.
Countermeasures.
VESTIBULAR ALTERATIONS.
Manifestations and Theory.
Resistance to Vestibular Effects.
Countermeasures.
VISUAL CHANGES.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER III - HABITABILITY.
BACKGROUND.
THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT.
Interior Space.
Food.
Hygiene.
Temperature and Humidity.
Decor and Lighting.
Odor.
Noise.
HEALTH AND LEISURE.
Recreation.
Exercise.
PRIVACY.
Meaning and Functions.
Theory.
Bases of Needs.
Mechanisms.
Crowding.
Territoriality.
Privacy in Space.
COMPLEX EFFECTS.
Multiple Stressors.
Aftereffects.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER IV - PERFORMANCE.
DESCRIBING PERFORMANCE.
Work Requirements in Space.
Human Performance Abilities.
ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE.
Discrete-Task Assessment Techniques.
Multiple-Task Batteries.
Partial- and Full-Scale Simulation.
In-flight Performance Assessment.
Future Focus of Research on Performance Assessment.
ISSUES IN ASTRONAUT WORK REGIMES.
Factors Affecting Work Capacity.
Factors Affecting Work Schedules.
Factors Affecting Workload.
The Effects of Desynchronosis.
Sleep Disturbances.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER V - SMALL GROUPS.
INTRODUCTION.
INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CREW COMPATIBILITY.
Gender.
Age.
Culture.
Personal Attractiveness.
Emotional Stability.
Competence.
Cooperativeness.
Social Versatility.
Similarities and Complementarities.
Group Homeostasis.
Crew Size and Social Compatibility.
Assembling Groups.
INTERPERSONAL DYNAMICS.
Leadership.
Cohesiveness.
Compliance, Conformity, and Independence.
Group Performance.
Temporal Dynamics.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER VI - COMMUNICATION.
INTRODUCTION.
DIRECT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION.
Verbal Communication.
Nonverbal Communication.
MEDIATED COMMUNICATION.
Planning Considerations.
Systems Requirements.
Systems Effects.
Application to Space.
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS.
Internal Communication.
External Communication.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER VII - CRISES.
INTRODUCTION.
EXTERNALLY PRECIPITATED CRISES.
Experience in Space.
Individual Response to Threat.
Group Processes.
Implications for Space.
INTERNALLY PRECIPITATED CRISES.
Psychological Episodes.
Transcendant Experiences.
Substance Abuse.
Grief.
Crisis Intervention.
Implications for Space.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER VIII - ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT.
INTRODUCTION.
SPACECREW STRUCTURE.
Power Structures.
Work Roles.
Normative Structures.
MOTIVATION.
Rewards.
Sanctions.
EXTERNAL RELATIONS.
Boundary Roles.
Interorganizational Conflict.
Models of Conflict Management.
Reassimilation.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
 
 
CHAPTER IX - SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
PURPOSE.
CHAPTER SUMMARIES.
DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.
General Research Issues.
Extended Spaceflight Variables.
Competing Perspectives.
Neglected Research Areas.
RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES.
Situations and Environments.
Methods and Approaches.
CONCLUSIONS.
 
REFERENCES.

 


Cover artist: Jack Perlmutter

 
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
 
Connors, Mary M.
Living Aloft
 
(NASA SP ; 483)
Bibliography: p.333
Includes indexes.
1. Manned space flight. 2. Space flight- Psychological aspects. 3. Human engineering.
I. Harrison, Albert A. II. Akins, Faren A.
III. Title. IV. Series.
 
TL873.C66 1985 302 85-5149


PreviousNext