X-15 Research Results
- BANNER, R.D.; and KINSLER, M.R., "Status of X-15 Aerodynamic-Heating
Studies," ARS Report No. 1629-61, 1961.
Summary of flight-test results to Mach 3.
- REED, R.D.; and WATTS, J.D., "Skin and Structural Temperatures
Measured on the X-15 Airplane During a Flight to a Mach Number
of 3.3", NASA TM X-468, 1961.
Survey of the structural temperatures at a few selected locations and
for specific conditions.
- SALTZMAN, E.J., "Preliminary Full-Scale Power-Off Drag of the X-15
Airplane for Mach Numbers from .7 to 3.l", NASA TM X-430, 1960.
Comparison of flight results with wind-tunnel tests and theory.
- SALTZMAN, E.J., "Preliminary Base Pressures Obtained from the X-15
Airplane at Mach Numbers from 1.1 to 3.2", NASA TN D-1056, 1961.
Comparison of flight results with wind-tunnel tests, semiempirical
estimates, and theory (base drag only).
- HOPKINS, E.J.; FETTERMAN, D.E. JR.; and SALTZMAN, E.J., "Comparison
of Full-Scale Lift and Drag Characteristics of the X-15
Airplane with Wind-Tunnel Results and Theory", NASA TM X-713, 1962.
Limited comparison to show deficiencies in theory and wind-tunnel
- SALTZMAN, E.J., "Flight Base Pressure Coefficients Obtained from the
X-15 Airplane for Mach Numbers to 6", NASA TN D-2420, 1964.
Survey of base drag characteristics and comparison with wind-tunnel
measurements and with theory.
- WALKER, H.J.; and WOLOWICZ, C.H., "Stability and Control
Derivatives Characteristics of the X-15 Airplane", NASA TM X-714, 1962.
Brief review of pertinent aerodynamic characteristics as determined
from flight tests.
- YANCEY, R.B.; REDIESS, H.A.; and ROBINSON, G.H.,
"Aerodynamic-Derivative Characteristics of the X-15 Research Airplane as
Determined from Flight Tests for Mach Numbers from .6 to 3.4",
NASA TN D-1060, 1962.
Flight results and comparison with wind-tunnel data to Mach 3.4.
Appendix presents data-reduction and analysis techniques for
- KEENER, E.R.; and PEMBO, C., "Aerodynamic Forces on Components
of the X-15 Airplane", NASA TM X-712, 1962.
Limited measurements of the pressure forces to Mach 6.
- KORDES, E.E.; and TANNER, C,S., "Preliminary Results of
Boundary-Layer Noise Measured on the X-15 Airplane", Proceedings, 2nd
Inter. Conference on Acoustical Fatigue, Dayton, April-May, 1964.
Measuring techniques and results from one flight to Mach 5.3.
- PYLE, J.S., "Comparison of Flight Pressure Measurements with
Wind-Tunnel Data and Theory for the Forward Fuselage of the X-15
Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.8 to 6.0", NASA TN D-2241, 1964.
Flight measurements and theoretical calculations.
Background and History
- WILLIAMS, W.C.; and DRAKE, H.M., "The Research Airplane - Past,
Present, and Future", Aero. Eng. Review 17 (1): 36-41, Jan., 1958.
History and highlights of the joint Air Force-Navy-NACA Research
Airplane Program through 1957.
- WILLIAMS, W.C., "The Airplane as a Research Tool", IAS Report No.
59-79, presented at IAS 27th Annual Meeting, New York, Jan., 1959.
Discusses philosophy, techniques, and role of research aircraft as
means for obtaining research information. Pre-X-15 flight tests.
- "The Rocket Research Aircraft Program - 1946-1962", AFSC Historical
Publications Series 62-110 V, Air Force Flight Test Center, 1962.
History, chronology, and description of the various research-airplane
programs. Contains list of pilots who were active in these programs.
- MARTIN, J.A., "The Record-Setting Research Airplanes", Aerospace
Engineering 21 (12): 49-54, Dec., 1962.
A compilation of the unofficial records of the rocket airplanes
- "Thirty-Five Years of Winged Rocket Flight", The Thiokol Magazine,
Thiokol Chemical Corp., 1963.
Brief review of rocket-airplane history from 1928 to 1963.
- "X-15 Research Aircraft", System Package Program - System 653A,
AeronauticaI Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command,
22 July, 1963.
Reviews management, logistics, and financial support for the X-15
program subsequent to 1963.
- BECKER, J.V., "The X-15 Project", Astronautics and Aeronautics 2
(2): 52-61, Feb., 1964.
A history of the research activities leading to the design and
development of the X-15.
- DRAKE, H.M., "Aerodynainic Testing Using Special Aircraft", in
Proceedings, Aerodynamic Testing Conference, Washington, March,
1964, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Discusses role of special test aircraft, including X-15, in the
field of aeronautical research.
Design Features cmd Development
- BOUMAN, C.P., "X-15's Cryogenic Cooling System is Simple and
Lightweight", Space/Aeronautics, 36 (5), Part 1, 61-63, Nov., 1961.
Description of air-conditioning and pressurization system and
- HEGENWALD, J.F., JR.; MADDON, J.F.; and PENROD, P.R., "X-15 Research
Aircraft Emergency Escape System", AGARD Report 243, 1959.
General review of the design, development, and test program for the
stabilized ejection seat.
- "Technical Description and Operating Instructions - NASA
Flow-Direction and Pitot-Pressure Sensor", Nortronics Report 60-46, 1960.
Design features and operation of hypersonic angle-of-attack and
- HOHMANN, C.J., "Designing a Hydraulic Pump for the X-15",
Hydraulics & Pneumatics 15 (12): 75-77, Dec., 1962.
Description and specifications for the hydraulic pump.
- CULLETON, R.J., "High Temperature and Vibration-Prime Parameters
for X-15 Hydraulic Design", Hydraulics & Pneumatics 15 (12):
70-73, Dec., 1962.
Pertinent features of the system, fluid, seals, and unusual
Reaction Jet Controls
- "Handbook of Operating and Maintenance Instructions for the All
Attitude Flight Data System", Sperry Pub. No. CA-33-0001, prepared
for WADC USAF Contract AF33 (600)-35397 Proj.No. 1373, 1960.
Detailed description of theory, operation, and maintenance of the
- JUDGE, JOHN F., "X-15 Flight Data System - A Precursor", Missiles
and Rockets, Feb. 27, 1961, 42-44.
General description of functions and design of the
inertial-reference system for attitude-angle and velocity measurement.
- MERRICK, G.B., "X-15 Controlled in Space by Reaction-Control
Rocket System", SAE Journal, Aug., 1960, 38-41.
Description of system development, including flight simulation,
of the reaction jet controls.
- SEAMAN, R.W.; and SMITH, D.S., "Flight Rating Test Demonstration
of the XLR-99-RM-1 Rocket Engine", ARS Paper 1409-60, 1960.
Discussion of requirements and demonstration program
for the flight-rating of the XLR-99 engine.
- BARTON, H.A.; and CRAMER, G.R., "Rocket Engines for Manned
Vehicles", Missile Design & Development, Nov., 1960, 14-14, 46, 58.
Discussion of fail-safe and manned-flight considerations for
- LUPERI, M.J.; and TICK, S.J., "Vibration and Combustion
Investigation of the LR-99 Engine", ARS Paper 1720-61, ARS Propellants,
Combustion, and Liquid Rockets Conference, Palm Beach, 1961.
Description of combustion-insta:bility phenomena related to
severe vibrations experienced with XLR-99 engine.
- DAVIES, H., "The Design and Development of the Thiokol XLR-99
Rocket Engine for the X-15 Aircraft", Journal of the Royal Aeronautical
Society 67 (626): 79-91, Feb., 1963.
Detailed description of engine design, performance, and test
- SCHLEICHER, R.L., "Structural Design of the X-15", Journal of the
Royal Aeronautical Society 67 (10): 618-636, Oct., 1963.
Thorough review of the design and test program for structural
- MELLINGER, G.R., "Design and Operation of the X-15 Hypersonic
Research Airplane", AGARD Report 288, Oct., 1960.
General description of airplane and systems.
- CLARK, W.M.; and MULDOON, H.A., "High Altitude Sky Luminance
Measurement", Northrop Nortronics Paper presented at 9th National
IRIS Symposium, Dallas, May, 1963.
Results of measurements for three X-15 flights, one of which
attained 280 000-ft. altitude.
- THOMAS, L.P., "The X-15 as a Zero-Gravity Test Facility", in
Proceedings, Zero-Gravity Fluid Behavior Review and Planning Meeting,
NASA, Washington, D.C., Oct., 1963.
Description of the X-15's capability for zero-gravity tests.
- LARSON, T.J.; and MONTOYA, E.J., "Stratosphere and Mesosphere
Density-Height Profiles Obtained with the X-15 Airplane", NASA
TM X-56009, 1964.
Density-height profiles from 16 to 74 kilometers' altittide
for six X-15 flights.
- BOSKOVIC, B.; COLE, G.H.; and MELLEN, D.L., "Advanced Flight
Vehicle Self-Adaptive Flight Control System", WAIDD Tech.
Report, 60-651, Part 1, Contract No. AF 33 (616)-6610, Project
No. 8226, Task No. 10889, U.S. Air Force, 1960.
Description of design and operation of adaptive system.
- BAILEY, A.J., JR., "Development and Flight Test of Adaptive Controls
for the X-15", in Supersonic Transport Symposium, SETP Quarterly
Rev. V (4): 3-23,1961.
General discussion of adaptive principle and development of X-15
- TAYLOR, L.W., JR.; and ADKINS, E.J., "Adaptive Flight Control
Systems - Pro and Con", NASA TM X-56008,1964.
Description of development of, and operating experience with, the
General Flight Characteristics
- HOLLADAY, W.L.; and HOFFMAN, D.P., "Systems Approach to Flight
Controls", Astronautics 36-37, 74-80, May, 1962.
Systems-analysis techniques used during the developnient of the
- TAYLOR, L.W., JR.; and MERRICK, G.B., "X-15 Airplane Stability
Augmentation System", NASA TN D-1157, 1962.
Highlights of the development and flight-testing of the control
- TREMANT, R.A., "Operational Experiences and Characteristics of the
X-15 Flight Control System", NASA TN D-1402, 1962.
Detailed description of control system: characteristics, operating
problems, modifications, and reliability.
- TAYLOR, L.W., JR., "Analysis of a Pilot-Airplane Lateral Instability
Experienced with the X-15 Airplane", NASA TN D-1059, 1961.
Analytical techniques developed to explain roll-yaw coupling
- PETERSEN, F.S.; REDIESS, H.A.; and WEIL, J., "Lateral-Directional
Control Characteristics of the X-15 Airplane", NASA TM X-726, 1962.
Detailed discussion of the roll-yaw coupling problem, and
successful and unsuccessful solutions.
- WHITE, R.M.; ROBINSON, G.H.; and MATRANGA, G.J., "Résumé of
Handling Qualities of the X-15 Airplane", NASA TM X-715, 1962.
Highlights of exploratory-research phase of program. Discusses
flight maneuvers from launch to landing.
- HOLLEMAN, E.C.; and ADKINS, E.J., "Contributions of the X-15
Program to Lifting Entry Technology", AIAA Aerospace Sciences
Meeting, New York, Jan., 1964.
Description of flight-control system and flight
characteristics for powered flight, space-equivalent flight,
- GAINES, L.M.; and SURBER, T.E., "Prediction of Optimum Approach
and Landing Techniques for Manned Reentry Gliders", IAS-ARS
Joint Meeting, Los Angeles, June, 1961, Paper No. 61-115-1809.
Description of the interplay of various factors important to
landing maneuver. Compares results from 15 landings with analytical
- MATRANGA, G.J., "Analysis of X-15 Landing Approach and Flare
Characteristics Determined from the First 30 Flights", NASA TN D-1057,
Discussion of conditions and problems encountered during the
approach pattern and the flare to touchdown.
- HOEY, R.G., "Horizontal Landing Techniques for Hypersonic Vehicles",
AGARD Report No. 428, 1963.
Discussion of navigation phase to landing site, and description of
factors important to favorable landing experience with the X-15.
- JOHNSTON, E.W.; and GAINES, L.M., "Low-Speed Characteristics and
Piloting Techniques of Landing the X-15 Research Airplane on Earth
and Other Planets", in "Dynamics of Manned Lifting Planetary
Entry", ed. by S.M. Scala, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc.,
1963, pp. 668-700.
Discussion of X-15 landing techniques and of their potential
application to landings on Venus and Mars.
- HOLLEMAN, E.C., "Piloting Performances During the Boost of the X-15
Airplane to High Altitude", NASA TN D-22893, 1964.
Discussion of piloting techniques utilized during flights to high
- JARVIS, C.R.; and ADKINS, E,J., "Operational Experience with X-15
Reaction Controls", SAE-ASME Air Transport and Space Meeting,
New York, April, 1964, Paper 857G.
Brief review of the development and flight experience with the
reaction jet controls.
B-52 and Launch
Dynamic Flight Simulation
- ALFORD, W.J.; and TAYLOR, R.T., "Aerodynamic Characteristics of
the X-15/B-52 Combination", NASA Memo. 6-8-59L, 1959.
Analysis program, including wind-tunnel and dynamic-model tests,
for the X-15 launching characteristics.
- ADALPH, C.E.; ALLAVIE, J.E.; and BOCK, C.C., JR., "Flight Evaluation
of the B-52 Carrier Airplane for the X-15", AFFTC TR 60-33, 1960.
Results of testing B-52-and-X-15 combination and the procedures
used during typical launch mission.
- MATRANGA, G.J., "Launch Characteristics of the X-15 Research Airplane
as determined in Flight", NASA TN D-723, 1961.
Description of launch characteristics from analysis of first
16 airlaunch operations.
Flight Operations Experience
- CLARK, C.C.; and HARDY, J.D., "Preparing Man for Space Flight",
Astronautics, Feb., 1959, 18-21, 88-90.
Description of the capabilities and potentialities of the
centrifuge and its use as a flight simulator for the X-15 and future
- HARDY, J.D.; and CLARK, C.C., "The Development of Dynamic Flight
Simulation", Aero/Space Engineering, 18 (6): 48-52, June, 1959.
Development of dynamic flight simulation and adaptation of the
human centrifuge to closed-loop control for the X-15 program.
- CLARK, C.C.; and WOODLING, C.H., "Centrifuge Simulation of the
X-15 Research Aircraft", NADC-MA-5916, Aviation Medical Acceleration
laboratory, Naval Air Development Center, 1959.
Detailed review of the procedures and tests performed during the
X-15 centrifuge programs. Discusses restraint systems, cockpit
instruments, control system, and pilot performance.
- BERRY, D.T., "An Evaluation of a Variable Stability Airplane
Simulation of the X-15", AFFTC-TR-61-42, 1961.
Description of an exploratory variable-stability-airplane
simulation of the X-15 performed with a T-33 jet trainer.
- ROW, P.V.; and FiSCHEL, J., "X-15 Flight-Test Experience",
Astronautics and Aerospace Engineering 1 (5): 25-32, June, 1963.
Review of flight-test experience with emphasis on the operating
problems and difficulties encountered.
- MAHER, J.F.; OTTINGER, C.W.; and CAPASSO, V.N., "YLR99-RM-1
Rocket Engine Operating Experience in the X-15 Aircraft", NASA
TN D-2391, 1964.
Review of flight-operating experience, problems, and maintenance
requirements for the engine.
- JOHNSTON, E.W.; and JOHNSON, R.H., "Analysis of Sub-Orbital Vehicle
Reentry Constraints", ARS Lifting Reentry Vehicles: Structures,
Materials, and Design Conference, Palm Springs, April, 1961, NAA
Report NA-61-167, 1961.
Discussion of reentry study as related to constraints from
temperature, loads, angle of attack, and energy considerations.
- HOEY, R.G., "Flight Planning and Conduct of the X-15 Envelope
Expansion with Interim XLR-11 Rocket Engines", AFFTC TDR-62-73, 1962.
General summary for flights to Mach 3 and 135 000-ft. altitude.
Discusses High Range facility, emergency lake facilities, and
- HOEY, R.G.; and DAY, R.E., "Mission Planning and Operational
Procedures for the X-15 Airplane", NASA TN D-1158, 1962.
Detailed review of the techniques used during the
exploratory-research phase of the program.
- DAY, R.E., "Training Aspects of the X-15 Program", Proceedings
Report of a Working Group Conference: Panel on Psychology, Armed
Forces-National Research Council Committee on Bioastronautics,
Woods Hole, Aug., 1960, 5-14, 1961.
Simulation techniques as related to pilot training.
- COOPER, N.R., "X-15 Flight Simulation Program", Aerospace
Engineering, Vol. 20, Nov., 1961, 16-17, 71-77.
Detailed review of the various simulation programs conducted
during the design and development program. Describes equipment and
- HOLLEMAN, E.C.; and WILSON, W.S., "Flight-Simulator Requirements
for High-Performance Aircraft Based on X-15 Experience",
ASME Paper No. 63-AHGT-81, 1963.
Discussion of use of X-15 flight simulator during the
research-flight phase of the program.
Research and Pilot Instrumentation
- ARMSTRONG, N.A., "X-15 Operations: Electronics and the Pilot",
Astronautics, May, 1960.
Description of High Range facility and ground-monitoring support
for the X-15 program.
- LARSON, T.J.; and WEBB, L.D., "Calibrations of Pressure-Type
Airspeed-Altitude Systems of the X-15 Airplane from Subsonic to High
Supersonic Speeds", NASA TN D-1724, 1963.
Flight data pertinent to pressure-measuring systems to Mach 4.
- SANDERSON, K.C., "The X-15 Flight Test Instrumentation", 3rd
International Flight Test Symposium, Buckinghamshire, Eng.; April, 1964.
Detailed review and description of research instrumentation and
- FISCHEL, J.; and WEBB, J.D., "Flight-Informational Sensors, Display,
and Space Control of the X-15 Airplane for Atmospheric and Near-Space
Flight Missions", NASA TN D-2407, 1964.
Description of conventional and unconventional sensing and
pilot-display techniques utilized on the X-15.
- VIDEAN, E.N.; BANNER, R.D.; and SMITH, J.P., "The Application of
Analog and Digital Computer Techniques in the X-15 Flight Research
Program", Proceedings International Symposium on Analog
and Digital Techniques Applied to Aeronautics, Liege, Sept., 1963.
Aerodynamic-heating and stability-analysis techniques used to
monitor and predict flight conditions.
Bioastronautics and Pressure Suit
- ROWEN, B., "Biomedical Monitoring of the X-15 Program",
Summary of measurements for eight flights: heart rate,
respiration rate, and body temperature.
- ROWEN, B., "Bioastronautics Support of the X-15 Program",
Description of two versions of pressure suit, physiological
instrumentation, and results from one flight to Mach 6.
- BRATT, H.R.; and KURAMOTO, M.J., "Biomedical Flight Data Collection",
ISA Journal, Oct., 1963, 57-62.
Development of biomedical measuring, telemetry techniques, and
monitoring systems for the X-15 and future aerospace vehicles.
- DRAKE, J.R., "The Pilot's Contribution to Mission Reliability
on the X-15 Program", ARS Paper 1128-60, 1960.
Review of piloted-flight philosophy as applied to the X-15.
- NAGEL, R.A., "X-15 Pilot-in-the-Loop and Redundant Emergency
Systems Evaluation", AFFTC Tech. Doc. Report No. 62-20, 1962.
Detailed analysis of first 47 flights. Summarizes mission, system, and
component reliabilities. Appendix summarizes flight record and
- WALKER, J.A., "Some Concepts of Pilot's Presentation", in SETP
Quarterly Review, 4 (2): 90-96, Winter, 1959.
Discussion of X-15 pilot's display used in early flights.
- CROSSFIELD, A.S.; and BLAIR, C., JR., "Always Another Dawn",
Cleveland and New York, The World Publishing Co., 1960.
Pertinent to design and contractor demonstration flights.
- WHITE, MAJ. R.M., "X-15 Program Status Report, Part I", and
WALKER, J.A., "X-15 Program Status Report, Part II", in Proceedings
Symposium "The Age of Omni-Sonic Flight", SETP Quarterly
Review V (2): 145-152 (Part I) and 153-160 (Part 11), Winter, 1960.
Summary of program for flights to Mach 3.2.
- WHITE, MAJ. R.M., "X-15 Operations in Pre-Lunar Studies", in Lectures
in Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Jan., 1962, 191-210.
Summary of program for flights to Mach 6 and 217 000-ft.
- PETERSEN, F.S., COMDR., USN, "Research Program Report - X-15",
Naval Aviation News, 6- 10, May, 1962.
Summary of experience with the X-15 program.
- WALKER, J.A., "The X-15 Program", in Proceedings IAS-NASA
Meeting, St. Louis, April-May, 1962.
Highlights of program for flights to Mach 6 and altitudes to
200 000 ft.
- RUSHWORTH, R.A., "Pilot Experience with the X-15 Airplane", in
Proceedings 12th AGARD General Assembly, Paris, July, 1962, 117-123.
Air Force test pilot's view of the X-15 program.
Dynamic Loads Including Flutter
- KORDES, E.E.; REED, R.D.; and DAWDY, A.L., "Structural Heating
Experiences on the X-15 Airplane", NASA TM X-711, 1962.
Highlights of structural-heating effects and problems up to
- GARRICK, I.E., "A Survey of Aerothermoelasticity", Aerospace
Engineering 22 (1): 140-147, Jan., 1963.
Summary of technical problem areas and interdisciplinary elements.
Describes some considerations for the X-15.
- JORDAN, G.H.; MCLEOD, N.J.; and GUY, L.D., "Structural Dynamic
Experiences of the X-15 Airplane", NASA TN D-1158, 1962.
Brief review of structural dynamic and flutter problems
encountered during the development and flight-test program.
- KORTES, E.E.; and NOLL, R.B., "Flight Flutter Results for Flat
Rectangular Panels", NASA TN D-1058, 1962.
Brief review of X-15 panel-flutter phenomena. Presents
semiempirical correlation parameters for flutter analysis.
- MCKAY, J.M.; and SCOTT, B.J., "Landing-Gear Behavior During
Touchdown and Runout for 17 Landings of the X-15 Research Airplane",
NASA TM X-518, 1961.
Detailed analysis and review of landing-gear characteristics and
dynamic-response problems for first 17 flights.
- MCKAY, J.M.; and KORDES, E.E., "Landing Loads and Dynamics of
the X-15 Airplane", NASA TM X-639, 1962.
Brief summary of landing-gear dynamics and loads.
- NOLL, R.B.; JARVIS, C.R.; PEMBO, C.; LOCK, W.P.; and SCOTT, B.J.,
"Aerodynamic and Control-System Contributions to the X-15 Airplane
Landing-Gear Loads", NASA TN D-2090, 1963.
Summary for 77 flights. Describes analytical techniques.
- NOLL, R.B.; and HALASEY, R.L., "Theoretical Investigation of the
Slideout Dynamics of a Vehicle Equipped with a Tricycle Skid-Type
Landing-Gear System", NASA TN D-1828, 1963.
Comparison of flight-test data with calculated distance,
lateral displacement, and effects of aerodynamic control.
- MELLINGER, G.R., "The X-15", Aerospace Engineering 20 (8): 12-13,
26-38, Aug., 1961.
A look at the development of the X-15 from the manufacturer's
- WEIL, J., "Review of the X-15 Program", NASA TN D-1278, 1962.
Summary of the flight program (exploratory) to Mach 6 and
200 000-ft. altitude.
- KORDES, E.E., "Experience with the X-15 Airplane in Relation to
Problems of Reentry Vehicles", presented at 3rd Congress of the
International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm,
Discussion of panel flutter, landing dynamics,
flight-control-system, aerodynamic and structural heating, and problems
that developed through mid-1962.
- ARMSTRONG, N.A.; WALKER, J.A.; PETERSEN, COMDR. F.S.; and
WHITE, MAJ. R.M., "The X-15 Flight Program", in Proceedings
2nd National Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Space, Seattle,
May, 1962, 263-271, 1962.
Pilots' views of the X-15 program.
- TOLL, T.A., and FISCHEL, J., "The X-15 Project: Results and New
Research", Astronautics and Aeronautics 2 (3): 20-28, March, 1964.
A research engineer's consideration of the results of the X-15