January 20: Navy Bureau of Steam Engineering was allocated $100,000 to contract for the development and purchase of 200-hp radial aircooled engines from the Lawrance Aero Engine Corp.
February 5: Navy-sponsored project of developing radio-loop antennas for navigational purposes.
February 27: World altitude record of 33,113 feet set by Maj. R. W. Schroeder (USA) in a LePere-Liberty 400, at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio.
March 1: The NACA proposed a national aviation policy establishing a Bureau of Aeronautics in the Commerce Department, authorizing airplane competition to stimulate new designs, increasing Army and Navy air appropriations, expanding the Air Mail Service, and expanding research at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory.
March 27: Successful test of Sperry gyrostabilized automatic pilot system in an F5L was completed at NAS Hampton Roads.
April 1: The NACA approved the publication of Technical Report No. 91, "Nomenclature for Aeronautics," to assist use of uniform technical terms and symbols.
April 2: Successful altitude soundings of wind direction and velocity at night, using candle-lighted free balloons at Hampton Roads in flights since January, announced by the Navy.
June 4: Army Air Service (AAS) was created in the Army reorganization bill signed by President Wilson. AAS consisted of 1,516 officers and 16,000 enlisted men.
June 8: Lt. J. H. Wilson (USA) made a series of high-altitude jumps, parachuting from a record altitude of 19,861 feet over San Antonio, Tex.
June 11: The NACA's own program of aeronautics research, conducted by its own staff in its own facilities, was begun with the first operation of the first NACA 5-foot wind tunnel at Langley Laboratory.
June 21: Because development of military rigid airships by the Navy was considered proper, and one logically leading to the development of commercial types, the NACA urged adequate funding of the Navy program in spite of recent airship disasters.
---: Navy approved installation of J. V. Martin retractable landing gear on VE-7 Vought airplane, but no evidence indicates it was done. First U.S. retractable landing gear was used by J. V. Martin K-III in 1918-19 period.
June 28: The NACA formally encouraged the Army and Navy to detail officers to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for aeronautical engineering study and offered use of its facilities and personnel to further research and experimental work outside of Government.
July 1: Wright Aeronautical produced a French Hisso "cannon engine" which fired 37-mm shells through the propeller shaft.
July 7: Navy F5L seaplane flown by means of radiocompass from Hampton Roads to U.S.S. Ohio at sea.
July 13: Cdr. J. C. Hunsaker (USN) elected Honorary Fellow of Royal Aeronautical Society of England, the first time this distinction was conferred on one not a British subject.
During July-September: Inaccessible parts of Alaska mapped from the air by Army Air Service pilots, headed by Capt. St. Clair Streett (USA).
November 1: First U.S. international passenger service started by Aeromarine West Indies Airways between Key West, Fla., and Havana, Cuba.
November 25: First Pulitzer race won by Lt. C. C. Mosely in a Verville-Packard 600 at Mitchel Field, N.Y., flying a distance of 132 miles at a speed of 156.54 mph.
During 1920: NACA Report No. 84, entitled "Data on the Design of Plywood for Aircraft," by Armin Elmendorf of the Forest Service, provided basic guidance for aircraft design as well as broader applications.
---: New aircraft engine laboratory, the second, was completed at the National Bureau of Standards capable of testing 800-hp engines. Work carried out under the direction of L. J. Briggs provided new data on the viscosity of air.
---: Wind tunnel at Leland Stanford Aerodynamic Laboratory devoted entirely to propeller tests under direction of W. F. Durand, while NACA's George DeBothezat carried on aerodynamic studies at McCook Field.
---: Secretaries of War and Navy appointed joint Aeronautical Board to consider military questions regarding use of aeronautics by both services. Having no connection with the NACA, the Aeronautical Board replaced the Joint Army and Navy Technical Aircraft Board established during the war to expedite military procurement and exploitation of aviation.
---: The NACA formulated and recommended reservations regarding the Convention on International Air Navigation (1919) to the State Department prior to U.S. ratification.
---: New aircraft engines of this year included the French Hisso-design 180- and 300-hp engines by Wright; the Aeromarine 120 and 180; the Parckard 300- and 600-hp types; and the Lawrance 60- and 200-hp air-cooled engines.
---: Moon eclipse observed by Lts. J. H. Tilton and W. H. Cushing from height of 3 miles at NAS Rockaway, N.Y.
During 1920-22: Robert H. Goddard experimented with liquid oxygen and various liquid hydrocarbons, including gasoline and liquid propane as well as ether, as rocket fuel, under a grant by Clark University. He concluded that although oxygen and hydrogen possessed the greatest heat energy per unit mass, that liquid oxygen and liquid methane offered greatest heat value of combinations which could be used without considerable difficulty. But, he said, "the most practical combination appears to be liquid oxygen and gasoline."
January 10: 700-hp aircraft engine having 18 cylinders arranged in three banks of six, tested at Engineering Division, McCook Field.
January 25: Committee on Law of Aviation, American Bar Association, filed initial report on the necessity of aerial law. On August 25, the ABA recommended Federal aerial legislation.
January 26: Post Office Department operated regular daily airmail routes over a distance of 3,460 miles.
February 21: First transcontinental flight within 24 hours, made by Lt. W. D. Coney in a DH-4B from San Diego, Calif., to Jacksonville, Fla., in 22 hours and 27 minutes.
---: School for Flight Surgeons at Mitchell Field recognized as a Special Service School in War Department General Order No. 7.
March 16: U.S. Public Health Service initiated aerial survey of the Mississippi Valley watershed.
March 23: Parachute jump from 23,700 feet made by Lt. A. G. Hamilton (USA) at Chanute Field, Ill.
April 1: President Harding directed NACA to organize an inter-departmental subcommittee to recommend Federal regulation of air navigation. After a series of meetings this committee's report was approved by the Executive Committee of NACA on April 9, and transmitted to the President.
April 12: President Harding recommended establishment of a Bureau of Aviation within the Department of Commerce, in his address to Congress.
April 18: John J. Ide appointed as technical assistant in charge of the Paris office of the NACA, a post he held until 1940 and resumed after the end of World War II.
April 23: Aerial photo survey of Dominican Republic coastline completed by First Air Squadron of the USMC; and in June, it completed aerial survey of Haitian coastline.
June 8: First flight of an Army Air Service pressurized cabin airplane was made, a D-9-A aircraft piloted by Lt. Harold R. Harris.
June 9: The NACA authorized construction of compressed-air wind tunnel (20 atmospheres) with a 5-foot test section at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory.
July 9-11: Aerial study of San Andreas rift, the line of earthquakes of 1857 and 1906 in California Coast Range, made by Prof. Bailey Willis of the Seismological Society of America.
July 13-21: In a series of Army-Navy bombing tests off the Virginia Capes, airplanes sank the captured German destroyer G-102, light cruiser Frankfort, and battleship Ostfriesland.
July 29: Brig. Gen. William Mitchell led 17 bombers in "raid" over New York.
August 1: World War I high-altitude bombsight mounted on a gyrostabilized base tested by Navy Torpedo Squadron at Yorktown, Va., marking completion of first phase of Carl L. Norden's development of a bombsight for BuOrd.
August 4: 5,000 catalpa trees successfully sprayed from an airplane in 15 minutes, at Troy, Ohio.
August 10: The Navy Bureau of Aeronautics was established with Rear Adm. William A. Moffett as first chief.
September 18: Lt. J. A. Macready (USA) broke world altitude record in a Packard LePere fighter plane by reaching 34,508 feet.
September 23: Day and night bombardment test flights by the U.S. Air Service were begun, which resulted in the sinking of the battleship Alabama in the Chesapeake Bay by a 2,000-pound bomb.
September 30: During forest fire season, 47 Air Service aircraft discovered 832 forest fires in 396 patrols from Pacific coast bases, flying 148,113 miles over national parks.
---: Pointing out the virtual U.S. monopoly of known sources of helium, the NACA passed a special resolution addressed to the President and the Secretaries of War and Navy urging the continuance of the U.S. airship development program.
October 18: A world speed record of 222.96 mph for 1 kilometer was set by Brig. Gen. William Mitchell in a Curtiss R6 Curtiss D12 375, at Mount Clemens, Mich.
November 12: First air-to-air refueling made when Wesley May stepped from wing of one aircraft to that of another with a 5-gallon can of gasoline strapped to his back.
November 15: Initial U.S. flight of airship Roma was made at Langley Field, Va.
November 28: NACA Report 116, "Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics," by Ludwig Prandtl of Gottingen University in Germany, a major contribution to the basis of the theory governing fundamental aerodynamical applications, was published. His famous 1904 paper on boundary layers was translated and issued in NACA Technical Memorandum No. 452 in 1928.
December 1: Nonrigid Navy dirigible C-7, first to use nonflammable helium, made flight from Hampton Roads, Va., to Washington, D.C.
December 7: In its annual report, the NACA recommended establishment of a Federal airways system to include provision of extended weather service "indespensable to the success and safety of air navigation." It also recommended that Government policy be formulated "to sustain and stabilize the aeronautical industry."
December 29: World endurance record of 26 hours 18 minutes 35 seconds set at Roosevelt Field, N.Y., by Edward Stinson and Lloyd Bertaud in a Junkers-Larsen BMW 185 (imported German Junkers J-13).
During December: The NACA cooperated with private organizations in the formulation of an air safety code.
During 1921: The NACA's Office of Aeronautical Intelligence distributed 13,080 copies of technical reports and 7,108 copies of technical notes to governmental, industrial, and educational institutions.
February 7: Completion of a 50-hour test of the Lawrance J-1, 200-hp radial air-cooled engine, by the Aeronautical Engine Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard, foreshadowed the successful use of radial engines in naval aircraft.
March 20: Navy's first aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Langley, was commissioned at Norfolk, Va., a converted collier, Jupiter.
March 23: NACA Report No. 159 on "Jet Propulsion for Airplanes," by Edgar Buckingham of the Bureau of Standards, pointed out that jet fuel consumption would be four times that of propeller engine at 250 mph, but that efficiency of jet increased at higher speeds.
April 25: Stout ST-1 successfully test flown by Eddie Stinson, first all-metal airplane designed for the Navy.
May 31: First use of helium in a free balloon in Navy balloon flown by Lt. Comdr. J. P. Norfleet in National Elimination Balloon Race at Milwaukee, which did not place in the race.
June 10: Guglielmo Marconi of Italy stated that an apparatus could be designed to transmit radio waves from one ship in any desired direction and pick up reflections from another ship in a receiver, a device which would "thereby immediately reveal the presence and bearing of the other ship in fog or thick weather." Christian Huelsmeyer of Germany received a patent in 1904 on boat equipment which used reflected radio waves for navigational use on the Rhine River.
June 12: Capt. A. W. Stevens (USAS) made record parachute jump from 24,200 from a supercharged Martin bomber over McCook Field.
---: Smithsonian Institution scientists utilized Navy seaplanes in mollusk research in Florida waters, completing in days what would otherwise have required a year.
June 16: Helicopter flight made by Henry Berliner at College Park, Md.
---: Lt. C. L. Bissell (USAS) began a series of night cross-country flights between Bolling Field, D.C., and Langley Field, Va.
June 26: ZR-3 rigid airship ordered from the Zeppelin Co., Friedrichshafen, Germany, as part of World War I reparations under terms approved by the Allied Conference of Ambassadors on December 16, 1921.
During June: Wright E-2 engine operated continuously for 250 hours at wide-open throttle, demonstrating improved durability of intake and exhaust valves; Navy BuAer later increased engine suitability tests from 50 to 300 hours' endurance.
July 1: Eight naval medical officers were first to report for flight training, at NAS Pensacola, having previously completed flight surgeon's course at the Army Technical School of Aviation Medicine.
July 16: Berliner helicopter rose 12 feet and hovered before military observers at College Park, Md.
July 17: Aerial photos taken from naval aircraft to aid in location of reefs at Hahaina, Maui, Hawaii.
August 2: An unofficial three-man altitude record of 23,350 feet was set at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, by Lt. L. Wade, Capt. A. W. Stevens, and Sergeant Longham in a supercharged Air Service bomber.
August 18: AGA beacon (American Gas Accumulator) began operations at NAS Hampton Roads, with 6,000 candlepower, 18 flashes per minute, and an optical range of 20 miles horizontally.
August 21: Lawrence Sperry dropped landing wheels from plane in flight and landed it on a skid device at Farmingdale, Long Island.
September 4: First transcontinental flight within a single day, by Lt. J. H. Doolittle (USAS) in a modified DH-4B Liberty 400, from Pablo Beach, Fla., to Rockwell Field, San Diego, a distance of 2,163 miles in 21 hours 20 minutes.
September 27: Observations on overflying aircraft made by Navy scientists ultimately aiding development of radar, by Albert Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young of the Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory, Anacostia, D.C.
October 17: First USN carrier takeoff by Lt. V. C. Griffin in Vought VE-7SF, from U.S.S. Langley.
October 19: Variable-density wind tunnel placed into operation at Langley Laboratory, although lack of adequate electric power prevented concurrent operation of both wind tunnels this year.
October 23: Reversible propeller demonstrated at Bolling Field, D.C., by American Propeller Co.
October 26: First USN carrier landing made by Lt. Comdr. G. Chevalier in Aeromarine 39B on U.S.S. Langley off Cape Henry.
November 1: First engineer-in-charge appointed for NACA Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Leigh M. Griffith.
November 8: Air Service Medical Research Laboratory and School for Flight Surgeons was designated School of Aviation Medicine.
November 18: First catapult launching from carrier U.S.S. Langley (CV-1) by Comdr. Kenneth Whiting flying a PT seaplane.
December 4: President Harding requested there commendations of the NACA as to the most promising program for the Air Mail Service in the expenditure of its limited funds. The NACA, on December 20, recommended that $2,300,000 be appropriated to demonstrate feasibility of night flying on the mail service and to establish regular New York-San Francisco mail service in 36 hours or less.
December 18: DeBothezat helicopter, built by the Engineering Division of the Air Service at McCook Field, successfully testflown for 1 minute 42 seconds by Maj. F. H. Bane.
During 1922: Two wind tunnels (4 by 4 foot, and 8 by 8 foot) at the Washington Navy Yard, under the direction of A. F. Zahm, made tests on naval designs, the important results of which were usually published by NACA as technical reports.
---: As a result of Army-Navy conference, policy established that manufacturers and designers should be invited to compete in the design and construction of military aircraft, with engineers given a free hand. The only requirement was that the airplane have military utility and have a speed of more than 190 mph.
---: National Aeronautic Association was formed with Howard E. Coffin elected president.
---: U.S. Weather Bureau first prepared a "standard atmosphere" showing the relationship between pressure and temperature based on average conditions over the United States at 40° N. latitude.
1920-22: Goddard developed and unsuccessfully tested first liquid propellant engine, using liquid oxygen, and devised small high-pressure pumps to force fuel into the combustion chamber.
January 5: Cloud seeding over McCook Field, Dayton, accomplished by Prof. W. D. Bancroft of Cornell University, from Air Service aircraft.
February 6: Aeronautical Engine Laboratory transferred from Washington Navy Yard to the Naval Aircraft Factory, establishing the Naval Aircraft Factory as the center of naval aeronautical development.
February 21: DeBothezat helicopter achieved sustained altitude of 15 feet for 2 minutes and 45 seconds in flight tests at McCook Field.
March 5: Auxiliary jettisonable belly tank fitted to bomb rack of MB3A at Selfridge Field, Mich., increased flying radius to about 400 miles.
March 8: Lunar radiation observations at an altitude of 19,000 feet made by Russell M. Otis in DH-4B over San Diego, Lt. F. W. Seifert as pilot.
March 29: Lt. R. L. Maitland attained world speed record of 239.95 mph in Curtiss R-6 at Dayton, Ohio.
April 2: First flight of all-metal pursuit monoplane, Wright H-3, 400-hp engine, at Curtiss Field.
April 15: Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) reported equipment for radio control of an F5L was satisfactory to a range of 10 miles, and that radio control of aircraft during landing and takeoff was feasible.
April 20: First aerial refueling with hose, at Rockwell Field, San Diego, between two DH-4B aircraft, under the direction of Henry H. Arnold (USAS).
May 2-3: First nonstop transcontinental flight of 2,520 miles from New York to San Diego flown by Lts. O. G. Kelly and J. A. Macready, in a Fokker T2-Liberty 375 in 26 hours 50 minutes.
May 26: Chief of Navy BuAer agreed with Chief of Army Air Service that identical aeronautic specifications would be advantageous to both the aviation industry and the military services. Lt. R. S. Barnaby was ordered to McCook Field as BuAer representative on interservice committee on standardization in December, the first of a series of annual meetings held until 1937.
June 9: Juan de la Cierva made first successful autogiro flights in a rotary wing aircraft, at Madrid, Spain.
June 20: Initial flight of all-metal airplane (Gallaudet) designed by Engineering Division at Wright Field.
June 25: First International Air Congress, London, England, 450 delegates from 17 nations attended.
June 26: First complete midair pipeline refueling between two airplanes, made by Lts. L. H. Smith and J. P. Richter (USA) at San Diego.
August 22: World's largest airplane, the six-engine Barling bomber, underwent first tests at McCook Field, Lt. H. R. Harris as pilot.
August 27-28: Capt. L. H. Smith and Lt. J. P. Richter flew a DH-4B-Liberty 400 to a world refueled duration record of 37 hours and 15 minutes, as well as a distance record of 3,293 miles at Rockwell Field, San Diego, Calif.
September 4: Navy airship Shenandoah (ZR-1) made its first flight at NAS Lakehurst, the first of the Zeppelin type to use helium gas.
September 5: Army bombers sank two obsolete battleships, the U.S.S. Virginia and the U.S.S. New Jersey, off Cape Hatteras.
September 28: Navy aircraft won first and second places in Schneider Cup international seaplane races at Cowes, England, and established new world record for seaplanes with a speed of 169.89 mph for 200 kilometers. Flying CR-3's powered by Curtiss D-12 engines, Lt. David Rittenhouse achieved 177.38 mph in the race, while Lt. Rutledge Irvine placed second with 173.46 mph.
October 1: Goodyear Tire & Rubber acquired Zeppelin rights for manufacture of rigid airships.
October 6: Lt. A. J. Williams (USN) set new world speed records of 243.8 mph for 100 kilometers, and 243.7 mph for 200 kilometers over a closed circuit, flying a Curtis R2C-1 Racer in the Pulitzer Trophy Race, at St. Louis, Mo.
November 1: Robert H. Goddard successfully operated a liquid oxygen and gasoline rocket motor on a testing frame, both fuel components being supplied by pumps installed on the rocket.
November 2: Flexural fatigue machine for testing sheet duralumin stopped after 200 million alterations, on a 389-day nonstop run at the Bureau of Standards. Check calibration gave same reading as the original calibration on October 5, 1922.
November 4: Lt. Alford J. Williams (USN) established world speed record of 266.59 mph in Navy-Curtiss Racer over Mitchel Field, Long Island, which remained U.S. record until 1930.
November 5: Series of tests demonstrating feasibility of stowing, assembling, and launching a seaplane from a submarine were completed, which involved assembling a Martin MS-1 and launching it by submerging the submarine.
November 23: Concluding sentence of the annual report of the NACA for 1923 was: "Progress in aeronautics is being made at so rapid a rate that the only way to keep abreast of other nations is actually to keep abreast, year by year, never falling behind." [Italic in original.]
November 23: Aeromarine all-metal flying boat launched at Keyport, N.J.
December 18: Christmas aileron patent claim was settled when U.S. Government bought the patent rights for $100,000.
End of 1923: Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen (The Rocket Into Interpanetary Space) by Hermann Oberth was published in Germany, and was the genesis for considerable discussion of rocket propulsion.
During 1923: Turbine-type supercharger with a gear drive under development at McCook Field.
---: Navy Bureau of Aeronautics abandoned water-cooled engines of less than 300 hp with the development of the Lawrance direct air-cooled J-1, 200-hp engine. Weight of water-cooling system was usually in excess of 25 percent of the total weight of the engine.
January 16: President Coolidge canceled all preparations for Navy Arctic expedition in which it was intended to use airplanes and the dirigible Shenandoah.
February 27: Corp. C. E. Conrad (USAS) successfully parachuted from 21,500 feet, from DH-4B over Kelly Field, Tex.
March 4: Two Martin bombers and two DH-4's broke up an icejam on the Platte River at North Bend, Nebr., by bombing.
March 7: Lt. E. H. Barksdale and B. Jones (USAS) flew DH-4B Liberty 400 on instruments from McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, to Mitchel Field, N.Y.
During March: Apparatus developed at Wright Field for scattering insecticide from the air, for use in checking spread of gypsy moth in New England.
April 6¾September 28: The first round-the-world flight, the first transpacific flight, and the first westbound Atlantic crossing, from and returning to Seattle, by two Army Douglas "World Cruiser" biplanes, flying 26,345 miles in 363 hours' flying time, with an elapsed time of 175 days.
During April: Central Committee for the Study of Rocket Propulsion established in the Soviet Union.
May 2: Unofficial two-man altitude record of 31,540 feet set by Lts. John A. Macready and A. W. Stevens (USAS) on a flight during which an aerial photograph covering the greatest area of the earth's surface to date was obtained.
May 19: Lt. J. A. Macready (USAS) established new American altitude record of 35,239 feet at Dayton, in Le Pere Liberty 400.
June 2: Dr. C. L. Meisinger of the Weather Bureau and Lt. James T. Neely were killed by lightning in storm-riding balloon flight, near Monticello, Ill.
June 23: First "dawn-to-dusk" flight from New York to San Francisco, by Lt. R. L. Maugham in Curtis Pursuit (PW-8), with five stops en route.
July 1: Dr. George W. Lewis appointed Director of Aeronautical Research of NACA, a post he held until 1947.
---: First continuous night-and-day transcontinental airmail service initiated between New York and San Francisco by Post Office Department pilots, a service which was first instituted on September 8, 1920, but had stopped.
September 14: French helicopter flown by its designer, Oehmichen, established world helicopter altitude record of 3.28 feet carrying 440.92-pound useful load.
September 15: Unmanned N-9 seaplane equipped with radio control successfully flown on 40-minute flight from Naval Proving Grounds, Dahlgren, and sank from damage sustained on landing.
October 15: ZR-3 (later renamed Los Angeles), a German dirigible constructed for the U.S. Navy under a reparations agreement, arrived at Lakehurst, N.J., after flying the Atlantic, by German crew under Dr. Hugo Eckener.
October 24: When all foreign entrants withdrew from Schneider Cup Race to be held at Bayshore Park, Md., the United States agreed to cancel race rather than win by a flyaway. Instead, Navy scheduled contestants and other naval aircraft placed 17 world records in the book for class C seaplanes.
October 25: Lt. R. A. Ofstie (USN) established new world seaplane speed record of 178.25 mph for 100 km.
October 28: Cloud formations at 13,000 feet were broken up over Bolling Field, D.C., by "blasting" with electrified silica in a fog-dispersal demonstration by Army aircraft.
November 24: NACA Committee on Aerodynamics summarized in its annual report that it had direct control of aerodynamic research conducted at Langley, the propeller research conducted at Standford University under W. F. Durand, and some special investigation at the Bureau of Standards and at a number of Universities. Investigation undertaken at the Washington Navy Yard Aerodynamic Laboratory, the Engineering Division of the Army Air Service, the Bureau of Standards, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were reported to this Committee. Thus, it was "in close contact with all aerodynamical work being carried out in the United States."
---: NACA Subcommittee on metals concluded that duralumin girders which formed framework of the Shenandoah "will not fail by 'fatigue' in less than 40 years under service conditions" as a result of the "most extensive investigation of the properties of sheet metal which has been undertaken in this country," by the Bureau of Standards.
December 2: "Standard Atmosphere," after careful coordination, approved by Executive Committee of NACA, later adopted for use in aeronautical calculations by the War and Navy Departments, the Weather Bureau, and the Bureau of Standards; described by Lt. Walter S. Diehl of BuAer in NACA Technical Report No. 218. It gave pressures and densities for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet.
December 9: The Civil Aeronautics Act, proposing to establish a Bureau of Civil Aeronautics in the Department of Commerce, was reintroduced in Congress.
During 1924: High-speed wind tunnel (5 foot, 1,000 hp, 260 mph) at McCook Field used continuously, handling 150 tests of 17 airfoil, 24 model, and 15 fuselage tests.
---: High-speed photography of sprays produced by fuel injection valves successfully developed, and flight study of Roots-type supercharger with DH-4 and DT-2 aircraft conducted, at Langley Laboratory. Supercharging increased practical ceiling of DH-4 from 14,500 feet to 31,000 feet, and of the DT-2 from 18,500 feet to 28,000 feet.
---: NACA Report No. 207 by L. J. Briggs, G. F. Hull, and H. L. Dryden of the National Bureau of Standards, "Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils at High Speeds," was major contribution reporting on tests of airfoils at near supersonic speeds.
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Last Updated: January 27, 2005