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Project Apollo
A Selective Bibliography of Books

compiled by
Roger D. Launius and J.D. Hunley
NASA History Office


Armstrong, Neil A., et al. First on the Moon: A Voyage with Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. Written with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin. Epilogue by Arthur C. Clarke. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970. This is the "official" memoir of the Apollo 11 landing mission to the Moon in 1969. It was prepared by the ghost writers Farmer and Hamblin from information made available exclusively to them through a somewhat infamous Time-Life/Field Enterprises contract that excluded the rest of the media from contact with the astronauts' families. Contains much personal information about the astronauts that is not available elsewhere.

Barbour, John. Footprints on the Moon. Washington, DC: The Associated Press, 1969. This illustrated history consists of 12 chapters with numerous photographs to produce a popular history that capitalized on the interest surrounding the flight of Apollo 11 in 1969.

Benson, Charles D. and Faherty, William Barnaby. Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4204, 1978. An excellent history of the design and construction of the lunar launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Of Moonport, a reviewer in the Journal of American History said in 1979, "The authors had access to official documents, letters, and memoranda, and they have apparently consulted all the relevant historical, technological, and scientific secondary materials...all the involved historians obviously spent considerable time studying and intellectually digesting technical reports and manuals in order to give their lay readers such lucid accounts of highly complex procedures and is important to public knowledge to have professionally trained historians employ historical methods to explain significant events and place them in a meaningful historical context. Here is a broad lesson...that contemporary society can ill afford to ignore."

Bergaust, Erik. Murder on Pad 34. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1968. A highly critical account of the investigation of the Apollo 204 accident in January 1967 that killed astronauts Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Edward White. Bergaust takes issue with NASA's design approach that allowed for the use of a pure oxygen atmosphere in the Apollo command module. It is largely a journalistic rehash of criticism of NASA coming from Congress and the media, with very little new commentary or analysis and no new factual information. Bergaust concludes that the human and fiscal sacrifices made in Project Apollo have been in vain, since the Soviet Union (seen as the reason for Apollo) may not be going to Moon at all.

Bilstein, Roger E. Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4206, 1980. This thorough and well-written book gives a detailed but highly readable account of the enormously complex process whereby NASA and especially the Marshall Space Flight Center under the direction of Wernher von Braun developed the launch vehicles used in the Apollo program ultimately to send twelve humans to the Moon. Based on exhaustive research and equipped with extensive bibliographic references, this book comes as close to being a definitive history of the Saturn rocket program as is likely ever to appear. Moreover, it is not simply a technical history but covers the decision-making process that lay behind the technological development, making it not just a history of nuts and bolts but also an analysis of technical management and organization. As one reviewer said in Air University Review, "This volume is just one of many excellent histories produced by government and contract historians for the NASA History Office....The book is enhanced by many excellent appendixes and charts, and it has a thorough essay on sources and documentation, including exhaustive references and notes....Author Roger Bilstein...gracefully wends his way through a maze of technical documentation to reveal the important themes of his story; rarely has such a nuts-and-bolts tale been so gracefully told."

Booker, Peter Jeffrey; Frewer, G.C.; and, Pardoe, G.K.C. Project Apollo: The Way to the Moon. New York: American Elsevier Pub. Co., 1969. A popular and readable account prepared in anticipation of and released just after the Apollo 11 mission in 1969, this book condenses the essential details of ten years of American space activities into a short narrative. It begins with a discussion of the enormous growth of NASA and the entire space effort in the early 1960s and ends with speculation on future developments in human exploration of the solar system.

Borman, Frank. Countdown: An Autobiography. New York: William Morrow, Silver Arrow Books, 1988. With Robert J. Serling. Written to appear on the twentieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, this autobiography spans much more than the Apollo program. It recounts Borman's life in aeronautics, first as a military flier, then as a test pilot, and finally as president of Eastern Airlines.

Breuer, William B. Race to the Moon: America's Duel with the Soviets. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. This book, written by a journalist who has made a career out of writing World War II adventures, is neither about the race to the Moon, nor the U.S. rivalry with the U.S.S.R. The majority of it is, instead, about the World War II efforts of the German rocket team under Wernher von Braun at Peenemünde, their wartime exploits, their surrender to American forces in 1945, and their post-war activities in the United States. Only 6 of 24 chapters actually deal with Project Apollo, and none of the book goes beyond the popular literature on either the Germans or Apollo.

Brooks, Courtney G., Grimwood, James M., and Swenson, Loyd S., Jr. Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft. Washington: NASA SP-4205, 1979. The authors of this book describe it accurately in their preface (p. xiv) as beginning "with the creation of NASA itself and with the definition of a manned space flight program to follow Mercury. It ends with Apollo 11, when America attained its goal of the 1960s, landing the first men on the moon and returning them to the earth. The focal points of this story are the spacecraft—the command and service modules and the lunar module." Based on exhaustive documentary and secondary research as well as 341 interviews, this well-written volume covers the design, development, testing, evaluation, and operational use of the Apollo spacecraft through July 1969.

CBS News. 10:56:20 PM EDT, 7/20/69: The Historic Conquest of the Moon as Reported to the American People. New York: Columbia Broadcasting System, 1970. As the title suggests, this is an attempt to capture in print and pictures the reporting on humankind's first landing on the Moon during Apollo 11. It is more useful in capturing the immediacy of the moment than in providing a historical assessment of the event and its significance.

Chaikin, Andrew. A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts. New York: Viking, 1994. One of the best books on Apollo, this work emphasizes the exploration of the Moon by the astronauts between 1968 and 1972.

Chapman, Richard L. Project Management in NASA: The System and the Men. Washington, DC: NASA SP-324, 1973. Based on almost 150 interviews and contributions by NASA officials, this slight and somewhat uncritical study does provide a useful look at NASA's project management system that contributed significantly to the success of the Apollo program. Although far from a definitive treatment, this volume provides useful information on management within NASA during the Apollo era, although it does not focus specifically on Apollo. It covers especially the Office of Space Science and Applications, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology, and the field center organization. Equipped with useful if dated and selected reference notes and bibliography.

Collins, Michael. Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974. This is the first candid book about life as an astronaut, written by the member of the Apollo 11 crew that remained in orbit around the Moon. The author comments on other astronauts, describes the seemingly endless preparations for flights to the Moon, and assesses the results. He also describes what he thinks of as the most important perspective that emerged from his flight, a realization of the fragility of the Earth. He wrote that "from space there is no hint of ruggedness to it; smooth as a billiard ball, it seems delicately poised on its circular journey around the Sun, and above all it seems fragile...Is the sea water clean enough to pour over your head, or is there a glaze of oil on its surface?...Is the riverbank a delight or an obscenity? The difference between a blue-and-white planet and a black-and-brown one is delicate indeed."

______. Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press, 1988. A general history of the U.S. space program for a popular audience written by a former astronaut, begins with an account by one of the three participating astronauts of the Apollo 11 flight. He then flashes back to the post-World War II beginnings of the United States' interest in space and traces the evolution of the space program through the history of the Apollo program. These sections account for roughly two-thirds of the book, with the remainder taking the story of U.S. space exploration through Skylab to the Challenger accident and the prospects for space efforts as they looked in the late 1980s.

Compton, W. David. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration SP-4214, 1989. This clearly written account traces the ways in which scientists with interests in the Moon and engineers concerned with landing people on Earth’s satellite resolved their differences of approach and carried out a mission that made major contributions to science and developed remarkable engineering achievements. Roughly half of the volume is devoted to preparations for the lunar landings, with the remainder of the book detailing the lunar explorations that followed Apollo 11, in which twelve astronauts visited the Moon and brought back lunar samples for scientists to investigate.

Cooke, Hereward Lester, with the collaboration of Dean, James D. Eyewitness to Space: Paintings and Drawings Related to the Apollo Mission to the Moon Selected, with a Few Exceptions, from the Art Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1963 to 1969). Foreword by J. Carter Brown. Preface by Thomas O. Paine. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1971. A collection of 258 paintings and drawings in reproduction, created by a variety of artists ranging from Norman Rockwell to Chesley Bonestell. A magnificent and variegated collection.

Cooper, Henry S.F. Apollo on the Moon. New York: Dial Press, 1969. In this book Cooper predicts, before the landing of Apollo 11 astronauts on the Moon in July 1969, what they would encounter. More important, he follows the preparations for the mission with great skill and recounts them in his personal and scintillating style. A small work, this book is barely 140 pages and is taken almost verbatim from Cooper's New Yorker articles.

_____. Moon Rocks. New York: Dial Press, 1970. This is an informal account of the first investigating team's examining the lunar samples at Houston. Like everything that Cooper writes, it is very personal and descriptive of meetings that he attended with the science team working on the project. It is filled with interesting personality sketches and anecdotes of the intense effort to provide the first scientific assessment of the lunar samples.

_____. Thirteen: The Flight that Failed. New York: Dial Press, 1973. In this highly personalized and readable account, Cooper retells the battle for survival of the Apollo 13 astronauts after the disabling of the Service Module as a result of the bursting of one of its oxygen tanks from an electrical malfunction.

Cortright, Edgar M. Editor. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon. Washington, DC: NASA SP-350, 1975. This large-formatted volume, with numerous illustrations in both color and black and white, contains essays by numerous luminaries ranging from NASA Administrator James E. Webb ("A Perspective on Apollo") to astronauts Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. ("'The Eagle Has Landed'"). By no means a scholarly work, this collection consists rather of the recollections of participants and one correspondent (Robert Sherrod). Among the perspectives offered are those of Robert R. Gilruth on engineering, Wernher von Braun on Saturn, George M. Low on the spaceships, Christopher C. Kraft on Mission Control, Samuel C. Phillips on the shakedown cruises, and George E. Mueller on "Getting It All Together."

El-Baz, Farouk. Astronaut Observations from the Apollo-Soyuz Mission. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977. This volume consists partly of text, partly of extensive photographs and maps of Earth taken by astronauts on their training flights for the mission or taken on board the spacecraft to support the Earth Observations and Photography Experiment conducted during the mission. Another portion of the text consists of verbal comments made by American astronauts regarding that experiment. The remaining 122 pages of text consists of discussions of the scientific objectives of the mission, astronaut training, flight planning, mission operations, and a summary of the scientific findings of the mission in the areas of geology, oceanography, hydrology, meteorology, and environmental science.

Freeman, Marsha. How We Got to the Moon: The Story of the German Space Pioneers. Washington, DC: 21st Century Associates, 1993. The author of this book tries to make the German emigrés who came to the United States with Wernher von Braun in 1945 the central force behind the success of Project Apollo. Freeman traces all spaceflight ideals and imagination to a German cabal formed by Hermann Oberth in the first part of the twentieth century and including Willy Ley and Wernher von Braun, among others, who created the U.S. space program and the "glory" of Apollo. In so doing, she concentrates on such ancillary stories as the development of the V-2 by von Braun's "rocket team" for Germany in World War II, totally ignoring the contributions of other people and nations to the overall space effort.

French, Bevan M. Editor. The Moon Book: Exploring the Mysteries of the Lunar World. New York: Penguin, 1977. This is an important multi-authored study of the scientific research undertaken about the Moon using the data from the Apollo programs.

Fries, Sylvia D. NASA Engineers and the Age of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4104, 1992. This book is a sociocultural analysis of a selection of engineers at NASA who worked on Project Apollo. It analyzes the manner in which different personalities, perspectives, backgrounds, and priorities came together to inform the direction of NASA during the 1960s. The author makes extensive use of oral history in this study, providing both a significant appraisal of NASA during its "golden age" and important documentary material for future explorations.

Furniss, Tim, "One Small Step"—The Apollo Missions, the Astronauts, the Aftermath: A Twenty Year Perspective. Somerset, England: G.T. Foulis & Co., 1989. Developed as a retrospective celebration on the twentieth anniversary of the lunar landing, this book tries to recreate the exhilaration of the Apollo missions.

Goldstein, Stanley H. Reaching for the Stars: The Story of Astronaut Training and the Lunar Landing. New York: Praeger, 1987. This is a detailed account of the development and management of the astronaut training program for Project Apollo.

Gray, Mike. Angle of Attack: Harrison Storms and the Race to the Moon. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1992. This is a lively journalistic account of the career of Harrison Storms, president of the Aerospace Division of North American Aviation that built the Apollo capsule. Because of the Apollo 204 fire that killed three astronauts in January 1967, Storms and North American Aviation got sucked into a controversy over accountability and responsibility. In the aftermath Storms was removed from responsibility for the project. The most important aspect of this book is its discussion of the Apollo fire and responsibility for it from the perspective of industry. It lays the blame at NASA's feet and argues that Storms and North American were mere scapegoats. It, unfortunately, has no notes and the observations offered cannot be verified.

Hallion, Richard P., and Crouch, Tom D. Editors. Apollo: Ten Years Since Tranquility Base. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979. This is a collection of essays developed for the National Air and Space Museum, commemorating the tenth anniversary of the first landing on the Moon, July 20, 1969. It consists of sixteen essays, mostly written directly for the National Air and Space Museum by a variety of experts, that range from Roger E. Bilstein's overview titled "The Saturn Launch Vehicle Family" to Kerry M. Joëls' "Apollo and the 'Two Cultures'." Other contributions by such luminaries as John M. Logsdon, Frederick C. Durant III, Farouk El-Baz, and Rocco A. Petrone, not to mention the two editors, attempt to set the Apollo missions in historical perspective and to explain such matters as operational support, the Command and Service Modules, the Lunar Module, and the Apollo spacesuit. Dominick A. Pisano has provided a selective bibliography at the conclusion of the volume.

Harford, James J. Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. The first English-language biography of the Soviet "chief designer" who directed the projects that were so successful in the late 1950s and early 1960s in energizing the Cold War rivalry for space supremacy.

Hechler, Ken. Toward the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959-1979. Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, 1980. Contains the best account to date of congressional wrangling over Project Apollo, and demonstrates the bipartisan nature of both Apollo support and opposition.

Heiken, Grant H., Vaniman, David T., and French, Bevan M. Editors. The Lunar Sourcebook. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. This book's virtue is that it condenses into a usable form information from the U.S. and Soviet missions to the Moon in a reference work. It explores the formation and evolution of the Moon's surface, the chemical and mineralogical nature of lunar rocks and soils, and the current state of scientific knowledge about the nature, origin, and history of the Moon.

Heppenheimer, T.A. Countdown: The History of Space Exploration. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. A general audience history, somewhat quirky but well written and entertaining.

Johnston, Richard S., Dietlein, Lawrence F., and Berry, Charles A. Editors. Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA SP-368, 1975. This straightforward volume ranges in its coverage from crew health and in-flight monitoring to in-flight experiments on the Apollo missions with a useful section on the technology used for such everyday concerns as supplying astronauts with food, water, and waste management in space. A useful section at the end sums up what life scientists learned from Apollo.

Kauffman, James L. Selling Outer Space: Kennedy, the Media, and Funding for Project Apollo, 1961-1963. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994. A straightforward history, but one that is quite helpful, of the public image-building efforts of NASA and the relation of that image to public policy.

Kennan, Erlend A., and Harvey, Edmund H., Jr. Mission to the Moon: A Critical Examination of NASA and the Space Program. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1969. This book features a detailed examination of the facts of the Apollo 204 fire in January 1967 that killed three astronauts. It does not provide a balanced account of the lunar landing program or NASA. Instead it is filled with critical asides. For example, the authors conclude: "The real reasons for the [Apollo] tragedy—were a lack of perspective and flexibility within NASA management at all key levels; inept, competing, or nonexistent channels of communication throughout the organization's many facilities; lazy, sloppy, and unduly profit-motivated contractor performance, myopic Congressional indulgence (often referred to as 'moon-doggling'), irresponsible public relations—to the point where NASA actually believe its own inflated propaganda; and finally, a remarkable aloofness from and disdain for the legitimate interests of the taxpaying American public." Unfortunately, the treatment is long on hyperbole and short on reasoned analysis; the New York Times reviewer said that the book "adds little that is new on any of the problems or possible solutions....But perhaps the book's sense of outrage is in itself an adequate reason for the book's existence."

King, Elbert A. Moon Trip: A Personal Account of the Apollo Program and Its Science. Houston, TX: University of Houston, 1989. This short memoir describes the scientific work on the lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions. King, also a geologist and first curator of the returned lunar samples, worked at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston as part of the in-house scientific group who planned for scientific lunar exploration, astronaut training, and care and analysis of the returned samples.

Lambright, W. Henry. Powering Apollo: James E. Webb of NASA. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. An excellent biography of the NASA administrator between 1961 and 1968, the critical period in which Project Apollo was under way.

Launius, Roger D. NASA: A History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. Melbourne, FL: Krieger Pub. Co., 1994. A short book in the Anvil Series, this history of U.S. civilian space efforts consists half of narrative and half of documents. It contains three chapters on the Apollo program, but while coverage consists more of overview than detailed analysis, the approach is broadly analytical and provides the most recent general treatment of its topic.

Lay, Bierne. Earthbound Astronautics: The Builders of Apollo-Saturn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971. A popularly written discussion of the government and industry team that built the hardware and managed the Apollo program.

Levine, Alan J. The Missile and Space Race. New York: Praeger, 1994. A somewhat quirky work, this study presents some interesting perspectives on the development of the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union in space exploration.

Levine, Arnold S. Managing NASA in the Apollo Era. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4102, 1982. A narrative account of NASA from its origins through 1969, this book analyzes key administrative decisions, contracting, personnel, the budgetary process, headquarters organization, relations with the Department of Defense, and long-range planning.

Levinson, A.A., and Taylor, S.R. Moon Rocks and Minerals. New York: Pergamon Press, 1971. This evaluation of the important findings resulting from the initial study of lunar rocks from Apollo 11 covers four general topics: mineralogy and petrology, chemical and isotope analysis, bioscience and organic geochemistry, and physical measurements and properties. The book discusses the absence of organic matter in the lunar samples, rock textures as compared with those on Earth, the importance of these samples in revealing the history and origin of the Moon, and a variety of shock studies to ascertain the results of impacts upon trace elements, the lunar surface, radiation effects, and rare gases.

Lewis, Richard S. Appointment on the Moon: The Inside Story of America's Space Adventure. New York: Viking, 1969. Perhaps the first book to capitalize on the success of Apollo 11 in 1969, this history appeared within days of the "splashdown."

_____. The Voyages of Apollo: The Exploration of the Moon. New York: Quadrangle, 1974. This popularly written but not nontechnical account covers the background to the Apollo mission seen as an exploration of the Moon. It then discusses the changes in our perceptions of that heavenly body as succeeding Apollo missions added to our knowledge. Without scholarly apparatus, this is clearly a non-scientist's interpretation of lunar science, but it presents an informed series of perspectives as of the time it was written.

Logsdon, John M., et al. Apollo in its Historical Context. Washington, DC: The George Washington University Space Policy Institute, 1990. This edited version of remarks presented at a 1989 symposium includes articles by Logsdon on "Evaluating Apollo"; Walter A. McDougall on "Apollo and Technocracy"; Daniel J. Boorstin on "The Rise of Public Discovery"; and Frank White on "Apollo in a Millennial Perspective." It concludes with a discussion based on questions from the audience at the symposium. Useful for the perspectives offered by four eminent participants.

_____. The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1970. This book describes in detail the political issue of how the United States decided to go to the Moon in 1961. Logsdon pulls together most of the publicly available data and commentary on the events surrounding President Kennedy's May 1961 announcement to commit the United States to an accelerated lunar landing program. The author touts the decision-making to press Project Apollo as the political process at its best. It was consensus-building and consensus-maintaining, and finally accomplishment of the ideal.

_____. General Editor. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. 3 Vols. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4407, 1995-1998. An essential reference work, these volumes print more than 350 key documents in space policy and its development throughout the twentieth century.

Lovell, Jim, and Kluger, Jeffrey. Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994. After the 1995 film, "Apollo 13," no astronaut had more fame than Jim Lovell, commander of the ill-fated mission to the Moon in 1970. This book is his recollection of the mission and the record on which the theatrical release was based.

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Apollo Program Summary Report. Houston, TX: Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1975. This lengthy report summarizes the principal activities during Apollo and provides references for those seeking greater detail. It is divided into sections on the flight program, science, vehicle development and performance, spacecraft development testing, the flight crew, mission operations, biomedical matters, spacecraft manufacturing and testing, launch facilities and operations, and the lunar receiving laboratory, which initially quarantined astronaut crews and handled lunar samples. Illustrations and appendices supplement the text. This report certainly gives the most complete overview of the program to be found anywhere and may be the best single place for researchers new to Apollo to begin.

McDougall, Walter A. ...The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age. New York: Basic Books, 1985. This Pulitzer Prize-winning book analyzes the space race to the Moon in the 1960s. The author, then teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, argues that Apollo prompted the space program to stress engineering over science, competition over cooperation, civilian over military management, and international prestige over practical applications. While he recognizes Apollo as a "magnificent achievement," he concludes that it was also enormously costly. Emphasizing the effect of space upon American society, this history focuses on the role of the state as a promoter of technological progress.

MacKinnon, Douglas, and Baldanza, Joseph. Footprints: The 12 Men Who Walked on the Moon Reflect on their Flights, their Lives and the Future. Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 1989. An illustrated history, this book tells in narrative and photographs the story of Project Apollo. It emphasizes the stories of the astronauts, printing twelve interviews with those who walked on the Moon. Unfortunately, the book fails on several levels. The authors make no attempt to tie the interviews together, and the astronauts provide no revealing insights. The lode of astronaut impressions was exhausted long before this book was compiled.

Mailer, Norman. Of a Fire on the Moon. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970. New York: New American Library, 1971. One of the foremost contemporary American writers, Mailer was commissioned to write about the first lunar landing. What appeared was this rather confused and confusing account that is written as almost stream of consciousness ruminations of spaceflight. It does provide some insights, most importantly as Mailer with his 1960s countercultural mindset meets its antithesis, a NASA steeped in middle class values and reverence for the American flag and culture. Mailer was forced, grudgingly, to admit that NASA's approach to task accomplishment—which he sees as the embodiment of the Protestant Work Ethic—and its technological and scientific capability got results with Apollo. He rails at NASA's closed and austere society, one in which he says outsiders are distrusted and held at arm's length with a bland and faceless courtesy that betrays nothing. For all of its skepticism, for all of its esotericism, the book captures some interesting insights into rocket technology and the people who produced it in Project Apollo, but it is heavy going to extract them from this dense book.

Mansfield, John M. Man on the Moon. New York: Stein and Day, 1969. Written by a BBC television producer, this book begins with ancient conceptions of the Moon and continues with theoretical foundations for the space age in the works of science fiction authors and theoreticians. The book's capstone is a discussion of NASA and Project Apollo.

Mason, Brian, and Melson, William G. The Lunar Rocks. New York: Wiley Interscience, 1970. This book is a scientific assessment of the data gained from analysis of the lunar samples returned by Apollo 11.

Masursky, Harold, Colton, G.W., and El-Baz, Farouk. Apollo Over the Moon: A View from Orbit. Washington, DC: NASA SP-362, 1978. This is an excellent encapsulation of the Apollo program with striking photography. A large-formatted book, it contains an introduction discussing the objectives, methods, and results of Apollo lunar photography. It follows this with discussions of the regions of the Moon and explanations of individual photographs. Contains a glossary and bibliography.

Murray, Charles A., and Cox, Catherine Bly. Apollo, the Race to the Moon. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989. Perhaps the best general account of the lunar program, this history uses interviews and documents to reconstruct the stories of the people who participated in Apollo.

Newman, Joseph. U.S. on the Moon. Washington, DC: U.S. News and World Report Inc., 1969. This popular account of the Apollo program through Apollo 11, with coverage of its background and of the race with the Soviets, provides a fair summation in understandable language of what was known at the time.

Ordway, Frederick Ira, III, and Sharpe, Mitchell R. Foreword by Wernher von Braun. The Rocket Team. New York: Crowell, 1979. This is an important, popularly oriented, and somewhat apologetic discussion of the activities of the group of German engineers under the leadership of Wernher von Braun who developed the V-2 in World War II, came to the United States in 1945, and worked at the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, to develop the Saturn V launch vehicle used in Project Apollo.

_____, Adams, Carsbie C., and Sharpe, Mitchell R. Dividends from Space. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972. This is an attempt to show that the costs of the space program have been more than returned in benefits to humanity, both tangible and intangible. The authors discuss at length the use of space systems to improve weather forecasting, facilitate communications, and inventory Earth resources. They also emphasize the development of the technological base with such major programs as Project Apollo.

Pellegrino, Charles R., and Stoff, Joshua. Chariots for Apollo: The Making of the Lunar Module. New York: Atheneum, 1985. A popular and not always accurate discussion of the development of the Lunar Module by the Grumman Aerospace Corporation.

Pitts, John A. The Human Factor: Biomedicine in the Manned Space Program to 1980. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4213, 1985. This account traces the history of space medicine from its early days before the founding of NASA through the decade following the Apollo program. It covers the beginnings of NASA's small life sciences program during Project Mercury, the struggles between NASA and the Air Force for funding of life science research, biomedicine during the Gemini and Apollo programs, the crisis that followed the Apollo 204 fire in January 1967, the biomedical results from Apollo, and the various reorganizations of the life sciences program in NASA that accompanied its evolution. It concludes with a look ahead to the Shuttle era that began in the 1980s.

Rabinowitch, Eugene, and Lewis, Richard S. Editors. Man on the Moon: The Impact on Science, Technology, and International Cooperation. New York: Basic Books, 1969. The editors have assembled articles that provide a range of views on the impact of the exploration of space on science, technology, and international cooperation. Each author approaches the subject from a particular perspective, speculating on the meaning of the Apollo lunar landing and offering prognostications for the future.

Ryan, Peter. Invasion of the Moon, 1969: The Story of Apollo 11. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1969. This book capitalizes on the excitement of the first Apollo landing, proving a recitation of the expedition for a popular audience.

Sparks, James C. Moon Landing, Project Apollo. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970. Another popular history, this book traces each step of the Apollo 11 flight, from the development of the "hardware" to splashdown, and analyzes the importance of this mission and future space exploration.

Thomas, Davis. Editor. Moon: Man's Greatest Adventure. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1970. A large-format, illustrated work, the centerpiece of this book are three major essays. One, by Fred A. Whipple, Harvard University astronomer, describes the possibilities of spaceflight for scientific inquiry. Another by Silvio A. Bedini, Smithsonian Institution, deals with the Moon's role in human affairs. A final article by Wernher von Braun of NASA analyzes Project Apollo and its execution in the 1960s.

Van Dyke, Vernon. Pride and Power: The Rationale of the Space Program. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964. This analysis of the overall rationale of the Apollo program came to the conclusion that the "most powerful motives" behind it involved competition with the Soviet Union. "Motives such as the promotion of scientific, technological, and economic progress" were "less compelling in political circles," though elsewhere one or the other of them may have been more central. Although mostly about these motivations, this carefully researched book by an academic also discusses organizational arrangements; relations among NASA, the business world, and universities; international cooperation; and NASA's public information programs. Although his research is certainly dated, Van Dyke's conclusions hold up surprisingly well after the passage of thirty years.

von Braun, Wernher. First Men to the Moon. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. A popular account of Apollo based of a series of articles appearing in This Week magazine. Its greatest strength is the inclusion of easily understood diagrams of scientific phenomena and hardware.

Wilford, John Noble. We Reach the Moon: The New York Times Story of Man's Greatest Adventure. New York: Bantam Books, 1969. One of the earliest of the journalistic accounts to appear at the time of Apollo 11, a key feature of this general and journeyman but not distinguished history is a 64-page color insert with photographs of the mission. It was prepared by the science writer of the New York Times using his past articles.

Wilhelms, Don E. To a Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of Lunar Exploration. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993. This lengthy and detailed account of lunar exploration and science strikes a balance between personal memoir and history. As history it provides a detailed and contextual account of lunar geology during the 1960s and 1970s, and a less-detailed but informative account for the rest of the century. As memoir it provides an engaging story of the scientific exploration of the Moon as seen by one of the field's more important behind-the-scenes scientists.

Young, Hugo, Silcock, Bryan, and Dunn, Peter. Journey to Tranquillity: The History of Man's Assault on the Moon. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970. A ponderous "anti-Apollo" broadside, this book seeks to cast aspersions on the entire space program. Handled deftly by investigative journalists who are writing an exposé, the first chapter sets the stage by characterizing Wernher von Braun as a self-righteous traitor and John F. Kennedy as an adolescent exhibitionist. They then describe a conspiracy of bureaucrats, industrialists, and politicians who promote space as a means of feathering their own nests. The authors used the Apollo fire that killed three astronauts as the evidence that "proves" the dishonesty and criminal behavior of NASA and other space advocates. The authors were journalists with the London Sunday Times and they provided a fast-paced if highly critical analysis of Project Apollo.

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