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Day One Part Two:
First Earth Orbit

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Day One Part Four:
Transposition, Docking
and Ejection

Apollo 16

Day One Part Three: Second Earth Orbit and Translunar Injection

Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 2006 David Woods and Tim Brandt. All rights reserved.
Last updated: 2006-05-08

[The Apollo 16 spacecraft, together with the S-IVB third-stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle, has almost completed its first orbit around the Earth. After a long transit across the Pacific, during which they were out of communication with Mission Control, John Young, Charlie Duke and Ken Mattingly are about to start the preparation for Trans Lunar Insertion - the firing of the S-IVB booster to send Apollo 16 out of Earth orbit and towards the Moon. To help readers find the more significant parts, the following is a short index of the main events.

TLI Plus 90 PAD.


P37 PAD.




Loss of Signal with USNS Vanguard 01:47

Contact through Canary Islands


Loss of Signal From Canary Islands


African Fires Sighted


Acquisition of Signal with ARIA


Trans Lunar Insertion burn starts


Trans Lunar Insertion burn ends


End of chapter


001 31 21 Young: Houston, [Apollo] 16.

[Break in CM tape until 001 48 38]

001 31 23 Fullerton: Roger, 16. Loud and clear. Go ahead.

001 31 25 Young: Okay. You're 5 by. The coastline is under us. It's beautiful, and we're standing by for some words. The spacecraft has been holding attitude, just perfect in pitch.

001 31 39 Fullerton: Okay, John. We'll take a look at the APS module here.

001 31 43 Young: Okay.

001 31 44 Duke: Gordy, why the late acquisition?

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control, Houston. One hour, 33 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. An observation we're displeased with on the S-IVB indicates that the module has probably not released at this time. We're probably lost one transducer. There is some reason to believe, and we will observe this further, the release valve is very possibly feathering. We'll stand by and continue to monitor. This is Apollo Control, Houston.

[The PAO means that the pressure has not released as planned.  However, he is suggesting that the valve is releasing some pressure, if not as much as it is intended to.]

001 33 48 Duke: Houston, 16. Over.

Public Affairs Officer: Apollo Control Houston. At one hour, 34 minutes.

001 33 50 Fullerton: Go ahead, 16.

001 33 52 Duke: Okay, how are you coming on the PADs, Gordy?

001 33 59 Fullerton: Okay, I'm ready with the TLI plus 90 and the P37 for lift-off plus eight. We're putting together a story and looking at the APS module. No immediate action is necessary, so let's get the PADs out of the way.

[Throughout the mission, large lists of numbers, called PADs, will be read up to the crew which give them the information necessary to carry out a particular manoeuvre. PAD stands for Pre-Advisory Data. Some of these "block data" are for planned manoeuvres such as the TLI (Translunar Injection) or LOI (Lunar Orbit Insertion) burns. Other PADs, such as the "TLI plus 90" and "Lift-off plus 8" mentioned here are the first of 27 abort options which will be read up to the crew at scheduled times throughout the early and middle portions of the mission. Note that the TLI+90 PAD has nothing to do with TLI itself but would occur 90 minutes after a successful TLI burn in the event of an abort. However, mission planners have decided that at no time beyond Earth orbit will the crew be without a get-you-home PAD.  If at any time the crew subsequently lose communication with Earth, they will have the information to hand to get themselves back manually.]

[To simplify the voice transmission of these huge lists of numbers and reduce the likelihood of errors, each type of PAD was precisely formatted both in Mission Control's and the crew's paperwork - all the crew needed to do was fill in the blanks.]

[The abort PADs are the responsibility of RETRO, one of the flight controllers in the front row of the MOCR (Mission Operations Control Room). According to Chuck Deiterich, who was one of those who occupied the RETRO console throughout Apollo, "There is quite a bit of protocol in the PAD process. Empty PADs were in tablets of no carbon required (NCR) paper. We would make about six copies and use a red ballpoint on the top (original) so the CapCom would be sure what was part of the printed form and what was data." (2003 correspondence).]

001 34 08 Duke: Okay, fine. Go ahead.

001 34 13 Fullerton: Okay, TLI plus 90, SPS/G&N; the weight is 66973; minus 0.54, plus 1.89; time of ignition is 004:03:18.55; minus 0356.2, plus four balls 1, plus 3600.7; 181, 234, 002; HA is NA; HP, plus 0018.9; 3618.3, 5:04, 3602.0; sextant star is 26, 073.4. Stand by 1. We got a handover coming up; I'll get the rest in a minute.

[As Fullerton reads the PAD, a complete P30 type, Charlie Duke copies the values to the appropriate form in the checklist. TLI Plus 90 PAD

[Interpretation of this particular PAD is as follows:

Purpose: In the event of a serious problem soon after a good Translunar Injection, this PAD has the details of a burn which would return them quickly to the Earth. It has an ignition time of 90 minutes after TLI. In the event of such an emergency, the SPS (Service Propulsion System) engine would be used to slow the spacecraft to below Earth escape velocity, resulting in a high altitude ballistic arc that would take them directly to splashdown without any further orbits. Full procedures for the TLI plus 90 abort are given on Page  L4-13  of the CSM Launch Checklist

System: The burn would be under the control of the Guidance and Navigation System. Burns can also be controlled by the SCS (Stabilization Control System).

CSM weight (Noun 47): Calculated to be 66,973 pounds (30,378 kilograms).

Note that here, and in all the NASA documentation of the time, the term "weight" is freely used in the context where, strictly speaking, "mass" ought to be used. Weight is defined as the force applied by a mass in a gravity field. In free fall, mass remains the same while weight becomes essentially zero.

Pitch and yaw trim (Noun 48): -0.54° and +1.89°.

The SPS engine bell is gimbal mounted to allow its thrust vector to be aligned with the spacecraft's computed centre of gravity. Two thumb wheels on the left of the Main Display Console allow adjustment of these pitch and yaw trim angles.

Time of ignition, Tig (Noun 33): 4 hours, 3 minutes and 18.55 seconds, Ground Elapsed Time.

Change in velocity (Noun 81), fps (m/s): x, -356.2 (-108.6);y, +0.1 (+0.03); z, +3,600.1 (+1,097.3). This is the change in velocity as defined along three orthogonal axes with respect to the local vertical/local horizontal.

The three velocity components in a PAD are always expressed with respect to the local vertical/local horizontal. Imagine a coordinate system based on a line from the spacecraft to the centre of the Earth or Moon. (Which you use depends on the sphere of influence you are in, ie which gravitational field is stronger.) This line is the Z-axis and is vertical at the point where it intersects the surface. The X-axis is perpendicular to this in whatever direction the spacecraft's orbit is taking it. It is therefore parallel to the local horizontal. The Y-axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. This arrangement holds even for a very extended elliptical orbit like the one Apollo 16 will take to the Moon, where the spacecraft is clearly not travelling parallel to the local horizontal.

In the above burn, we can see that the largest component of velocity change is in the plus-Z direction which is towards the Earth, countering the spacecraft's velocity away from the planet.

Spacecraft attitude at Tig: Roll, 181°; Pitch, 232°; Yaw, 2°.

Although the velocity change is expressed with respect to the local horizontal, spacecraft attitude is expressed with respect to the current alignment of the guidance platform. That alignment is currently set to the launch pad REFSMMAT.

HA and HP (Noun 44): These are the heights of the resulting orbit's apogee and perigee, respectively. Since the computer cannot display an altitude higher than 9999.9 nautical miles, and the maximum height of the CSM during a TLI+90 abort will be much higher than that, HA is not applicable. The perigee of the "orbit" is targeted at 18.9 nautical miles (35.0 km). A perigee so low will intercept the Earth's atmosphere and cause the spacecraft to re-enter.

Delta-Vt: 3618.3 fps (1,103.8 m/s). This is the total velocity change that would be experienced by the spacecraft. It is a vector sum of the three components given earlier.

Burn duration or burn time: 5 minutes, 04 seconds.

Delta-Vc: 3,604.0 fps (1,098.5 m/s). This figure would be entered into the EMS (Entry Monitor System) Delta-V display.

SPS engine burns are normally controlled by the G&N system. If it is a long burn, that is, greater then six seconds, the control is closed loop. The system monitors the achieved Delta-V and shuts down the engine at the appropriate time. In doing this, it takes account of the engine tail-off impulse. It knows how the thrust expected from this tail-off and can calculate the resulting tail-off Delta-V based on this and the spacecraft mass.

If the G&N system were to fail during a burn, the EMS would provide a backup means of shutting down the engine at the right time. This equipment carries a separate accelerometer which measures Delta-V along the longitudinal axis of the spacecraft. Prior to the burn, the crew enter the expected Delta-V into a display on the EMS. As the burn progresses, the figure showing the remaining Delta-V drops towards zero, at which time the EMS itself shuts down the EMS if the G&N system has not already done so. However, the EMS has no knowledge of the tail-off thrust. The flight controllers take this into account and give the crew a low Delta-V figure for entering into the EMS so that if it is called upon to shut down the engine it will do so early enough for the tail-off thrust to effect the correct total Delta-V.

To a very minor extent, account is taken of the fact that the thrust axis is slightly offset from the longitudinal axis (because of the engine's trim), reducing the Delta-Vc figure slightly further.

Sextant star: Star number 26, Spica, should be visible through the sextant when its shaft and trunnion are set to the values 73.4° and 15.1° respectively.

[As CapCom Gordon Fullerton was reading up the PAD, the communication route was transferred to a ship in the Atlantic, USNS Vanguard. The changeover has caused Charlie to miss some of the information.]

001 36 12 Fullerton: Charlie, this is Houston. How do you read now?

[The communications link has transferred to the Vanguard...]

001 36 15 Duke: Okay, 5/5 Gordy. Go ahead.

[Carrying on with the PAD.]

001 36 18 Fullerton: Okay, shaft was 073.4, trunnion, 15.1; boresight star 037, up 25.7, right 2.9; minus 21.31, minus 165.00; 1093.2, 34867; and 0.05g time is 023:08:28. Sirius and Rigel; 317, 108, 005. No ullage. Go ahead.

[The Boresight star is number 37, Nunki or Sigma Sagittarius, which should be visible through the sextant when its shaft and trunnion are set to the values 25.7° and 2.9° respectively.

The next five parameters all relate to re-entry, during which an important milestone is "Entry Interface," defined as being 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude. Another important point is when atmospheric drag on the spacecraft imparts a deceleration of 0.05 Gs.

Expected splashdown point (Noun 61): 21.31° south, 165.00° west; in the mid-Pacific.

Range to go: To set up their EMS (Entry Monitor System) before re-entry, the crew need to know the expected distance the CM would travel after entry interface: 1,093.2 nautical miles (2,024.6 km).

Expected velocity at entry interface: 34,867 fps (10,627.5 m/s).

GET of entry interface: Expected at 23 hours, 08 minutes and 28 seconds GET.

GDC align stars: Stars Sirius (in Canis Major) and Rigel (in Orion) are to be used to align the gyro assemblies if it is not possible to use the guidance platform for this purpose. The align angles are 317°, 108°, 005°.

The spacecraft has two independent systems for determining attitude and change in attitude. The primary system is the IMU and its freely stable platform. A secondary system, usually tied to the SCS, comprises a set of gyros attached to the spacecraft structure. Unlike the IMU, which measures absolute attitude, these gyro assemblies measure the rate of attitude change. If need be, absolute attitude can be derived from these but this measurement is imprecise so at regular times, the crew presses the GDC Align button to make the GDCs (Gyro Display Couplers) knowledge of attitude match the IMU.  In case the IMU is not working, the crew have a backup method of aligning the GDCs by sighting two stars through the scanning telescope in a particular way. They know what the spacecraft's attitude should be when this is achieved and can dial this into the GDCs, properly aligning them.

The final note in the PAD concerns the ullage burn. Since the SPS propellant tanks are full, there is no need to perform a small RCS burn, known as the ullage burn, to settle their contents.]

[To confirm the figures, Charlie Duke reads back the PAD.]

001 37 17 Duke: Okay, TLI plus 90, SPS/G&N; 66973; minus 0.54, plus 1.89; 004:03:18.55; minus 0356.2, plus four balls l, plus 3600.7; 181, 234, 002; HA is NA; plus 0018.9; 3618.3, 5:04, 3602.0; 26, 073.4; 15.1; 037, 025.7 correction -that's up 25.7, right 2.9; minus 21.31, minus 165.00; 1093.2, 34867; 023:08:28. Sirius and Rigel; 317, 108, 005. No ullage .

001 38 09 Fullerton: Okay, readback correct. Ready for Lift-Off plus 8.

001 38 13 Duke: Speak.

001 38 14 Fullerton: 008:00; Delta-Vt is 7948, minus 165, 022:06. Go ahead.

[The Lift-off + 8 PAD carries data for P37, a program in the computer to perform a return to Earth. The program requires four values, the desired time for ignition of the engine, the desired change in velocity (or Delta-V) and the longitude and GET for splashdown. The other data required for the burn (attitude angles, etc.), have already been read up as part of the "TLI plus 90" PAD. The CSM Launch Checklist provides spaces for the P37 data on the TLI plus 90 PAD on page L2-20.(From A15 FJ amended)]

001 38 30 Duke: Roger. P37 for lift-off plus 8: 008:00, 7948, minus 165, 022:06, and ready for TLI.

PAD for TLI Burn

[And now the PAD for the TLI Burn itself.]

001 38 40 Fullerton: Okay, readback correct, and TLI pad Time Base 6 predict: 2:23:57 attitude 179, 113, 000; burn time is 5:43 10373.0, 35589; SEP attitude is 359, 146, 319; extraction is 301, 326, 041; R2 align 112.7, 107.2, 57:20, and yaw is 001. Go ahead.

[The data read up by Fullerton is structurally different to other PADs as the manoeuvre is controlled by the IU on the launch vehicle, and not the computer in the CM. A form for filling in the numbers is available on L2-21]

[The timings for events relating to the launch vehicle are defined relative to a number of time bases, each of which start with a particular event. This allows controllers to move complete sequences of events relative to the overall mission time. The restart sequence for the S-IVB's single J-2 engine is tied to Time Base 6 (TB-6). When TB-6 begins, all subsequent events to restart the engine such as tank repressurisation, engine chilldown, ullage, etc., follow on, leading to the engine start command 9 minutes, 30 seconds later, and ignition 8 seconds after that.]

[The crew also have tasks to perform in the minutes leading up to the TLI burn and they use their event timer to help them. Around 002:23:57, the 'S-II Sep' lamp is illuminated for ten seconds, this being the start of TB-6. At 9 minutes to ignition, John will start the event timer counting up, having previously set it to 51:00. This will give a visual count-up to and beyond ignition to aid the crew in sequencing their final tasks before and during TLI. Items in the checklist are therefore shown with times from 51:00, through (1:)00:00 and upwards.]

[The PAD is interpreted as follows:

TB-6 predict light: This comes on at 002:23:57, which implies that TB-6 begins at 002:24:05 and that Tig (time of ignition) will be at 002:33:35.

Attitude for TLI: 179°, 113°, 000° in roll, pitch and yaw respectively, relative to the alignment of the guidance platform.

Duration of burn: 5 minutes, 43 seconds.

Delta-Vc: 10,373.0 fps (3,161.7 m/s) will be entered into the EMS to allow the crew to monitor the remaining velocity to be added.

VI: Indicated velocity at engine cut-off is 35,589 fps (10,847.5 m/s).

Separation attitude: The correct attitude for separation of the CSM from the launch vehicle is 359°, 146°, 319° in roll, pitch and yaw respectively with respect to the local vehicle/local horizontal. Among the criteria for adopting this attitude is solar illumination of the LM to assist the docking procedure.

Extraction attitude: The correct attitude for extraction of the LM from the S-IVB is 301°, 326°, 41° in roll, pitch and yaw respectively.

R2 align: 112.7.

R2 ignition: 107.2.

ORDEAL Start: Relative to the count-up on the event timer, the ordeal should be started at 57.2.

During Apollo 16's TLI, the crew are going to use the ORDEAL to drive the FDAI at a rate which matches the pitch rate of the S-IVB during its powered flight. This way, the crew can monitor the progress of the TLI as far as the vehicle's attitude is concerned, and they can take over manual attitude control if required during the burn. They must start the ORDEAL working at a precise time if the FDAI is to show zero attitude errors, otherwise the spacecraft's further motion around the Earth will cause it to be offset one way or the other.

Yaw: 001

001 39 44 Duke: Roger. Give me Delta-VC again.

001 39 46 Fullerton: Delta-VC is 10373.0.

001 39 53 Duke: Okay, copy. TLI, 2:23:57.

001 39 57 Fullerton: Stand by one, Charlie...

001 39 58 Duke: Okay...

001 39 59 Fullerton: Handover.

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control Houston at 1 hour, 40 minutes Ground Elapsed Time

001 40 07 Fullerton: Okay. Go ahead, Charlie.

001 40 10 Duke: Okay, 2:23:57; 179, 113, 000; 5:43; 10373.0, 35589, 359, 146, 319; 301, 326, 041; 112.7, 107.2, 57:20, 001. Over.

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control Houston at 1 hour, 41 minutes Ground Elapsed Time.

001 40 35 Fullerton: Readback is good.

001 40 43 Duke: Okay, Gordy - that Stateside pass, the part I saw was just super. He - the other guys saw Ellington as we went over.

[Ellington Air Force Base (now Ellington Field) is located approximately 24 km (15 miles) south of downtown Houston, near the major highway heading from the City to NASA and Galveston Island.  It is where NASA bases its small fleet of aircraft in support of the Manned Spacecraft Centre.]

001 40 50 Fullerton: How about that? Say, Charlie. Got an update to the ORDEAL monitor numbers on page L2-28 and 29.

001 41 00 Duke: Stand by.

001 41 07 Duke: Okay, you speak.

001 41 08 Fullerton: Okay, we got a - last-minute change. Stand by on that. Sorry.

001 41 45 Fullerton: I would like Command Module UpTel, Accept, for a new vector.

DSKY showing Up Link Switches

[At thispoint the Command Module's computer, the CMC, must be set to receive the updated state vector. This involves setting the Up Telemetry (Tlm) switch to the right of the DSKY to Accept.  The CMC must also be in an idle status (running P00, essentially a "do-nothing" program). P00 is commonly pronounced "pooh" by all the Apollo crews as in the character from A. A. Milne's book "Winnie the Pooh. As recounted in Murray & Cox's book, Apollo: The Race to the Moon, this program name even entered the daily lingo of the flight controllers. To 'go to poo' meant to go to sleep."   While the CMC is receiving data link information by up-telemetry, the top left DSKY status light will illuminate.]

001 41 51 Young: Okay, you got it.

001 41 53 Fullerton: Okay, and word is on the APS module. It appears to be operating, not completely normally, but adequately - that we predict that it will be good through TLI and TD&E with no change in procedure. Over.

001 42 08 Young: Outstanding prediction.

[Mission Control has some final updates to the procedures for TLI, starting on Page L2-28 of the Checklist.]

001 42 12 Fullerton: Okay, and back to what we started earlier, on L2-2-28, Charlie. Opposite 56 minutes, "Slow FDAI number 1 to PITCH equal 17," change 17 to 16. Over.

001 42 28 Duke: Okay, go ahead. It was changed to 16.

[And on Page L2-29.]

001 42 32 Fullerton: And next page, after the ORDEAL start time, change that to 57:20 rather than 57 even.

001 42 Duke: Okay, ORDEAL start, 57:20.

001 42 46 Fullerton: That's affirmative. And then, "Ensure FDAI number 1 Pitch equal to 11" rather than 13, inside the box there.

001 42 58 Duke: Okay, at 57 minutes, I've changed that to 57:20 to start the ORDEAL and the - insure FDAI number 1 pitch is at 11.

001 43 08 Fullerton: Okay, and then the blank under there - "Manoeuvre to R2 ignition," attitude is 107 as printed in parentheses.

001 43 20 Duke: Okay, we copy.

001 43 23 Fullerton: That's good. And the CMC is yours. The up-link is complete.

001 43 33 Young: Okays and we're back in Block.

[With the state vector updated, the CMC Up Tlm switch is set to block further data from the ground]

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control Houston, at one hour, 44 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. You heard that prediction on the APS. You heard the crew's response, the prediction being that we could go through TLI, and transposition and docking with no change in procedures. The individual responding with the "outstanding" was Spacecraft Commander John Young. We also received a TLI PAD, and let me sort those numbers out for you rather quickly. Our time of ignition for the translunar injection burn is 2 hours 33 minutes 34.6 seconds Ground Elapsed Time with a burn duration of 5 minutes, 43 seconds. We predict a velocity at cut-off of 35,589 feet per second. (10,847 m per sec).

001 44 28 Mattingly: Okay, Gordy. We're standing by with the SECS Arm.

[See explanation of the SECS Pyros at 002:13:46]

001 44 33 Fullerton: Roger. Stand by. Go ahead, we're watching.

001 44 46 Young: Okay, Houston, stand by for the Logic.

001 44 50 Fullerton: Roger.

001 44 51 Mattingly: Okay, Logic 1's going on, up; Logic 2, on, up.

001 44 54 Mattingly: Mark.

001 45 08 Fullerton: Okay, you' re Go for Pyro Arm.

001 45 12 Young: Roger. Thank you, sir.

001 45 16 Fullerton: And I'd like to update a procedure, the APS-module fail procedure - one step in that, just in case the prediction is wrong and it does fail to - If you can get that page out, I'll give you a short update.

001 45 32 Young: Okay, Charlie's got it.

001 45 34 Fullerton: Okay, Charlie. In the center of the procedure, it says "DSE command burn mode on," cross that line out. And the one below it says "If successful, Launch Vehicle Guidance, IU." And, after the line that says "Control pitch and yaw with THC, roll with RHC," add "Keep rates below 0.2 degrees per second, pitch and yaw; 0.6 degree per second in roll to avoid fighting the other APS module." Over.

001 46 16 Young: Roger. We understand.

001 46 19 Fullerton: Okay, that's it.

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control Houston at one hour, 47 minutes Ground Elapsed Time in Mission Control. Flight Director Gene Kranz is polling his flight control team as to our status for the Trans-Lunar Injection burn.

001 47 16 Fullerton: [Apollo]16, Houston. We're about a minute and a half to LOS.  No further updates. Everything looks good. Canaries should have their antenna fixed, and we should be good as we go through their site. Over.

001 47 31 Young: 16, Roger.

[Break in Tech transcript until reacquisition by Canary at 001 50 05.  Onboard tape restarts one minute after Loss Of Signal.]

001 48 38 Young (onboard): Put it to the side and garble] right there.  [Garble] like - [garble].

001 48 44 Duke (onboard): Could you - you switch to G&C and do a Verb 46 and drive around a little while?

001 48 48 Mattingly (onboard): We've already got a Verb 46. That's standard [garble]. I was just curious if you had tried...

001 48 55 Duke (onboard): No. No. I really [garble].

001 48 57 Mattingly: Okay. I'm not advocating that you do.

001 49 00 Young (onboard): Okay.

001 49 03 Mattingly (onboard): I would rather see that we do the most nominal things that the world has ever seen.

001 49 07 Young (onboard): You better believe it.

001 49 09 Mattingly (onboard): But if we do something off of that, I just thought it would be nice to record it. What we found out. That's all ...

001 49 18 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

001 49 19 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] have to [garble] it.

001 49 20 Duke (onboard): I could sure use a drink of water, but I sure don't want to...

001 49 22 Mattingly (onboard): Want me to get it for you?

001 49 23 Duke (onboard): Yeah. But I don't want to...

001 49 24 Mattingly (onboard): Okay?

001 49 25 Duke (onboard): No, I'll get it.

001 49 26 Mattingly (onboard): Hey, look, you don't have to.

001 49 27 Duke (onboard): Okay.

001 49 30 Young (onboard): Yeah, let's all take a drink of water.

001 49 32 Mattingly (onboard): Here. I'll put the binos up.

001 49 34 Young (onboard): Okay. We'll have to stick this in that bag, wherever it is.

001 49 38 Mattingly (onboard): Oh, I put it up - up here through TLI. Okay. How' s that?

001 49 44 Young (onboard): We need it right after TLI [garble]...

001 49 45 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah, it won't be far away.

001 49 47 Duke (onboard): How about just on the velcro over here?

001 49 49 Mattingly (onboard): I'd like to tighten this down.

001 49 50 Young (onboard): For launch, it should be up somewheres,Charlie, because I think [garble] burns five minutes of engine, you get up to darn near two-thirds of a g.

[Towards the end of the TLI burn, the S-IVB's thrust will actually produce an acceleration of nearly 1.4g, so all the items in the CM have to be properly secured.]

001 49 58 Duke (onboard): Well, I was gonna put it on the shelf - girth shelf, on the Velcro.

001 50 00 Mattingly (onboard): Well, but it might - if you got an attitude excursion.

[If the attitude of the spacecraft changes, there could be a small amount of lateral acceleration.  Placing heavy objects on the spacecraft's shelf under the side windows would not be a good location.]

001 50 03 Duke (onboard): Okay.

Public Affairs Officer: Apollo Control Houston. One hour, 49 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. We've had loss of signal with Vanguard. We are standing by now for acquisition with the Canary Island [sic] station. This should take place in less than one minute.  At one hour, 50 minutes Ground Elapsed Time, this is Apollo Control Houston.

001 50 06 Fullerton:  [Apollo] 16, Houston through Canary.

001 50 08 Young: Loud and clear, Gordon.

001 50 13 Fullerton: You're a little - a little down in the mud, but I think I can understand you.

001 50 20 Young: Okay.

001 50 23 Duke: Hey, Gordy, we heard you then before we got the signal strength. That must have been on the...

001 50 26 Young (onboard): VHF.

001 50 27 Duke: ...VHF, huh?

001 50 31 Fullerton: You are clear but weak.

001 50 39 Duke (onboard): Okay, we got - we got [garble].

[The technical transcript and the CM tape transcripts do not agree for the period 001 50:39 to 001:50:52.  The technical transcript gives continued conversation between Charlie Duke and Gordon Fullerton, lasting up until 001:54:23, about 30 seconds before LOS.  The CM transcript details a conversation between all three crew members, but this does not fit in with the other conversation.  It appears that the CM transcript timings may be in error.  The following details both conversations in turn.]

001 50 42 Duke: Okay, how do you read now, Gordy?

001 50 45 Fullerton: Loud and clear, Charlie.

001 50 48 Duke: Okay, our signal strength is up to max now.

001 50 51 Fullerton: Roger.

001 52 56 Fullerton: 16, Houston.

001 52 59 Duke: Go ahead. Over.

001 53 00 Fullerton: We'd like the H2 Tank 3 Fans to Auto. Over.

001 53 06 Duke: Roger; H2 Tank 3 Fans going to Auto.

[The suspect CM tape follows.  The two tapes agree again from 001:54:21.]

001 50 42 Mattingly (onboard): Oh, look at that horizon. Isn't that pretty? You got one out your side, too, Charlie?

001 50 45 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

001 50 46 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble]?

001 50 47 Young (onboard): Isn't that fantastic?

001 50 49 Mattingly (onboard): (Laughter) [Garble]. Oh!

001 50 50Duke (onboard): Just as blue and pretty!

001 50 52 Young (onboard): Can't you imagine that [garble].

[No more CM tape data recorded until 001:54:21]

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control Houston. One hour 54 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. We're at a little over a minute away now from Loss Of Signal with the Apollo 16 spacecraft. We'll standby and continue to monitor. This is Apollo Control Houston.

001 54 21 Young (onboard): [Garble] open.

001 54 22 Duke (onboard): [Garble] went [garble].

001 54 23 Fullerton: [Apollo]16, Houston. About 30 seconds to LOS. We should get - should have you through ARIA at 2:22, a couple of minutes later than shown in the Flight Plan. Over.

[AriaThe Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft or ARIA are US Air Force Boeing EC-135E aircraft modified from C-135B transports similar to the Boeing 707 airliner.  With a huge tracking antennae in the bulbous nose, the ARIA provides a mobile "ground" station where the Manned Spaceflight Network cannot provide communications.  Four of these aircraft were converted at the time of Apollo.]

001 54 33 Duke : Roger; understand.

[The CM tape transcript ascribes this to Ken Mattingly.]

001 54 36 Mattingly (onboard): Did - did he ever say anything about why we got the thing late?

001 54 39 Duke (onboard): You know that's - Hey, you know, this light's on out there, Ken. Is that supposed to be?

001 54 43 Mattingly (onboard): What's that?

001 54 44 Duke (onboard): On that thing?

001 54 45 Young (onboard): Whoops! Hmph. I didn't get my things on time.

001 54 48 Mattingly: (onboard): Let me see.

001 54 49 Young (onboard): Okay.

001 54 50 Mattingly (onboard): Maybe I hit something. Boy, it gets [garble] in here.

001 54 54 Young (onboard): Yeah. Well, we might - Do you want to run into the TLI? We got a - we're at 01:55.

[The crew are now starting to prepare the spacecraft for Trans Lunar Injection, starting at the top of Page 2-27 of the Launch Checklist.]

001 55 04 Duke (onboard): Yeah. I'm going to go Low Bit Rate, Command Reset  - [garble]. Command Reset. We better go into the TLI prep.

001 55 17 Duke (onboard): Okay, Translunar Inject, verify?

[Setting the Trans Lunar Inject (XLunar) switch on the MDC to tells the Instrument Unit that the crew are ready for TLI.  At 42 seconds into TB-6 the IU will make the first of two checks to see the status of this switch.]

001 55 20 Young (onboard): That's Inject.

001 55 22 Duke (onboard): Okay. EDS Power on up?

001 55 24 Young (onboard): EDS Power coming on up.

[The Launch Vehicle Emergency Detection System is powered up so that any failures in the S-IVB during the burn can be indicated to the crew.  At this stage in the flight, there is no automatic abort option, so the crew would have to manually initiate separation of the CSM from the S-IVB]

001 55 26Duke (onboard): Okay. Perform EMS Delta-V test and null bias check.

Main Display Console - EMS

[The Entry Monitoring System provides a secondary function of measuring velocity changes during the TLI burn and later SPS and RCS burns.  During Entry, the output of the EMS's accelerometer is integrated twice to calculate the distance travelled by the CM after the entry interface.  During engine burns, the accelerometer output is integrated once to calculate the velocity change (Delta-V) along the CM's X-axis.  The electro-luminescent indicator can read up to 99,999.9 feet per second, with a precision of 0.1 foot per second.  In each case, the crew set the desired Delta-V on the counter, which then counts down to zero.]

Entry Monitoring System Panel

[The use of the EMS is a good example of system redundancy in the Apollo design.  Changes in spacecraft velocity could be measured from the main CM Guidance and Nav inertial system, but this is more complex and liable to errors due to drift.  The fixed EMS accelerometer provides a simple, reliable means of making this critical measurement.  As another example of multiple use of the same system, the EMS display also provides an indication of the range between the CM and the LM during rendezvous operations, using the separate VHF radio ranging system.]

[The EMS Delta-V Test and Null Bias Check is carried out in accordance with Page G2-5 of the G&C Checklist.]

001 55 30 Young (onboard): Okay.

001 55 33 Duke (onboard): And set the Delta-Vc.

001 55 42 Young (onboard): 1586.57

[This value is set as part of the test; it is not related to the earlier PAD values.]

001 55 46 Mattingly (onboard): 1586.57

001 55 49 Young (onboard): Great.

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control Houston. One hour, 55 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. We've had Loss of Signal with Apollo 16 over Canary. The next ground station to acquire will be Carnarvon at approximately 2 hours, 25 minutes Ground Elapsed Time.  However, we should pick up the Apollo 16 spacecraft shortly in advance of that time with one of the ARIA aircraft which will be on station as Apollo 16 now proceeds toward the time of ignition for the Trans Lunar Injection burn. Our clock in Mission Control presently shows that burn time some 38 minutes away. At one hour, 56 minutes Ground Elapsed Time; this is Apollo Control, Houston.

001 55 51 Duke (onboard): Okay, Ken, I guess you can call P15.

[While John Young carries on with the EMS test, Charlie Duke and Ken Mattingly ready the CMC for TLI using P15.  This provides a back-up for initiation of the S-IVB ignition sequence, monitors the TLI burn if the IU is in control and provides automatic shutdown of the S-IVB if the CMC is in control.]

001 55 54 Mattingly (onboard): All right.  [Garble].

001 56 21 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. [garble]. want? 61 [garble] 63?

001 56 24 Duke (onboard): 63.

001 56 25 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. [Garble].

001 56 35 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, Charlie.

[Charlie Duke is reading the TLI PAD details to Ken Mattingly, who is then entering them in the DSKY.  The first set of figures is the GET of Time Base 6, 2:23:57.]

001 56 36 Duke (onboard): Two.

001 56 37 Mattingly (onboard): Two.

001 56 38 Duke (onboard): 23.

001 56 39 Young (onboard): Minus 18.9 on the Delta-V test. That's pretty good, isn't it?

[The target is between -0.1 and -41.5 feet per second, so the actual value is right in the middle of the range.]

001 56 43 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] particularly garble]. What's the next one?

001 56 47 Duke (onboard): 20:57.

001 56 49 Mattingly (onboard): 20:57, right? [Garble].

001 56 53 Duke (onboard): No, 57 ... 57. It's 67 seconds. [Garble].

001 56 58 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, I got 02:23:57 [garble].

001 57 04 Duke (onboard): Go.

001 57 06 Young (onboard): Now you run that for how much? 100 seconds?

001 57 08 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah. Okay, 14 is the [garble]. That was the Time Base 6 [garble]. Isn't that right? Not the TLI.

[Verb 06 Noun 14 is the command to load the velocity change.]

001 57 16 Duke (onboard): Time Base 6 [garble]...

001 57 17 Young (onboard): [Garble] count 0.3 for every five seconds [garble] count a tenth every five seconds.  [Garble].

[Not clear what John Young is referring to.]

001 57 26 Mattingly (onboard): All right. Okay.

001 57 28 Duke (onboard): It's this number right up here.

001 57 29 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. I'd just - You know, I'd feel bad [garble] TLI.

001 57 33 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

001 57 34 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, Noun 14 is [garble] cut-off. All right. Go on.

001 57 43 Duke (onboard): VI, you want 35589.

[From the TLI PAD, the Indicated Velocity at S-IVB cut-off will be 35,589 feet per second (10,848 m/s).]

001 57 46 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, 35589.

001 57 50 Duke (onboard): Go.

001 57 58 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] 35, 36.

001 58 02 Young (onboard): Do you do this for 100 seconds?

001 58 04 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].

001 58 07 Young (onboard): Okay, well, there's a minute. Plus 100 [garble].

001 58 31 Duke (onboard): What's that gurgling?

001 58 33 Young (onboard): Wait a minute. Okay. Wait a minute.

001 58 44 Young (onboard): Four, three, two, one...

001 58 48 Young (onboard): Mark it.

001 58 51 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] two and a half; 100 seconds.  [Garble] Five [garble]...

001 59 00 Duke (onboard): What's our pitch attitude, John? You got the optics [garble] there?

001 59 04 Young (onboard): Yeah, full Moon.

001 59 05 Mattingly (onboard): You got ORDEAL on that?

001 59 06 Young (onboard): Yep.

001 59 07 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] hundred?

001 59 08 Young (onboard): Yeah; 95, actually.

001 59 10 Mattingly (onboard): All righty.

001 59 11 Duke: (onboard): Okay. Set Delta-VC [garble], John.

001 59 13 Young (onboard): Okay.

001 59 14 Duke (onboard): It's 10,373.0.

[From the TLI PAD, the change in velocity during the burn will be 10,373.0 feet per second (3,161.7 m/s).]

001 59 25 Young (onboard): [Garble] over there, Charlie.

001 59 27 Duke (onboard): Got it.

001 59 29 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] Charlie?

001 59 30 Duke (onboard): Oh, yeah. Look - look, John.

001 59 31 Young (onboard): What?

001 59 32 Duke: (onboard): The fires. Out the right side. Looka there!  They were right. They were really right.

001 59 38 Young (onboard): What's that?

001 59 39 Duke (onboard): Beautiful!

001 59 40 Mattingly: The fires of Africa. They're there. Like he said. Isn't that spectacular?

001 59 42 Duke (onboard): That is really beautiful!

001 59 45 Mattingly (onboard): Can you see them, John?

001 59 46 Young (onboard): Yeah, I see them. Yeah, yeah.

001 59 48 Duke (onboard): (Unreadable text).

001 59 49 Young (onboard): Good gosh!

001 59 52 Duke (onboard): There must be a hundred or so.

001 59 54 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] over there.

002 00 05 Duke (onboard): What are they from?

002 00 07 Mattingly (onboard): Nomads.

002 00 09 Duke (onboard): And - and there's brush fires, sometimes.

002 00 12 Mattingly (onboard): Mostly, I - you know there's the - all the nomads and stuff that are out there [garble] around.

[John Young and Charlie Duke continue with the P15.]

002 00 20 Young (onboard): One zero - What did you say it was, Charlie?

002 00 22 Duke (onboard): 10,373.0. Man, you can see them out here, I'll tell you.

002 00 30 Mattingly (onboard): Are they [garble]?

002 00 31 Duke (onboard): Yeah. I think they are.

002 00 32 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, you're looking...

002 00 33 Young (onboard): [Garble].

002 00 34 Mattingly (onboard): Well, you're looking north.

002 00 35 Duke (onboard): North, yeah. I see some thunderstorms. Wow! Look at that! The ones [garble] there...

002 00 39 Young (onboard): 10, 37...

002 00 40 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].

002 00 42 Duke (onboard): Yeah, 10, 373.0.

002 00 45 Young (onboard): [Garble] 37 [garble]...

002 00 46 Duke (onboard): Okay, check the DAP, Ken.

002 00 48 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. You just want me to verify it?

002 00 51 Duke (onboard): Well, it says load 310.

002 00 54 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, [garble]...

002 00 55 Duke (onboard): ... 31 - point 11.

002 00 59 Mattingly (onboard): 31.0, 0.11.

002 01 03 Young (onboard): Okay. 10, 373.0.

002 01 06 Duke (onboard): That's good. Okay. GDC align.

002 01 10 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 01 17 Duke (onboard): Do you want to hold off on the power until Carnarvon LOS?

002 01 21 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 01 22 Mattingly (onboard): We got the Delta-V test and [garble].

002 01 35 Duke (onboard): I've never seen so many storms [garble].

002 01 43 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] have a thunderstorm, [garble] be [garble] usually. The - the [garble] thunderstorm.

002 01 47 Young (onboard): (Laughter)

002 01 52 Duke (onboard): I don't [garble]. Wonder if that's not one of those fires.

002 02 11 Duke (onboard): Okay. Set [garble].  Did you do a Verb 83?

002 02 14 Young (onboard): No. I aligned the GDC [garble].

002 02 16 Duke (onboard): Okay.

002 02 18 Young (onboard): That's really going to be a hassle.

002 02 20 Duke (onboard): Yeah, I know.

002 02 37 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 02 39 Duke (onboard): Okay, do a Verb 83.

002 02 40 Young (onboard): You really want one of those, huh?

002 02 41 Duke (onboard): I'd [garble].

002 02 42 Young (onboard): (Laughter)

002 02 43 Duke (onboard): Yeah, I'm reading the checklist.

[The crew are halfway down Page 2-27 of the Launch Checklist.  However, they have become slightly out of order, and have carried out P15 without having carried out Verb 83.  If they now call up the Verb 83 routine, they will lose the information they have stored in the CMC ready for the TLI burn.  Without Verb 83, they will not have an exact pitch angle when they reset the ORDEAL.]

002 02 45 Young (onboard): We already loaded P15.

002 02 47 Duke (onboard): Okay.

002 02 48 Young (onboard): We got the - we got the ORDEAL Set.

002 02 51 Duke (onboard): Okay. Trans Control Power, On.

[Applying power to the two Translational Controllers mounted on John Young's and Ken Mattingly's couch arms.]

002 02 54 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 02 55 Duke (onboard): And bypass the SECS Pyro Arm.

002 02 57 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 03 00 Duke (onboard): Rot Control Power Normal, two, AC/DC, verify.

[Applying power to the two Rotational Controllers mounted on John Young's and Ken Mattingly's couch arms.  There are two supplies; the Normal supply powers the breakout switches which control the RCS through the SCS and the CMC.  The Direct supply powers the direct switches which give the crew direct control of the RCS thrusters in event of a malfunction of the SCS.  A more detailed description of the RCS and its controls will be given in the chapter on TD&E.]

002 03 03 Young (onboard): Verify.

002 03 04 Duke (onboard): Rot Control Power Direct, two, Main A/Main B.

002 03 07 Young (onboard): Main A/Main B.

002 03 09 Duke (onboard): Spacecraft Control, SCS, verify.

[Enabling SCS control through Translation and Rotation Controls.]

002 03 11 Young (onboard): Verify.

002 03 13 Duke (onboard): LV/SPS Indicator, S-IVB.

[Setting the dual indicator to monitor S-IVB oxidiser pressure.  See 000:06:02 for more details.]

002 03 16 Young (onboard): S-IVB.

002 03 17 Duke (onboard): CB, Direct Ullage, two, close.

[The term "ullage" comes from the brewing industry, where it means the space above the beer in a brewer's vat., but in this context it means the volume in the spacecraft propellant tanks that is filled with helium gas.  In a spacecraft, fuel will float freely in the tanks, unless it is constrained.  However, it is essential that there are no bubbles of helium in the propellant before it is fed into the engines.  In smaller tanks, such as those of the RCS, Teflon bladders are used to control the fuel and to separate it from the helium used to pressurise the tanks.  But in larger tanks, such as the four main ones of the SPS, bladders cannot be used and so a short period of acceleration is required to force the fuel to the bottom of the tank (and the helium to the top) before the SPS fires.  This acceleration is provided by the RCS firing for a few seconds.  Normally, the SPS will command this automatically, but in event of a failure of the automatic system, the Direct Ullage switch on Panel 1 of the MDC provides a back-up capability for initiating the RCS ullage burn.  The Direct Ullage Switch is backed up by two circuit breakers on Panel 8, which must be energised to enable the switch to work.  A complex system, but necessary to provide the necessary safety.]

[It is not clear what the next conversation is about.  John Young and Ken Mattingly seem to be discussing a deviation from the procedure.  Possibly linked to the Verb 83 issue?]

002 03 24 Mattingly (onboard): You don't want to monitor the - [garble] you want to do that? [Garble]? [Garble].

002 03 31 Young (onboard): Yeah, that's what I was doing.

002 03 33 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] should be all right.

002 03 39 Young (onboard): It goes back to whatever it was, doesn't it?

002 03 43 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] ought to be able to call [garble].

002 03 47 Young (onboard): I don't want to experiment with that, particularly.  [Garble] I don't know whether we ever did or not, to be honest with you, Ken.

002 03 54 Mattingly (onboard): Well, I - that's why I asked. That's one that I don't...

002 03 57 Young (onboard): I don't remember even ever doing that.

002 04 02 Mattingly (onboard): Let's not then.

002 04 04 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 04 05 Mattingly (onboard): It's tough when you [garble].

002 04 09 Duke (onboard): Did you get the Direct Ullage C-breaker, John?

002 04 11 Young (onboard): Yeah, I got them, Charlie.

002 04 12 Duke (onboard): Okay. Set the DET to 51 minutes.

002 04 15 Mattingly (onboard): You got them there, didn't you? [Garble].

002 04 19 Young (onboard): Yeah. DET to 51 minutes. Okay, going to Reset, two hours and four minutes.

002 04 35 Mattingly (onboard): It won't start?

002 04 36 Young (onboard): [Garble].

002 04 37 Mattingly (onboard): Oh.

002 04 39 Duke: (onboard): Okay, at 56 minutes, John, we got to change the slew FDAI number 1 to [garble] equals 16.

[The crew have now completed Page L2-28 of the Launch Checklist.  Charlie Duke is highlighting the change in FDAI slew setting on Page L2-29 that was read up from Mission Control at 001:42:12]

002 04 56 Young (onboard): [Garble] equals 16.

002 04 59 Duke (onboard): [Garble].

002 05 13 Mattingly (onboard): It really isn't like I - I don't know, the way I - I thought it would - would be after [garble]. It just feels like I've been here forever.

002 05 20 Young (onboard): Yeah, I agree.

002 05 22 Duke (onboard): I must admit, I feel like I'm [garble].

002 05 26 Mattingly (onboard): I don't even feel that. I'm just...

002 05 28 Young (onboard): My sinuses are all stuffed up - getting worse.

002 05 30 Duke (onboard): Mine, too.

002 05 34 Young (onboard): I think my nose is, you know, Just about to drain. [Garble]. (Laughter)  [Garble].

002 05 48 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, you guys, you better start [garble] out your belts, because they could get in the way.

002 06 00 Duke (onboard): Can you...

002 06 04 Young (onboard): Not with the seat down, you can't, Charlie.

002 06 07 Duke (onboard): Well, I'm gonna leave the seat down, okay?

002 06 09 Young (onboard): Sure.  [Garble].

002 06 48 Duke (onboard): Man, that booster [garble] ride. I can't get over that. It really felt like a runaway freight train!

002 06 57 Mattingly (onboard): I thought that [garble] was pretty impressive.

002 07 00 Young (onboard): I saw that big flash of flame out that window, and I flat forgot that it was [garble]. Man, I thought I'd take this old arrhythmia gage...

002 07 10 Mattingly (onboard): Right. That was pretty bad.

002 07 14 Young (onboard): (Laughter) Either that or it'd absolutely stop (laughter). Golly, I was just - I was all prepared for the shock [garble] separation...

002 07 21 Duke (onboard): Is [garble] is on? [Garble].

002 07 25 Young (onboard): I'll go look. I didn't really know that.

002 08 02 Duke: [Garble], John.

002 08 04 Young (onboard): I told you I'd forget. Man, I'm forget - I'm in a rapid dump mode. I'm forgetting faster than I [garble]. Okay; 25 minutes to go again.

002 08 21 Duke (onboard): Attitude looks okay?

002 08 28 Young (onboard): Looks super.

002 08 31 Duke (onboard): Man, I can't get over that [garble]. (Laughter) [Garble] I tell you, there are a lot of ...

002 08 40 Young (onboard): [Garble] gonna leave them checklists up there during the boost?

002 08 42 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, I'm getting to them. My next course of action [garble] is to go around and see what I got laying [garble].

002 08 48 Duke (onboard): Okay, we got a lot [garble].

002 08 53 Young (onboard): You want to eat a sandwich, you guys? We got about ten minutes here.

002 08 56 Duke (onboard): Not me; I'm gonna wait until later.

002 09 01 Young (onboard): [Garble]. Okay. I don't want y'all to get hungry and starve. [Garble].

002 09 21 Mattingly (onboard): I'll have to admit, when you get up here – I always thought that EL[?] was kind of a silly [garble] but when you get up here, it sure is different.

002 09 26 Duke (onboard): Sure is.

002 09 28 Mattingly (onboard): It just [garble].  Don't you guys have a little – little [garble] thing on the...

002 09 32 Young (onboard): [Garble]...

002 09 34 Mattingly (onboard): You can't see it?

002 09 35 Young (onboard): ... [Garble] confuses me. Okay, 10, 272. Right, Charlie?

[This may be a transcription error. The time for R2 ignition in the R2 ignition in the TLI PAD is 107.2, and John Young may be referring to this as "ten, seven, two".]

002 09 40 Duke (onboard): That's right.  [Garble].

002 09 45 Young (onboard): Okay. What's the fuel-to-oxidizer Delta-P?

002 09 48 Duke (onboard): Hey, could you get me a little piece of tape [garble]?

002 09 51 Young (onboard): [Garble].  What's the fuel - allowable fuel-to-oxidizer Delta-P with this thing? On powered flight.

002 09 57 Mattingly (onboard): On powered flight is 30 - greater than - it's greater than 36; OX over fuel, greater than 26.

[John Young is reviewing the procedures on Page L2-28. During the S-IVB re-start sequence, the booster propellant tanks are pressurised.  Because the tanks share a common bulkhead, any large difference in pressure could cause a catastrophic failure of the bulkhead, followed by an explosion of the booster.  If the LOX pressure exceeds the LH2 pressure by more than 36 psi, the LH2 pressure exceeds the LOX pressure by more than 26 psi or the LOX tank pressure exceeds 50 psi, then the crew must carry out an emergency separation of the CSM from the S-IVB, as detailed on Page Emer 1-1.]

002 10 04 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 10 07 Mattingly (onboard): If LOX goes greater than 50, you want Emergency Sep.

002 10 09 Young (onboard): When is the - when does [garble] - when does old whatyoucallit predict when we ought to list this stuff down. Write all these numbers down so we [garble], Charlie.

002 10 22 Duke (onboard): Man, they didn't give me nothing but a pen.

002 10 26 Young (onboard): [Garble] give me Time Base 6.

002 l0 27 Duke (onboard): You know where a pencil is?

002 10 28 Young (onboard):  ... [Garble], Charlie.

002 10 29 Duke (onboard): Okay, Time Base 6 started at 02:23...

002 10 35 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 10 36 Duke (onboard): Wait a minute; 02:23:57, I think it was.

002 10 39 Young (onboard): [Garble].

002 10 42 Duke (onboard) : 02:23:57.

002 10 44 Young (onboard): 02:23:57.00?

002 10 46 Duke (onboard): Yes.

002 10 47 Young (onboard): Okay; and then R-2 align?

002 10 52 Duke (onboard) : R-2 align is 1 - 112.7.

002 10 57 Young (onboard): 112.7. ORDEAL operate time?

002 11 02 Duke (onboard): 57:20.

002 11 05 Young (onboard): 57:20? Didn't they change that on us?

002 11 08 Duke (onboard): That's what it's - that's what's the new time.

002 11 11 Young (onboard): Okay. And manoeuvre to the R-2 ignition would be what?

002 11 18 Duke (onboard): Okay, 107. ORDEAL of 107.

002 11 21 Young (onboard): Okay. And then they said something about [garble] data of 17 instead of 16, right?

002 11 27 Duke (onboard): That's right, at 56 minutes.

002 11 30 Young (onboard): Okay.  [Garble].

002 11 32 Duke (onboard): Okay, and at - and at 57:20, your insured [?] is 11 degrees.

002 11 37 Young (onboard): 57:20 is 11, right? Okay,11. Thank you. No wonder we ain't never got the right profile. And then they have....

002 11 48 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].

002 11 51 Young (onboard): VI is what?

002 11 54 Duke (onboard): VI is one at 35589.

002 12 02 Young (onboard): And burn time?  [Garble]...

002 12 05 Duke (onboard): 05:43.

002 12 09 Young (onboard): Okay.  [Garble].

[And back to more housekeeping, preparing the cabin for acceleration.]

002 12 20 Mattingly (onboard): Well, I don't see what's back here that's not battened down.  [Garble] up here; [garble] over there.

002 12 30 Young (onboard): Well, I'll try to take this camera [garble].  How will that be?

002 12 33 Mattingly (onboard): Take the camera off?

002 12 35 Young (onboard): Yeah. We can put it on [garble].

002 12 42 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble]?

002 12 44 Young (onboard): Okay, going back to 12. There you go.

002 12 52 Mattingly (onboard) : Okay. We've [garble] TLI preparation?

002 12 54 Duke {onboard): [Garble] to SECS Pyro Arm.

002 13 02 Mattingly (onboard): Can you make a good place to put that Flight Plan there? Guess I could put it there myself.

002 13 07 Young (onboard): Right.

002 13 10 Mattingly (onboard): Okay...

002 13 11 Young (onboard): Well, let's see here, now. Again, we got the CSM/LM Sep breakers [garble].

002 13 18 Mattingly (onboard): We do?

002 13 19 Young (onboard): Yeah. There we are. SECS Pyro Arm really is a sort of a [garble] for docking [garble].

002 13 30 Mattingly (onboard): Be kind of terrible [garble].

002 13 34 Young (onboard): It's got CSM/LM Sep switch and then S-IVB/LM Sep switch. We got to be very sure we're pushing the right one [garble], but anybody can look at it.

002 13 45 Mattingly (onboard): We're going to all look at that, aren't we?

002 13 46 Young (onboard): Yes. We're all going to [garble]...

MDC Separation Switches

[A number of the major systems on Apollo are operated by explosives.  This provides a very reliable and low-weight means of achieving events such as separating the LM from the S-IVB, or of separating the docking ring from the CM to jettison the LM after docking in lunar orbit.  As a down-side, they are one-shot devices that cannot be re-set if operated in error.  With the SECS Pyro Arm circuit breakers live, all the relevant switches are also live.  John Young is making sure that all the crew are aware of this, since even though the switches are guarded, it would be all too easy to press the wrong one and, for example, jettison the docking ring while leaving the LM attached to the S-IVB - thus losing any chance of a lunar landing.  The two controls, although not adjacent, are on the same row of six switches.  The even more important switches that jettison the SM from the CM are powered by different circuit breakers and are not live at this point.]

[A similar problem, but with even more serious potential consequences, faced the crew of Apollo 13 as they approached the Earth at the end of their calamitous mission.  They had to jettison the SM from the CM, while keeping the LM attached until the last minute.  The CMP, Jack Swigert, had to resort to sticking large labels on the two switches to make sure that he did not press the wrong one.]

002 13 47 Mattingly (onboard): Three, 4, and 5 - 5-second hold. Then we're gonna make sure we got the circuit breakers in. All [garble].

002 14 07 Mattingly (onboard): Might as well take my water wings off. What'll I do with them?

[Ken Mattingly is referring to his life jacket.]

002 14 13 Duke (onboard): [Garble] go?

002 14 15 Mattingly (onboard): Right down here.  [Garble] you?

002 14 16 Young (onboard): Let me turn the [garble].

002 14 20 Duke (onboard): Okay, [garble].

002 14 24 Young (onboard): Yeah, we - we thought we was supposed to Pro there.

[Not clear what the discussion is about.  Pro (Proceed) is normally the end of a CMC Program, so the crew may have not completed P15.]

002 14 26 Duke (onboard): [Garble].

002 14 30 Young (onboard): That's okay.

002 14 34 [unclear] (onboard): That's low [garble]...

002 14 35 Duke (onboard): I just got a [garble]...

002 14 36 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] get any [garble].

002 14 38 Young (onboard): Yeah.  [Garble] all out. I don't know how you're ever gonna make it with that couch in there, if you don't [garble] to take the couch out [garble] (laughter).

002 14 55 Duke (onboard): One thing about the [garble] especially [garble], I got one little minor [garble] and that's [garble].

002 15 04 [General] (onboard): (Laughter)

002 15 08 Mattingly (onboard): You know, you don't look fat faced to me.

[In zero gravity, the body has a natural tendancy to move its's fluids to the head, since the normal counterbalancing effect of gravity is removed. The sinuses also tend to fill, both due to increased leakage of fluid into them and because they do not drain normally. The result is a full-headed feeling and a swelling of the face.]

002 15 09 Duke (onboard): I don't? I feel a little [garble].

002 15 13 Young (onboard): It looks like - well, you - you...

002 15 14 Duke (onboard): What?

002 15 15 Young (onboard): Yeah, you look like you're [garble] hat.

002 15 33 Duke (onboard): It's natural.

002 15 34 Young (onboard): I mean, but it's not near as bad as standing on your head. That's what I did for two or three days. Stood on there for ten minutes, and, boy, that's about ten minutes [garble]. Seemed like about - I'll tell you what's just as bad as standing on your head, though. [Garble] got a couple or three [garble].  Mine keeps going - it keeps...

002 15 43 Mattingly (onboard): Keeps going [garble]?

002 15 45 Duke (onboard): What, your sinuses?

002 15 47 Young (onboard): Yeah. And then it goes away.

002 15 48 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

002 15 49 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah, I suspect [garble] tomorrow.

002 15 51 Duke: (onboard): Mine really can drain [garble].

002 15 54 Young (onboard): There's nothing else they can do. But the zero g is sure neat (laughter).

002 16 03 Mattingly (onboard): Freddie Baker's [?] simulator was never like this one.

002 16 05 Young (onboard): Boy, I mean to tell you.

002 16 07 Mattingly (onboard): I wouldn't have [garble], if I was [garble].

002 16 10 Duke (onboard): I hate to tell you, but they don't have any ARIA AOS [Acquisition of Signal] in this.

[Although the Launch Checklist shows the periods that the spacecraft will be in contact with the ground stations, it does not include the same for the ARIA.]

002 16 14 Young (onboard): It's 02:22 is what he said, Charlie.

002 16 26 Duke (onboard): I couldn't get my helmet back down in there.  [Garble].  Down under there. There you go.

002 16 37 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. Now that's - The only thing we got that I'm a little leery about is the camera.

002 16 42 Duke (onboard): It's supposed to be mounted there.

002 16 43 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. You want to leave it there?

002 16 44 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

002 16 45 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble]?

002 16 46 Duke (onboard): Yeah, I think so.

002 16 47 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, we got the Hasselblad.

002 16 48 Duke (onboard): Okay.

002 16 49 Mattingly (onboard): I've got it up in R-2. And you got the TV monitor. Is it gonna be all right?

002 16 53 Duke (onboard): Yeah; well, yeah, I think so. It's on the shelf and it's on a big piece of Velcro.

002 16 57 Young (onboard): [Garble] is all in there.

002 16 59 Mattingly (onboard): You got the COAS locked [garble].

002 17 09 Duke (onboard): (Laughter) Man, we're going to the Moon.

002 17 11 Young (onboard): Well, we ain't there yet, babe. We got [garble] to do it. A couple of things you got to do.

002 17 17 Mattingly (onboard): A couple of things you got to do.

002 17 18 Duke (onboard): I know it. I know it.

002 17 19 Young (onboard): And then Casper will be out of his bag.

[In other words, the CM will separate from the S-IVB.]

002 17 28 Young (onboard): I'll tell you, if this isn't the cat's meow if I've ever saw it.

002 17 34 Duke (onboard): You know, I'm getting used to it. My head's not feeling so poorly.

002 17 37 Young (onboard): Okay. It goes up and then it goes back down again. Don't ask me how the head compensates for it, because - The sinuses, I don't see how they can ever drain.  [Garble] doctors [garble].  It doesn't know it can't compensate.

002 17 54 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] checklist. [Garble] G&C Checklist [garble] there.

002 18 05 Mattingly (onboard): Aw, beautiful. It's got the little card.

002 18 06 Duke (onboard): You know the - the dadgum - the flow ain't exactly [garble].

002 18 16 Young (onboard): I ain't got much flow, either.

002 18 18 Duke (onboard): It beats me.

002 18 19 Young (onboard): Well, the - these extension hoses would make it better, Charlie [garble]...

002 18 22 Duke (onboard): Well, I don't want to do it now.

002 18 24 Young (onboard): That's really the only thing.

002 18 25 Duke (onboard): That's okay. I'll do it after [garble].

002 18 29 Mattingly (onboard): I did it. It's pretty comfortable. It's cool. You want me to turn yours off? [Garble].

002 18 38 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 18 40 Duke (onboard): How much time we got?

002 18 41 Young (onboard): [Garble].  What was Time Base 6 predict?

002 18 47 Duke (onboard): 02:23:37.

[Five minutes to Time Base 6 start.]

002 18 50 Young (onboard): [Garble].

002 18 54 Duke (onboard)> : Why don't you turn my - could you slide up - go right up there and turn my flow on, Ken.

002 19 00 Mattingly (onboard)> : [Garble] get the top one.

002 19 01 Duke (onboard): Okay, [garble].

002 19 05 Young (onboard): Can't do it if you don't [garble] strapped in.

002 19 06 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].

[The crew are re-reading the checklist.  Having bypassed some of the steps in the TLI preparation on Page L2-27, they are now checking that nothing has been omitted in their earlier actions from 001:54:54.]

002 19 12 Young (onboard): Okay. EMS Delta-V test, set Delta-V, Direct Ullage, two, close...

002 19 16 Mattingly (onboard): Here you go, Charlie.

002 19 17 Young (onboard): ...Up Telemetry to Block, that's Block...

002 19 18 Duke (onboard): Okay.

002 19 19 Young (onboard): EDS Power is On, Charlie. Okay, Charlie; I'm gonna arm the pyros. Charlie?

002 19 26 Duke (onboard) : Wait a minute. You want to put your hose around through there? Okay, go ahead, John.

002 19 33 Mattingly (onboard): John, you want to do yours while I'm here?

002 19 35 Young (onboard): Nah.

002 19 36 Duke (onboard): Okay. I'm ready on the pyros.

[The SECS Pyro switches are being selected, as this step was bypassed at 002:02:55.]

002 19 38 Young (onboard): Okay, pyros are coming on. Pyro A, on; Pyro B, on.

002 19 43 Duke (onboard) : Okay.

002 19 44 Young (onboard): THC, it's On. RHC - what do they want to do with it?

002 19 50 Duke (onboard): [Garble]. Okay, wait a minute. THC - Trans Control Power - we need Rot Control Direct, two, Main A/Main B - should have already had all that.

002 20 00 Young (onboard): Yeah. Direct, two, Main A/Main B. Go.

002 20 02 Duke (onboard): Okay, two - Normal, two - AC/DC.

002 20 05 Young (onboard): Go. Spacecraft Control to SCS.

002 20 08 Duke (onboard): Okay. We got that.

002 20 09 Young (onboard): Launch Vehicle Guidance is IU. Translunar Inject [is set to] Inject. Set DET to 51 minutes. Okay.

[See comment at 001:55:17 on the significance of the Translunar Inject (XLunar) switch ]

Public Affairs Officer: This is Apollo Control, Houston, at 2 hours and 19 minutes of Ground Elapsed Time and we're standing by in Mission Control, awaiting acquisition with the ARIA aircraft who are presently on the station for this pass.  It will be during this - following this acquisition and during this pass that we will have the Translunar Injection burn. Prior to the burn, the booster of the S-IVB will go into Time Base Six. This will be 9 minutes, 38 seconds prior to the TLI burn and will represent the automatic sequence in the booster leading to the burn itself. We presently show a TLI ignition time of 2 hours, 33 minutes 35 seconds, with the burn duration of 5 minutes, 43 seconds, predicted velocity at cut-off 35,589 feet per second [10,848 m/s] with a Delta-V of 10,389 feet per second [3,166 m/s].  During the burn itself, we will be monitoring data from the instrument unit on the S-IVB.  This would be data such as velocity, current altitude and a predicted apogee at time of shutdown. This data will come to, through one of the ARIA aircraft. We're at 2 hours, 20 minutes Ground Elapsed Time, continuing to monitor. We show some 13 minutes away now from time of ignition and this is Apollo Control, Houston.

002 20 18 Mattingly (onboard): Hey, is that Tool E gonna stay up there, John? It's right over your head...

002 20 22 Young (onboard): [Garble]. Okay.

002 20 24 Duke (onboard): Yeah, it'll stay up.

002 20 25 Mattingly (onboard): Okay.

002 20 26 Young (onboard): I thought I [garble]...

002 20 27 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble]. Okay, why don't I put it in my pocket. Here, I'll wrap it. I'll put it in my pocket.

002 20 33 Duke (onboard): We've got an evaporator problem here. No, I guess we don 't.

002 20 37 Mattingly (onboard): You've got the radiators on, haven't you?

002 20 38 Duke (onboard): Yeah. [Garble].

002 20 44 Young (onboard): Here you go.

002 20 46 ARIA : [Garble].

002 20 47 Duke: [Garble] ARIA...

002 20 48 Young (onboard): [Garble] a little rough there.

002 20 49 ARIA : [Garble].

002 20 51 Duke (onboard): [Garble] antenna [garble]. That was ARIA calling.

002 20 56 Young (onboard): I know.

002 20 57 Duke (onboard): [Garble] think they must be [garble].

002 21 03 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 21 04 Mattingly (onboard): Hey, you want to check to see that that's going to be all right.

002 21 06 Young (onboard): Yeah, it's alright.

002 21 07 Mattingly (onboard): You might make sure that these shoulder straps aren't laying - floating somewhere where they get over your head...

002 21 12 Duke (onboard): Mine are tied down...

002 21 13 Young (onboard): [Garble] are down.

002 21 14 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, because those clips are just [garble].

002 21 17 Young (onboard): Okay. I'm gonna set 300 LUNAR on this [garble ] - [garble] to do it.

[John Young is setting the ORDEAL to 300 and Lunar, in accordance with the Launch Checklist Page L2-28.]

002 21 25 Mattingly (onboard): All right.

002 21 26 Duke (onboard): Okay, a couple of minutes, you guys.

002 21 28 Young (onboard): 300 and LUNAR, we got set on it.

002 21 30 Duke (onboard): [Garble].

002 21 37 Young (onboard): We - we got signal strength?

002 21 38 Duke (onboard): Yeah, a little bit...

002 21 39 Mattingly (onboard): Here we go.

002 21 40 Duke (onboard): ... [garble] keeps babbling, though.  [Garble] locked up yet. We'll let them give us a call.

002 21 52 Young: Okay, Houston, through the ARIA. We got signal strength and - assume you're down there somewheres.

002 21 59 ARIA: [Garble].

002 22 09 Duke (onboard): Typical ARIA. Hey, that's a lot cooler, Ken.

00 02 22 15 Young: Okay, Houston; we don't read anything you say, but we'll transmit in the blind.

002 22 20 ARIA: [Garble].

002 22 24 Duke (onboard): Think they're having trouble locking up.

002 22 25 Young (onboard): [Garble], Charlie.

002 22 27 Duke (onboard): Try them now.  [Garble].

002 22 30 Young: How do you read that down there now, Houston?

002 22 36 Fullerton: Apollo 16, this is Houston through ARIA. Over.

002 22 40 Young: By gosh, loud and clear there.

002 22 44 Fullerton: So are you, John.

002 22 50 Duke (onboard): Okay, we'll stand by for the light.

[The crew are waiting for the Uplink Activity Light to go On, signalling the start of Time-Base 6, nine minutes and 38 seconds before ignition (9:30 before Engine Start Command).]

002 22 53 Young (onboard): What time?

002 22 54 Duke (onboard): 09:38. About a minute.

002 22 58 Fullerton: How's everything on board?

002 23 01 Young: Everything looks good here. We're a minute - we're 10 minutes and 30 seconds to the burn.

Public Affairs Officer: Apollo Control, Houston...

002 23 09 Fullerton: Roger.

002 23 13 Duke (onboard): What's that black thing over there, Ken?

002 23 15 Mattingly (onboard): It's your neckband.

002 23 16 Duke (onboard): Oh. [Garble].

002 23 23 Mattingly (onboard): You got the Flight Plan ...

002 23 24 Duke (onboard): Yep.

002 23 25 Mattingly (onboard): All put up.

002 23 30 Young (onboard): When is this up-link on? Up-link activity light on?

002 23 34 Duke (onboard): That [garble]?

002 23 35 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 23 36 Duke (onboard): Okay, that and the S-II light come on at 09:38.

002 23 38 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 23 49 Young (onboard): Does that Time Base 6 start at 09:38?

002 23 53 Duke (onboard): Yeah, minus 09:38.

002 23 59 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].

002 24 00 Young : Okay. On time for Time Base 6.

002 24 03 Duke (onboard): Okay, stand by to start it.

002 24 04 Fullerton: Roger.

002 24 07 Young (onboard): You start it on that.

002 24 08 Duke (onboard): At 9 min - yeah, okay.

002 24 09 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah. Yeah, that will be [garble]...

002 24 12 Young (onboard): This was - this is at [garble].

002 24 13 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] that [garble] was at 09:30 - 5, I get. 36.

002 24 20 Young (onboard): Yeah, 36.

002 24 21 Mattingly (onboard): Okay.

002 24 29 Mattingly (onboard): Come on, boy.

002 24 38 Mattingly (onboard): That was on time.

002 24 39 Young (onboard): Yeah, that was on time.

002 24 40 Mattingly (onboard): Now, I don't understand that...

002 24 41 Young (onboard): ... [Garble].  No, I don't understand it either, but I guess we'll [garble]...

002 24 45 Duke: Okay, Houston. The S-II SEP light was out on time.

[The S-II SEP light is now being used as an indicator.]

002 24 50 Young (onboard): Charlie, [garble]...

002 24 51 Fullerton: Roger; very good.

002 24 54 Young (onboard): Get this ball lined up?

[The FDAI needs to be slewed to the correct position.]

002 24 55 Duke (onboard): What, John?

002 24 56 Young (onboard): We were off ...

002 24 57 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah.

002 24 58 Young (onboard): ... [garble] on [garble].

002 24 59 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah.

002 25 00 Young (onboard): Roll is...

002 25 01 Duke (onboard): Okay, John. Okay. Let see, you can monitor the tank pressures. Nominal LOX, 40; LH2, 31.

002 25 12 Young (onboard): [Garble] 148, about?

002 25 17 Mattingly: (onboard): No. No, we're below that, John. 146 - let's say 146.

002 25 26 Young (onboard): Okay.

Public Affairs Officer: Apollo Control, Houston, receiving data now.  Two hours, 25 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. In the Mission Control Center, Houston.  Displays are being changed to show the dynamics of the upcoming Translunar Injection a little more than eight minutes away at this time. At two hours, 25 minutes Ground Elapsed Time, this is Apollo Control, Houston.

002 25 38 Mattingly (onboard): Okay.

002 25 40 Young (onboard): Okay, now let's go over this thing here. What should I have on ...

002 25 43 Duke (onboard): I got a couple of things for you.

002 25 44 Young (onboard): Okay.

[Setting the ORDEAL. See earlier for the ORDEAL controls.]

002 25 45 Duke (onboard): OR - DE - A - L - ORDEAL FDAI number l, ORB RATE.

002 25 47 Young (onboard): It's ORB RATE, Charlie.

002 25 48 Duke (onboard): Two, Inertial.

002 25 50 Young (onboard): Two, Inertial.

002 25 51 Duke (onboard): ORDEAL Mode, Hook - Hold/Fast.

002 25 53 Young (onboard): Hold/Fast.

002 25 55 Duke (onboard): Okay, and go 300 Lunar.

002 25 58 Young (onboard): We're in 300 and Lunar.

002 26 00 Duke (onboard): Okay, RHC number 2, armed...

002 26 04 Young (onboard): [Garble].

Public Affairs Officer: Apollo Control, Houston, at two hours, 26 minutes Ground Elapsed Time.  Seven minutes away now.

[Break in CM Tape, perhaps due to vox.]

002 30 31 Duke (onboard): [Garble] the SCS TVC Servo Power, [garble]. Okay?

002 30 34 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].  Yeah.  .

002 30 35 Duke (onboard): Okay, and that's on your card over there.

002 30 37 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, and what's [garble] 5? [garble]...

002 30 41 Young (onboard): [Garble] five [garble] degree [garble] 25.

002 30 45 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, and the shutdown, if it's - if it's [garble] control - TLI - if you overburn shutdown, you [garble].

002 30 53 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 30 56 Duke (onboard): Okay, Ken - excuse me.  [Garble].  You want to do that for all the [garble]?

002 30 59 Mattingly: (onboard): Yes.

002 31 01 Young (onboard): Okay, we're in operating mode, gang.

002 31 06 Mattingly: (onboard): Okay.

002 31 07 Fullerton: [Apollo]16, Houston, we're about LOS Carnarvon. Handing you over to ARIA. We'll watch the booster for you. The spacecraft's all yours.

002 31 16 Young: Okay; thank you much.

(onboard) Okay; now we're at 57:45, Charlie.

[One minute, 15 seconds to S-IVB ignition.]

002 31 24 Duke: (onboard): Okay; thank you.

002 31 26 Young (onboard): There's a couple of things here that's got to be...

002 31 28 Duke (onboard): At 58:20, give me a call.

002 31 30 Young (onboard): All right, I'll call you at 58:20. What do we do?

[On Launch Checklist Page L2-29, coming up for 58:15, 105 seconds to S-IVB ignition.]

002 31 35 Duke (onboard): SCS TVC Servo Power, Number l, AC1/Main A; 2, Off. And I go High Bit Rate, Record, Forward, Command Reset.

002 31 44 Young (onboard): And I go EMS Mode...

002 31 46 Duke (onboard): You go to Normal.

002 31 47 Young (onboard): Okay, that - that TVC Servo Power Number 1 gets power [garble].

002 31 49 Duke (onboard): That's right.

002 31 50 Young (onboard): Right.

002 31 51 Duke (onboard): That's right.

002 31 52 Young (onboard): Okay, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21...

002 31 57 Mattingly or Duke (onboard): Okay, DSKY blanks.

[The DSKY display blanks for five seconds at 105 seconds before S-IVB ignition, while in P15.]

002 31 59 Young (onboard): On schedule.

002 32 00 Duke (onboard): Okay, SCS TVC Servo Power Number 1, AC1/Main A; Two, Off.

002 32 05 Young (onboard): Two, Off.

002 32 06 Duke (onboard): And we're going High Bit Rate, Record, Forward.  Command Reset back to Normal. EMS Mode to Normal, John?

[To ensure that there is a record of spacecraft systems performance, even if the data link with Mission Control is lost during the TLI burn, Charlie Duke sets the Data Recorder Reproducer (DRR) - the CM's tape recorder - to High pulse-code modulation (or data bit rate), to Record and to Forward, to achieve the best recording conditions.  He also resets the Up-Data Link equipment, and then sets it to Normal, in case Mission Control need to up-link any commands to the spacecraft. However, the crew still have the final control over up-link activity as the Up-Tlm switch is set to Block (see 001:41:45).]

002 32 13 Young (onboard): EM Mode to Normal. S-II Sep light's On, on time.

[John Young sets the EMS to display the velocity change during the burn, as discussed at 001:55:26]

[The S-II Sep light illuminates at Time Base 6, 58:36, two seconds before S-IVB APS starts thrusting in the ullage manoeuvre.]

002 32 17 Duke (onboard): You should have ullage at 58: 38.

002 32 21 Young (onboard): [Garble] where the ullage is.

002 32 23 Duke (onboard): Yeah (laughter).

002 32 24 Young (onboard): [Garble] do we count?

002 32 26 Duke (onboard): Look at the sunrise.

002 32 32 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] clock there.  [Garble] would you like [garble]?

002 32 35 Young (onboard): No. [Garble]?

002 32 39 Duke (onboard): 02:33:35, John.

002 32 41 Young (onboard): 55 [garble].

002 32 59 Mattingly (onboard): You want to turn your numerics up, so you can see them a little better?

[The spacecraft is over the Pacific, facing into the sunrise. Ken Mattingly is suggesting that John Young increase the brightness of the displays to help him read them]

002 33 01 Young (onboard): ...

002 33 10 Young (onboard): Okay; we got about 25 seconds.

002 33 24 Duke: (onboard): Pressure's okay, John?

002 33 26 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 33 28 Duke (onboard): Okay.

002 33 29 Young (onboard): At 59:55, we're going to be [garble].

002 33 32 Duke [Garble] EMS.

002 33 35 Mattingly (onboard): There it goes, you guys.

[The engine start command is sent at 002:50:29.51 GET. The restart sequence is essentially identical to the start of the S-II stage's J-2s and of the first start of the S-IVB 's J2. The main difference is that fuel is allowed to run through the engine walls for eight seconds before the final ignition.]

002 33 37 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 33 38 Duke (onboard): There it goes.

002 33 39 Mattingly (onboard): Outboards.

002 33 40 Young (onboard): Ignition.

002 33 41 Mattingly (onboard): Outboards!

002 33 42 Duke (onboard): Boy, you don't miss that!

002 33 43 Mattingly (onboard): You sure don't miss it (laughter).

002 33 45 Young (onboard): Okay. Something I missed...

002 33 48 Duke (onboard): Something fell to the bottom of the...

002 33 49 Young (onboard): [Garble].  What do you do?

002 33 50 Fullerton: [Apollo] 16, we're showing good thrust on the S-IVB.

002 33 55 Young: Roger. (onboard) Steer, baby, steer.

002 34 02 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. It's steering right on, John.

002 34 08 Duke (onboard): How's the tank pressures look?

[See comments at 002:09:57.]

002 34 10 Mattingly (onboard): Fine.

002 34 11 Duke (onboard): Good.

002 34 13 Young (onboard): That [garble] is [garble].

002 34 17 Duke (onboard): We're passing the 40-seconds mark. That might have been a second or two behind.

002 34 25 Young/Mattingly: (onboard): PU shift.

[As the J-2 engine burns, the ratio of oxidiser to fuel is changed from approximately 4.5:1 to 5 to 1 at the 56-second point.  This increases the thrust from around 183,000 lbf (814 kN) to 207,000 lbf (921kN).

002 34 27 Mattingly (onboard): Boy, you feel that guy moving.

002 34 31 Young (onboard): One minute coming up.

002 34 34 Mattingly (onboard): Our attitude is perfect.

002 34 35 Duke (onboard): Okay, stand by on - pitch and roll.

002 34 37 Young: One minute...

002 34 38 Duke (onboard): Mark.

002 34 39 Young: ...Looks good.

002 34 40 Mattingly: (onboard): Okay; I've got - I've got us - oh, I've got us about three seconds early.

002 34 43 Duke (onboard): Okay, [garble].

002 34 44 Fullerton : Roger. We're looking good here.

002 34 49 Duke (onboard): We're about - my time, three seconds.

002 34 51 Mattingly (onboard): Well, here. Let me give you a hack when I see - 01:30.

002 34 55 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 34 56 Fullerton: We've seen PU shift. The thrust looks good.

002 35 00 Mattingly (onboard): Okay; well, I'm not sure this clock is right. Did it start on the time?

002 35 08 Young (onboard): I wasn't watching it, Ken.

002 35 06 Mattingly (onboard): Well, I just wanted to know if there's difference at the mark.

002 35 08 Duke (onboard): Okay; we're one second off.

002 35 10 Mattingly (onboard): Okay.

002 35 19 Young (onboard): Okay, we're up to three-quarters (of a ) g.

002 35 22 Duke (onboard): It feels like the weight of the world's on my shoulders.

002 35 24 Young (onboard): Yeah, doesn't it feel good.

002 35 25 Mattingly (onboard): Wait'll you're at re-entry - [garble] you could [garble].

002 35 40 Duke (onboard): Mark. That was two minutes.

002 35 41 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 35 42 Mattingly (onboard): Man, we're following this thing today.

002 35 45 Fullerton: [Apollo] 16, Houston. At two minutes, looking good.

002 35 49 Young: Roger. Steering right on in here.

002 35 55 Duke (onboard): About 42...

002 35 56 Fullerton: Roger.

002 36 03 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, [garble].

002 36 09 Duke (onboard): Pretty high - it's a high-frequency vibration.

002 36 12 Mattingly/Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 36 17 Young (onboard): Hitting four cycles per second [garble].

002 36 23 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] come back and tell us something, for heaven's sakes.

002 36 31 Duke (onboard): Okay. Coming up on three minutes. (Cleared throat). One last chance to drain your sinuses.

002 36 39 Duke (onboard): Mark. Three minutes.

002 36 44 Young (onboard): Three-quarters of a g, Charlie.

002 36 46 Duke (onboard): Okay.

002 36 48 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] three minutes to burn.

002 36 53 Duke (onboard): [Garble] about right?

002 36 56 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 36 57 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah.  [Garble] at 03:13.

002 36 59 Duke (onboard): Three - no, that's wrong. Something...

002 37 01 Mattingly (onboard): Boy, that calculation's way off.

002 37 03 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

002 37 05 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] there.Something's wrong. [Garble] 42 seconds.

002 37 12 Young (onboard): How does it look, Charlie?

002 37 14 Duke (onboard): I'll give you a mark at two minutes.

002 37 15 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 37 16 Duke (onboard): [Garble] 43, 4, 5..

002 37 21 Duke (onboard): Mark; two minutes to go.

002 37 22 Mattingly: (onboard): Okay; it's converging.

002 37 23 Duke (onboard): Yeah. It's converging. Rapidly.

002 37 35 Duke (onboard): Stand by on four minutes...

002 37 39 Duke (onboard): Mark.  Four minutes.

002 37 40 Mattingly (onboard): There's 90...

002 37 41 Fullerton: [Apollo] 16, Houston through ARIA 3 now. Burn time is as predicted, 05:43. Everything looks good.

002 37 47 Young: Roger.

002 37 50 Mattingly (onboard): Feels like you got pitch and yaw.

002 37 53 Young (onboard): Well, you're up to 1[g?].

002 37 54 Mattingly (onboard): And you can see those vibrations on the g-meter.  Shaking [garble].

002 38 00 Young (onboard): Hold together [garble]. That's bad.

002 38 05 Duke (onboard): What's that?

002 38 06 Young (onboard): Like these [garble].

002 38 08 Duke (onboard): Mark.

002 38 09 Young (onboard): [Garble] could look at this.

002 38 11 Duke (onboard): 04:30. A minute to go. I'll give you a mark at a minute on the time.

002 38 16 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] check - check this. It's going to a higher freq.

002 38 20 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 38 21 Duke (onboard): Mark.

002 38 23 Mattingly:Young (onboard): (Laughter)

002 38 24 Young (onboard): Oh.

002 38 25 Duke (onboard): What was that?

002 38 26 Mattingly (onboard): (Laughter) John's hand controller [garble].  Coming up on five.

002 38 33 Duke (onboard): Coming up on five minutes.

002 38 39 Duke (onboard): Mark. Five minutes.

002 38 41 Fullerton: [Apollo]16, everything looks good at five (minutes).

002 38 44 Young: Roger.

002 38 45 Duke (onboard): They aren't concerned about it.

[Mission Control cannot directly observe the vibration levels that the crew are sensing.]

[During the 1972 Technical Debrief, the crew discussed the vibration. 

Mattingly:  "On TLI, it seemed to be increasing in amplitude; although I thought that the frequency was still the same."

Young: "Yes. That's what I thought all the way to ECO (Engine Cut-Off) .  But, there was a buzz on the S-IVB all the way to engine cut-off.  And, it was a high frequency buzz....It was too high a frequency to be characterized as pogo.  The amplitude was so low you couldn't characterize it as pogo either.  It didn't seem that anything was in danger of coming apart.  I was more worried about it quitting."]

[According to the AS-511 Flight Evaluation Report, "In a post-mission debriefing the Apollo 16 crew reported that the vehicle had experienced some low amplitude vibration or “buzz” during portions of the S-II stage burn, and throughout the S-IVB first and second burns. The crew also noted that the vibrations did not appear to be oriented in any particular axis. Analysis of flight data indicates the presence of low amplitude, approximately 65 hertz, vibration during the S-II stage burn and both S-IVB stage burns. The data show lateral amplitudes of ±0.10 g at the IU during S-IVB first burn and ±0.20 during second burn. The vibrations can also be seen on selected propulsion pressure measurements. A review of AS-510 [Apollo 15] data shows similar vibration at approximately 72 hertz.  Because of the data characteristics, the vibration is suspected to be related to normal stage propulsion system operation and probably characteristic of the J-2 turbomachinery. These vibrations pose no pogo or any other structural concerns, and are of such low amplitude as to be virtually obscured in the measurement background noise." A rather bland engineering report on a phenomenon that gave the crew considerable concern!]

002 38 47 Mattingly (onboard): They don't see that.

002 38 48 Duke (onboard): I guess they don't. Okay, [garble]...

002 38 54 Young (onboard): [Garble] and the steering for the angles.

002 38 55 Duke (onboard): Within 30 seconds.

002 38 56 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] counting them down.

002 38 59 Duke (onboard): I'll give you a mark at 13 seconds.

002 39 03 Young (onboard): 600 feet [per second] to go.

002 39 06 Duke (onboard): 40...

002 39 07 Duke (onboard): Mark. 13 seconds.

002 39 11 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] on the FDAI.

002 39 13 Young (onboard): 1.2, you guys. 41.

002 39 18 Unidentified (onboard): Whoo!

002 39 20 Young (onboard): SECO.

002 39 21 Unidentified (onboard): Whooz!

002 39 22 Young : Thank you. (Laughter)

002 39 23 Fullerton: Roger.

002 39 24 Mattingly (onboard): Right on.

002 39 25 Young (onboard): Did I get it? I mean - see what it did.

002 39 26 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah. That's good.

002 39 27 Duke (onboard): I got - Okay.

002 39 29 Young (onboard): Okay. SECO right on time.

002 39 31 Duke (onboard): It was a little early, John; 05:41.

[According to the AS511 Flight Evaluation Report, "The S-IVB second burn time was 341.9 seconds, 2.4 seconds less than predicted.  This difference is primarily due to the slightly higher S-IVB performance and lighter vehicle mass during the second burn".  The lighter vehicle mass was due, in part, to a slightly longer (0.4 seconds) than anticipated first S-IVB burn, due in turn to lower than anticipated S-IC and S-II performance.]

002 39 33 Young (onboard): Yeah. I see it.

002 39 34 Mattingly (onboard): Well, but this...

002 39 35 Fullerton: Roger. Looks like normal shutdown and a guided cut-off.

002 39 38 Young: That's what it looked like...

002 39 39 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah, it was.

[The crew are now supposed to read the following parameters, but were slightly late in freezing the display:

Time From Cutoff (TFC) giving the burn time in minutes and seconds.

Velocity to be gained (Vg) in feet per second.

Indicated Velocity at cutoff(VI in feet per second.

The remaining velocity to be added (Delta Vc)]

002 39 40 Young: We're looking at minus 10 on the Delta-Vc.

002 39 44 Duke (onboard): Okay. TF - What's Delta-Vc? Minus 10?

002 39 46 Young (onboard): Yeah.

002 39 47 Fullerton: Roger.

002 39 50 Duke (onboard): Man, all I can say...

002 39 51 Young (onboard): How you gonna get back to that?

002 39 53 Mattingly (onboard): You want...

002 39 54 Young (onboard): What do you need?

002 39 55 Mattingly (onboard): I need...

002 39 56 Duke (onboard): I need some times on...

002 39 57 Young (onboard): You [garble] to record that stuff?

002 39 59 Duke (onboard): Vg. What is Vg?

002 40 00 Mattingly: (onboard): [Garble].

002 40 05 Duke (onboard): 34? 354?

002 40 07 Mattingly (onboard): 432 ...

002 40 08 Young (onboard): Yeah, but what's that other ...

002 40 09 Mattingly (onboard): That's - that's probably ...

002 40 10 Young (onboard): That's [garble]...

002 40 11 Mattingly (onboard):   ...[Garble] time.

002 40 12 Young (onboard): Yeah, that's what it is.

002 40 13 Mattingly (onboard): And 55 - Gee, that's high.

002 40 17 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

002 40 18 Young (onboard): You see it's converg - converting.

002 40 20 Duke/Mattingly (onboard): Yes.

002 40 22 Duke (onboard): Okay, at 08:26, we manoeuvre to orb rate, heads down. Okay, John, S ...

002 40 27 Mattingly (onboard): Make a note there that those times are...

002 40 28 Young (onboard): Okay. Go ahead, Charlie.

[The crew are now at the top of Page L2-31, as they reconfigure the spacecraft after the successful TLI burn.]

002 40 29 Duke (onboard): Okay. SCS TVC Servo Power number 1, Off.

002 40 31 Young (onboard): It's Off.

002 40 32 Duke (onboard): Going to Low Bit Rate.

002 40 34 Young (onboard): EMS Mode, Standby,

002 40 35 Duke (onboard): EMS Function, Off.

002 40 36 Young (onboard): Off.

002 40 37 Duke (onboard): SECS Pyro Arm, two, Safe.

002 40 39 Young (onboard): Two, Safe.

002 40 40 Duke (onboard): FDAI number 1, Inertial.

002 40 42 Young (onboard): Number 1 is going to Inertial.

002 40 44 Duke (onboard): Okay, lock your hand controller.

002 40 46 Young (onboard): [Garble] should have done that first.

002 40 48 Fullerton : [Apollo] 16, Houston. If it's convenient, would you give us VI at cut-off?

002 40 58 Duke: Okay, Gordy, we got you a late time - Stand by.

002 41 04 Young (onboard): He cut it off - I thought you...

002 41 05 Duke (onboard): No, huh-uh.

002 41 06 Mattingly (onboard): No.

002 41 07 Young (onboard): What was that? That 35539 was what it was, wasn't it?

002 41 12 Mattingly (onboard): Well, that's what it was counting to - that's when they said "It," and it quit.

002 41 14 Young (onboard): Okay, well, that's ...

002 41 17 Mattingly: Gordy, we froze the display on the - P15 displays - we were watching the countdown clock and when we got over to 64, it was already changed.

002 41 37 Young (onboard): Okay...

002 41 38 Fullerton: Okay, Ken. We copied that, although you faded out at the end. We'll be up on Hawaii here at 44.

002 41 47 Mattingly (onboard): Well, there's my first one.

002 41 48 Duke: Okay, Gordy. We're down - we got the pyros safed and we're just about to go to P00.

002 41 55 Young (onboard): We're in P00.

002 41 56 Duke: We're in P00. And the - the ...

002 41 57 Fullerton: Charlie, you're just about unreadable. Copy that you're in P00, and we're standing by for Hawaii acquisition.

[The CMC is now in P00, to update the State Vector.]

002 42 06 Duke: Okay.

002 42 07 Mattingly (onboard): Got to have that.

002 42 08 Young (onboard): Okay. You want to swap seats to get in [garble]...

002 42 10 Duke (onboard): Look at that horizon start to streak.

002 42 l8 Young (onboard): You want to swap seats?

002 42 14 Duke (onboard): Yeah.

002 42 15 Duke (onboard): Okay, Ken - Ken, look...

002 42 16 Mattingly (onboard): I just can't.

002 42 17 Duke (onboard): One - one quick one. You got to look at that Moon.

002 42 18 Young (onboard): No, no. Take the picture - take the picture.

002 42 21 Duke (onboard): Ohh.

002 42 22 Mattingly (onboard): Come on, you guys. Look at that pretty star underneath us.

002 42 25 Young (onboard): Shut up and let's move.

002 42 26 Mattingly (onboard): Okay. Hang on a second. Let me get through this - let me get my clothes here.

002 42 29 Duke (onboard): Give - give us the camera.

002 42 30 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah.

002 42 31 Duke (onboard): Okay, I got ...

002 42 32 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble] get the camera for you.

002 42 36 Young (onboard): Okay, I'm gonna switch comm, too. Okay, Ken?

002 42 39 Mattingly (onboard): Yeah. Okay, turn your suit power off.

002 42 43 Duke (onboard): (Laughter) Okay, what am I supposed to take a picture of, the Moon? It - Oh. Okay, let me take the dark slide out. Okay, I got about f/8; I put - I ought to put it on f/11, huh? I hope they don't expect me to look at the Flight Plan right now.

002 43 31 Duke (onboard): Transfer State Vector. Did we do the Verb 66? Okay, the Moon is out of window Number 2 - CMC 2 - 250 - CEX. Okay, that's a 250-millimeter lens you got - you want there. We don't want that. We want a Earth picture.

[Verb 66 sets the updated CMC State Vector into the LM Computer.]

002 43:56 Duke (onboard): f/8.  I'll try one at f/8.

002 43 59 Young (onboard): Oh - you got your - you plugged in?

002 44 00 Fullerton: Apollo 16, Houston through Hawaii. Over.

002 44 07 Duke: Roger.

002 44 08 Mattingly (onboard): [Garble].

002 44 09 Duke: We're reading you 5 by through Hawaii...

002 44 10 Young (onboard): What, Ken? What?

002 44 11 Duke: ...Gordy, and they're shifting couches.

002 44 12 Mattingly (onboard): I didn't get any waste stowage vent valve closed.

002 44 15 Young (onboard): Okay.

002 44 16 Duke (onboard): I got all those circuit breakers.

002 44 18 Young (onboard): You got the High Gain Antenna?

002 44 19 Duke: (onboard): Yeah.

002 44 20 Young (onboard): And the Flight Bus?

002 44 21 Duke (onboard): Sure.

002 44 24 Young (onboard): Waste Stowage Vent, Closed. It's going to Closed, old buddy.

002 44 28 Mattingly (onboard): Okay.

002 44 30 Duke (onboard): Look at the way the stars show up in the daytime.

002 44 33 Young: (onboard): Yeah, yeah.

002 44 35 Duke: Houston, this is the most spectacular view in the - you can possibly imagine.

002 44 40 Young (onboard): What did you do with the camera?

002 44 42 Duke (onboard): I got it right here.

002 44 44 Mattingly (onboard): Okay, you got the...

002 44 45 Fullerton: Apollo 16, Houston through Hawaii. Over.

002 44 46 Young (onboard): Got the what?

002 44 48 Duke: Roger, Gordy. You're 5 by and it's...

002 44 50 Mattingly (onboard): I'm turning Direct O2on.

002 44 51 Duke: ...the most spectacular view I've ever seen.

002 44 53 Fullerton : Roger, Charlie, you're loud and clear.

[Apollo 16 is now well on its way to the Moon. Travelling at over 10 km per second (22,000 miles per hour),  John Young, Charlie Duke and Ken Mattingly are on course for the Moon.  Next, they have to conduct the Transposition and Docking manoeuvre, to link up with the LM.]




Day One Part Two:
First Earth Orbit

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Day One Part Four:
Transposition, Docking
and Ejection