Janet Kovacevich and Joey Kuhlman of the NASA Johnson History Office introduced me to their collection of Apollo material even before Jack Schmitt and I began the Apollo 17 review. Janet and Joey and, in later years, David Portree and Glen Swanson provided answers to a number of obscure questions. Judy Allton, who works for the Lunar Sample Curator at NASA Johnson, provided essential information on the Apollo tools. Her catalog (which I always think of as "Judy's Tool Book") is a key resource and, as well, the day we spent at Johnson looking at tools and crawling around the publicly-displayed Rover was a great help. Joe Kosmo, also at NASA Johnson, provided access to a cut-away version of an Apollo backpack and also gave me an opportunity to make a close inspection of John Young's Apollo 10 suit while it was being refurbished for public display.
Independent of the Journal project, Larry Haskin of Washington University undertook the monumental task of producing VHS copies of the Apollo video tapes and it was my great good fortune that Larry completed his work just about the time that the Journal was getting underway. Diana Ryan of the NASA Johnson Audio Office prepared a set of Apollo audio tapes for use in this review; and Carolyn Ng and the people of the photo group at the National Space Science Data Center at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center were of great help in assembling a collection of Apollo photographs. Except for pictures taken during training, most of the original photographs used in the Journal were, of course, taken by the astronauts. The Team Leader for Apollo photography was Dr. Frederick J. Doyle. Paul Coan, Gary Seloff, and Kevin Marsh at Johnson released on the World Wide Web digital versions of the PAO collection of Apollo photographs. Mike Gentry and the staff of Media Services at NASA Johnson have been of great help in researching various issues related to the mission photographs. Other individuals who provided information about Apollo were Joe Allen; Max Ary; Bill Ayrey; Dave Ballard; Mike Brzezinski; Ed Brisson; David Carrier; Bob Craddock; Tony England; Dean Eppler; Jim Faller; Ed Fendell; Colin Fries; Gordon Fullerton; Fred Haise; Fred Hörz; Stan Lebar; Bill Kimsey; T.K. Mattingly; Bill Muehlberger, Terry Neal; Allan Needell; Bob Parker; Al Rochford; Lee Saegesser; Gerald Schaber; Lee Silver; Stephen Tellier; George Ulrich; Tex Ward; Amanda Young; and John Young. Claire Johnson, who is Gene Cernan's able assistant, contributed both encouragement and the vital information in her phone files. Dick Bull, a former test pilot, helped me puzzle out the checklists during the early stages of my education.
Ron Shelton of the South Carolina State Museum, Columbia, South Carolina, provided photographic copies of the EVA-1 Cuff Checklist that Charlie Duke wore on the Moon.
Dave Vaniman, one of the editors of the invaluable Lunar Sourcebook loaned me his personal copies of the Apollo Preliminary Science Reports. I could not have proceeded without them.
Gerry Griffin, who served as Flight Director during many of the Apollo EVAs, read a final draft of the annotated Apollo 17 transcript and helped correct a number of errors. Jack Schmitt read both the introduction and the Apollo 17 text and contributed numerous corrections and additions. Neil Armstrong and Ed Mitchell read the portions of the manuscript related to their respective missions and help me clear up a number of errors and lingering issues. Dave Scott read the final Apollo 15 draft and contributed numerous additional insights. Dorothy Uherka read an early draft of the introductory chapters and made some valuable and much appreciated suggestions.
I would appreciate hearing from any of the Journal contributors listed below who have not yet provided a photo and bio material.
Collectively, the community of Journal Contributors has made possible numerous improvements to the ALSJ. Their enthusiasm, encouragement, and interest in getting it right is a continuing source of inspriration. My thanks to:
Thomas Frieling, Gert-Jan Bartelds, Gary Schroeder, David Woods, Paul Fjeld, Kay Nute, Dave Griffith, Todd Vierling, Jerry Matulka, Phil Karn, Greg Sippel, Curtis Roos, Joe Nastasi, Jim Sherman, Thomas Spickermann, Tom Mosher, Olivier Devuns, David Craig, David Toomey, Dean Huffman, John Pfannerstill, Steve Mayo, William Bianco, Dave Hardin, Marv Hein, Martin Keenan, Charles Rolston, John Callender, Frank O'Brien, Chris Duhon, Brian Rhodes, Garry Kennedy, Richard Wielgosz, Ken Glover, Julian Jacobson, Ken MacTaggart, Carey Peck, Ron Rosano, Dean Davidson, Jørgen Bak, Roland Speth, Jack Kozak, "Dr. Dudley Eigenvalue", Jim Kingdon, Rob Bailey, Cathy James, Bertrand Ouellet, Dan DeMars, Dan Todd, Ed Suda, Betty Niver, Mary Zornio, Brian Lawrence, Steve Adams, John Lark, Anthony Haukap, Peter Armstrong, Gordon Roxburgh, Carl Gutekunst, Ivan Scheers, Lloyd Brown, Gerald Megason, Greg Scott, George Giusti, Robert LaPorta, David Meier, Ian Bragg, William McEwen, Jim Masocco, Cees van Eijk, Mike Harney, Tom Rowe, Luc Hermans, Chris Moseley, Markus Mehring, John Burton, Bill Little, John Sekol, Bill Baker, Ken Rattee, Bill Goulet, Ron Wells, Shane Johnson, Chuck Parker, Mark Donovan, Ry Alford, David Harland, Tom Parker, Chris Wells, Jesus Roman, Chris Gamble, Henry Spencer, Thierry Bisiaux, Andrew Beals, Wayne Inglis, Stephen McGinnis, OM, Eric, Mauro Freschi, Roy Mick, Tom McKeever, David Hopkins, Kamran Grasselli, Frank Vaughn, Mark Percival, Max Kohnke, Gary Matylewicz, John Osborn, Tom Neal, Derek Henderson, Michael Trachtenberg, Sven Knudson, Wil Taylor, Simon Atkinson, Bob Fry, Justin Wigg, Neville Kidger, Lennie Waugh, Cedomir Igaly, Damir Lozovina, Karl Dodenhoff, Adam Bootle, Eric Nelson, Gary Neff, Tomas Lundberg, Jodi Gendrich, Alex Blackwell, Greg Bondar, Ulrich Lotzmann, Simon Meredith, Harald Kucharek, Steve Cybulski, Richard Orloff, Danny Caes, Kim Poor, Mike Poliszuk, Tom Powers, Matt Gibbons, Olivier Dulieu, Ed Hengeveld, Garry Tee, J.L. Pickering, Anders Kyhle, George Green, Ricardo Salamé, Brian McInall, Randy Attwood, Steve Stalos, J. Steven York, Stephanie Hanus, Gary Kitmacher, David Sander, Owen Merrick, Martin Hagmann, Wolfgang Lucht, Bob Gelchion, David Hall, Scot Wilcoxon, Terry Lessly, Joonas Helminen, Karstein Lomundal, Todd Tucker, Frederic Artner, Craig Lamson, Bob Farwell, Dan Durda, Sanjaya Kumar, Bill Raatz, Carl-Gustaf Edhardt, Thomas Argast, Steve Dart, Mike Constantine, Doug Bennett, Danny Ross Lunsford, Oliver Summa Sean Clipperton, Dave Byrne, Hamish Lindsay, Paul Candela, Erwin D'Hoore, Alton Hollingsworth, Doug Van Dorn, Michael Saelz, Frank Parker, Matt Kay, Bob Andrepont, Simon Plumpton, Mats Melander, Joe O'Dea, R.S. Wang, Anil Sahal, Stephan Klesy, Dean Eppler, Robin Wheeler, Bill Clancey, David Nathan, Tom Callen, Mark Trotter, Erik van Meijgaarden Bill Wood, Colin McKellar, Dwight Steven-Boniecki, Rob MacLachlan, Hiroyasu Hayashi, Thomas Schwagmeier, Mike and Jenny Jetzer, Stan Lebar, Ben Nault, Tom Dahl, and Carlos Corso.
The CD-ROM version of the ALSJ would not exist but for the monumental efforts of Frank O'Brien. Ken Glover oversaw production of the disks and their distribution. Thierry Bisiaux, Brian Lawrence, and Markus Mehring made invaluable contributions during a final frenzy of proofreading both the text and html coding.
Permission to reproduce the Joe and Willie cartoon was graciously given by Bill and Chris Mauldin. Jack Schmitt quoted the caption as he crawled into the LM at the end of the first Apollo 17 EVA at 123:58:20.
The detailed, post-mission traverse maps are taken, with permission, from the Lunar Sourcebook, edited by G.H. Heiken, D.T.Vaniman, and B.M. French, copyright 1991 by Cambridge University Press. The digitized maps were provided by Renee Dotson of the Lunar and Planetary Institute and I thank her and the Sourcebook editors.
The Journal was inspired by the work of New Zealand historian J.C. Beaglehole, who was the Twentieth Century's foremost authority on the European exploration of the Pacific and on the voyages of Captain James Cook. Photographer Lynette Corner graciously gave permission to reproduce her portrait of Prof. Beaglehole. A digital version of the photograph was supplied by Kathleen Coleridge, Special Materials Librarian at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Initial work on the Journal was supported in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory which is operated by the University of California for the U. S. Department of Energy. Support and encouragement from Sumner Barr, Ruth Demuth, Chick Keller, Tom Weaver, and John Whetten is gratefully acknowledged.
The editing work and preparation for publication on the World Wide Web were supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The help and encouragement of John Rummel, Carl Pilcher, and Mel Averner at NASA Headquarters, Bob Bond at NASA Johnson, Charlie Walker at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation, and, in particular, the late Milton Schwartz - a true friend of the space program and of the Journal - is gratefully acknowledged.
Julian Catalano's efforts on behalf of the Journal were above and beyond the call of duty. Thanks, amigo.
In the initial stages of the project, I simply could not have gotten started without the help of Kay Coen who got the optical scanner up and running and who then got me up to speed with the word processing programs with which the journal has been edited. Her continuing help has been invaluable. Jody Heiken helped Kay and me create a design for the text in the days when we were still thinking in terms of print publication; Yolanda Martinez did much of the optical scanning work; and Helen Smith did some of the interview transcription. Geri Martinez, Janet Harry, and Carol Mahan provided secretarial help with skill and enthusiasm. Mary Ann Olson helped with paste-ups of the panoramic sequences.
Robert O. Dahl encouraged me to think about the World Wide Web (WWW) as a publication option. Lynn McDonald helped me learn about WWW publication and Calvin Hamilton's Views of the Solar System showed me what a good HTML file looked like.
Since June 1996, NASA HQ Historian Roger Launius, his successor Steven Dick, and Policy Analyst Steve Garber have provided a home for the Journal. From 1996 to 1999, Woody Smith provided valuable help in maintaining the site.
Andrew Chaikin - who, in the process of researching his superb book, A Man on the Moon, became a fellow aficionado of the detail - spent countless hours on the phone with me swapping experiences and stories and helped me clean up the manuscript. Andy saved me from numerous errors of fact and interpretation.
The success of Apollo was due entirely to the contributions of the thousands and thousands of people who worked on the program. The Apollo astronauts stated repeatedly that they were representatives of all of those people. Indeed, it is only because of the collective efforts of the entire Apollo team that we now know so much about the Moon and about living and working there. In part, the astronauts who participated in the project have devoted an extraordinary amount of time to the Journal because they believe that the long-term value of Apollo will be realized only to the extent that the experiences of the missions are accessible. Twenty-plus years after the fact, we all regret that time to do a journal was not taken long ago, when memories were fresher than they are now. However, we have found that, with the help of documentary material preserved and assembled over the years and with the help of other people who were intimately involved in the conduct of the missions, there are relatively few sequences in the transcript that still defy explanation.
The success of the Journal owes much to the patience that the astronauts showed when confronted with my ignorance. Repeatedly, they pointed out and explained subtleties in the dialog that I had missed. On occasion, when subsequent research showed that they had mis-remembered certain facets of a mission, the astronauts were always willing to re-examine those issues and to make an honest effort to distinguish real memories from after-the-fact hypotheses. In most cases, we were able to resolve discrepancies to our mutual satisfaction and, always, it was their eagerness to thoroughly document the missions that gave us a chance to get it right. Without doubt, errors remain. However, we believe that, on the whole, the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal is an accurate record of the time that the astronauts spent on the Moon. The Journal would have been much less than it is without their support, encouragement, and active participation. I owe particular thanks to Jack Schmitt and Dave Scott; and special thanks to Gene Cernan, Ed Mitchell, and Neil Armstrong.
And, finally, I gratefully acknowledge the loving support of my Beautiful Australian Bride, Di, without whom I would not have had the courage to see the Journal through to publication.
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