In addition to the web sites and books mentioned here, readers may want to consult a list of NASA History publications, several of which are now available on the World Wide Web. See, also, NASA Histories On-line
Sources of Apollo photos and videos are discussed in the Photos and Video chapter.
Kipp Teague's Apollo Archives contains excellent high-resolution images, film clips, and other marvelous material.
The Alan Bean Online Gallery contains scans of all of Alan's artwork.
Don McMillan has produced a Virtual Lunar Roving Vehicle for each of the J missions. Check out the poster, too.
Mike Smithwick has produced a digital version of the entire Apollo 11 PAO audio record.
Bob Andrepont maintains a linked list of space-related PDF documents available on the web.
Sy Liebergot, who served as EECOM on Apollo 13 and other missions, has a website that complements his book, Apollo EECOM - Journey Of A Lifetime.
The Lunar and Planetary Institute has created the Lunar Map Catalog which contains high-quality, high-resolution maps of the whole Moon and of areas of interest to the Apollo missions.
Among the items in the LPI digital collection is the set of Lunar Topographic Orthophotomaps done by the Defence Mapping Agency for NASA from data collected with the Mapping Camera flown on Apollos 15, 16, and 17. The contour intervals are 100 meters.
The USGS Astrogeology Branch has released a collection of Apollo panoramas.
For those in need of ready arguments to refute claims that the Apollo Landings never happened (the so-called Moon Hoax), the following sites are recommended: Moon Base Clavius; Jim Scotti's Apollo Page; Neil Atkinson's site; Phill Plait's Bad Astronomy/Apollo Hoax page; and, in German, Apollo Projekt. All these sites have links to other sources of information.
The USGS page Apollo Mission Lunar Exploration Media Gallery contains a number of high-quality traverse maps, assembled panoramas, and anaglyphs (stereoimages).
A high-quality PDF version of Don Wilhelm's USGS Professional Paper 1348, Geologic History of the Moon has been produced by Mark Robinson of the Northwestern University Center for Planetary Sciences, Department of Geological Sciences.
Rob Godwin's Mission Reports are important sources of background material and high quality multimedia concerning Apollo and related programs.
Karl Dodenhoff's Little Space Museum contains a great deal of marvelous material including equipment drawings and photos and info about space models.
The Lunar and Planetary Institutes webpage Exploring the Moon contains a wealth of information not only on Apollo but on lunar programs before and since.
The Astromaterials Curationwebsite contains a wealth of information about the lunar sample collection.
Dan Durda has created a fascinating site with views of the Apollo landing sites from Earth and then with ever better precision down to the best pan camera frames.
Accurate co-ordinates for the six landing sites are available at the National Space Science Data Center website. I am told that Clementine data is being used to update our knowledge of the shape of the Moon and the co-ordinates of the landing sites will soon change again. Note, also, that the co-ordinates at the NSSDC site do not necessarily agree with those which were determined at in immediate post-mission analysis because of changes in the global lunar grid in the intervening years.
Journal Contributor Ulrich Lotzmann calls attention to a USGS list of named features at the various landing sites. The list is incomplete because it contains only names approved by the International Astronmical Union. See the discussion following 122:04:08 in the Apollo 15 Journal. Among the missing are Arbeit, Buster, Cat, Dot, Luke, Mark, Matthew, MOCR, November, WC, etc.
Sam Russell was a member of the TV Support Team at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center (Houston) during Apollo 15 and his website contains some lovely detail.
Chuck Maddox has created a detailed site concering watches worn on or near the moon.
Ron Monsen has created3D LM Simulator which, I'm told, is excellent and has been 'flown' by none other than Gene Cernan. Windows only, unfortunately. Check out the movie!
Ron Burkey has created an Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) emulator. Ron writes: "Virtual AGC is a computer model of the AGC. It does not try to mimic the superficial behavioral characteristics of the AGC, but rather to model the AGC's inner workings. The result is a computer model of the AGC which is itself capable of executing the original Apollo software on (for example) a desktop PC. In computer terms, Virtual AGC is an emulator."
Phill Parker calls our attention to Boeing's webpage for the 30th anniversary of Apollo 11 and, in particular, a collection of Apollo memories written by Boeing employees.
Journal Contributor and Commercial Pilot Gary Neff calls attention to Peter Yost's article NASA's Vomit Comet: Hitchin' a Ride on a Buckin' KC-135
A browser for the Clementine Baseline Mosaic provides access to 100m/pixel maps of the entire Moon.
The Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon is now available in digital format. The Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon by Bowker and Hughes (NASA SP-206) is considered the definitive reference manual to the global photographic coverage of the Moon. The images contained within the atlas are excellent for studying lunar morphology because they were obtained at low to moderate Sun angles. This digital archive consists of the complete set of 675 plates contained in Bowker and Hughes. Images in the archive have been enhanced to display the best photo quality possible. For accuracy and usability surface feature information has been improved and updated, and multiple search capabilities added to the database.
A discussion of the role played by NASA's Honeysuckle Creek Receiving Station during Apollo has been compiled by former Deputy Director Mike Dinn; and a detailed account of the role played by the Parkes Radio Observatory, Australia, in the reception of the Apollo 11 TV signal has been compiled by John Sarkissian. Both are recommended. See, also, the October 2000 Australian film "The Dish", which deals with the same material, albeit in a highly fictionalized form. The film takes considerable liberties in characterization, with events at Parkes, and completely ignores the central role of Honeysuckle Creek; but is both funny and moving. Di and I highly recommend it.
The complete collection of paintings by Apollo 12 LMP Alan Bean is now available at the Alan Bean Gallery
Gert-Jan Bartelds calls our attention to John Duncan's Saturn V Reference Page, which contains a great deal of useful information and photographs.
A collection of Apollo Press Kits is now available on-line. Readers are warned that these are very large pdf files.
Various technical diagrams and drawings for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Programs are available at a new site at the NASA HQ History Office. Scanning was done by Journal Contributor Kipp Teague.
The Lunar and Planetary Institute's Stereo Atlas of the Solar System includes a number of Apollo stereopairs and other wonderful material. Ordering info for the CD-ROM version is available on the Website.
The Lunar and Planetary Institute's site also contains mission summaries and a superb collection of landing site images.
Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica contains a detailed description of the Soviet Lunar Programs, among many other things.
David Woods, editor of the Apollo Flight Journal, calls our attention to Eugene Dorr's excellent site dealing with mission patches for Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and ASTP.
Ulli Lotzmann calls our attention to the USS Hornet Museum, which provides fascinating details about the prime recovery vessel for both Apollo 11 and Apollo 12.
David Sander is building a replica A7LB EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit). His site includes photos and links to related sites.
Ry Alford calls our attention to Frank Pullo's Lunar Module Space/Craft Assembly & Test webpage, which contains photos and other useful information about the LM.
Journal Contributor Ken Glover points us to:
Justin Wigg's Links
Apollo QuickTime VR
Jim Oberg's Page Other space resources can be accessed through the NASA Human Spaceflight webpage.
Note that some of the books and reports listed below are available in digital format at the NASA History site. Links are provided.
All We Did Was Fly to the Moon, Dick Lattimer, whispering Eagle Press, 1985, which contains interesting discussions of mission patches and call signs. A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts, Andrew Chaikin, Viking, 1994, which is a richly detailed, lively, accurate account of the Apollo missions derived from extensive interviews conducted with the astronauts and others. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Angle of Attack: Harrison Storms And The Race To The Moon, Michael Gray, WW Norton & Co, 1992, which recounts the role of the North American manager who was a central character in the "Apollo 1" episode of Tom Hanks' 1998 series "From the Earth to the Moon"
Apollo 17 Final Lunar Surface Procedures, Vol. I: Nominal Plans, Manned Spacecraft Center, Nov. 6, 1972, which contains a description of the landing site, descriptions of the planned activities, copies of the cuff checklists worn by the astronauts during the EVAs, equipment lists, and maps.
Apollo 17 Mission Report, JSC Document 07904, March 1973, which contains a summary of mission events, descriptions of the equipment and, of particular use, equipment malfunctions. There are also summaries of biomedical data, mission timelines, and oxygen and water usage.
Apollo 17 Preliminary Science Report, NASA SP-330, which, in addition to discussions of the scientific results, contains a wealth of pictures, maps, and equipment descriptions. Further information on the science results can be found in the proceedings of the Lunar Science Conferences which were held in Houston for a number of years starting in 1970. The Lunar Science Conferences were later followed by an on-going series of Lunar and Planetary Science Conferences.
Apollo AS204, which in NASA's Apollo 1 Website incorporating the accident report and relevant selections from various NASA histories.
Apollo by the Numbers, NASA SP-4029, which is a wide-ranging statistical references for all the Apollo missions.
Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime, Sy Liebergot with David Harland, which is the autobiography of a veteran NASA flight controller who played a key role in the successful return of the Apollo 13 crew to Earth. An enthralling, inspirational book, particularly the portions dealing with Liebergot's diffcult childhood. A frank account of a life not wasted. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Apollo: The Race to the Moon, Charles Murray and Catherine Bly Cox, Simon and Schuster, 1989, which is a superb account of the missions told from the perspective of the flight controllers in Houston. A testament to the value of the book is the fact that it was recommended to me, with enthusiasm, by Gene Kranz, the Lead Flight Director for Apollo 11 and other missions. It belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, edited by Edgar M. Cortright, NASA SP-350, 1975, which is a collection of articles outlining the history of Apollo and written by senior managers of the Apollo program and by some of the Apollo astronauts. The on-line version was compiled by Hans-Peter Engel. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Apollo Lunar Descent and Ascent Trajectories by Floyd V. Bennett, NASA TM X-58040, 1970, which is a discussion of the preflight planning and post-flight analysis of the Apollo 11 LM trajectories. Bennett played a major role in LM trajectory planning and his effort are honored in the naming of Bennett Hill at the Apollo 15 site. An 8 Mb PDF is available at this site.
Apollo Spacecraft Chronology (NASA SP-4009), which is a detailed chronology covering the design and construction of the Apollo hardware. Volume I, edited by Ivan D. Eertel and Mary Louise Morse, was published in 1969 and covers up until November 7, 1962. Volume II, edited by Mary Louise Morse and Jean Kernahan Bays, was published in 1973 and covers the period November 8, 1962-September 30, 1964. Volume III, edited by Courtney G. Brooks and Ivan D. Ertel, also was published in 1973 and covers the period October 1, 1964-January 20, 1966. Volume IV, edited by Ivan D. Ertel and Roland W. Newkirk with Courtney G. Brooks, was published in 1978 and covers the period January 21, 1966-July 13, 1974. The on-line versions have been compiled by Journal Contributor David Woods. On October 22, 1997, David received a NASA Special Service Award for his efforts on this and other volumes in the NASA History Series. The accompanying photo of David and Anne Woods was taken by Steve Garber of the NASA HQ History Office at the Awards Ceremony. David is the one with the Award and Anne is the one with the smile.
Apollo Stowage List, Mission J-3, CM-114/LM-12, Apollo 17, un-numbered NASA document issued by the Manned Spacecraft Center, December 14, 1971, which contains a detailed list of all items stowed on board both the Command Module and the Lunar Module.
Biomedical Results of Apollo, edited by Richard S. Johnston, Lawrence F. Dietlein, M.D., and Charles A. Berry, M.D., NASA SP-368, 1975. Carrying the Fire, Michael Collins, Farrar Straus Giroux 1974, which is generally considered to be the best of the books by the Apollo astronauts. Literate, lively, and accurate. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Catalog of Apollo Lunar Surface Geological Sampling Tools and Containers, Judith H. Allton, JSC-23454, March 1989, which contains photographs and detailed descriptions of the equipment used by the Apollo crews in collecting geologic samples.
Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft
Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience, James E. Tomayko 1988, link
Deke!, Donald K. Slayton with Michael Cassutt, Tom Doherty Associates 1994, which is one of the better astronaut books, this one written by the former Mercury astronaut who, as Director of Flight Crew Operations throughout the Gemini and Apollo Programs, made the crew selections.
Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept. This monograph tells the important story of Apollo policy making in the early 1960s over the method of reaching the Moon. It is available on-line.
Exploring the Moon, David Harland, Springer-Praxis, 1999, which focuses on the lunar surface operations and geologic exploration conducted by the six LM crews. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
A Field Guide to American Spacecraft
First on the Moon: A Voyage with Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, Little, Brown, and Company 1970, which is a well-regarded book containing many details about preparations for the mission which are generally unavailable elsewhere.
Full Moon, Michael Light with an essay by Andrew Chaikin, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1999. This extraordinary coffee-table book contains 129 glorious images from the Apollo program digitized by the author from first generation negative masters and then exquisitely processed and printed. This collection tells the story of a composite Apollo mission from the moment of engine ignition at the Cape thru to splashdown. A traveling photo exhibit containing many of the images from the book is also highly recommended.
Geology of the Apollo 16 Area, Central Lunar Highlands Ulrich, Hodges, Muehlberger, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1048, which is the most thorough post-flight summary of the geological results of the mission and includes station maps and laboratory photos of all the individual samples. Scanned by Mick Hyde. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
Geologic Investigation of the Taurus-Littrow Valley: Apollo 17 Landing Site Wolfe, Bailey, Lucchitta, Muehlberger, Scott, Sutton, and Wilshire, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1080, which is the most thorough post-flight summary of the geological results of the mission and includes station maps and laboratory photos of all the individual samples. Scanned by Brian McInall. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
History of Manned Spaceflight, The, David Baker, New Cavendish Books, London, 1981, which Dave Scott (and Journal Contributor David Harland) recommends as an excellent, large format book covering all of the U.S. and Russian activity up to the end of the 1970s.
Journey to the Moon: the History of the Apollo Guidance Computer, Eldon C. Hall, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, 1996, which is a fascinating technical account of the development of what was at the time, a state-of-the-art on-board computer that made the lunar landings possible. The technical aspects of this book may challenge some readers, but it is well-worth the effort.
Impact and Explosion Cratering: Planetary and Terrestrial Implications, D.J. Roddy, R.O. Pepin, and R.B. Merrill (eds), (Pergamon:NY) 1977, which is the proceedings of a conference held in Flagstaff the previous year. It contains a paper by V.R. Overbeck which can be used to estimate the size of the craters created by the LM impacts, namely, a 17-m diameter and a 4.3-m depth. Lost Moon, Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger, Houghton Mifflin 1994, which is a well-written account of Lovell's astronaut career and, in particular, the Apollo 13 mission. It was from this book that the excellent Ron Howard/Tom Hanks film Apollo 13 was developed.
Lunar Rover Vehicle Operations Handbook, Boeing Company, LRV Systems Engineering Document LS006-002-2H, Apr. 19, 1971, which contains detailed drawings of the Lunar Rover, descriptions of the deployment procedures, and descriptions of the operating procedures. Some details differed on the three Rovers actually flown to the Moon, particularly with regard to equipment loading; the details in this reference refer to the Apollo 15 machine.
Lunar Sourcebook: A User's Guide to the Moon, edited by Grant H. Heiken, David T. Vaniman, and Bevan M. French, Cambridge University Press, 1991, which is a collection of authoritative articles on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Moon.
Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations
Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty, NASA SP-4204, 1978, which is a detailed history of construction and operation of the Apollo facilities at Cape Canaveral. The on-line version has been compiled by Journal Contributor David Woods.
Moon Lander: How We Developed the Apollo Lunar Module, Thomas J. Kelly, Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001, which is an informative, honest discussion of the design, fabrication, testing, and flight of the LM. A page-turner for any Apollo devotee and an essential book for anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Moonwalker Charlie and Dotty Duke, Oliver Nelson, 1990, which is one of the better astronaut books and largely written by Charlie's wife Dotty.
On the Moon with Apollo 17: a Guidebook to Taurus-Littrow, Gene Simmons, NASA document EP-101, December 1972, which is a pre-flight introduction to the landing site and to the scientific activities that the crew planned to conduct.
On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood. NASA's history of the Gemini program.
Taking Science to the Moon, Donald A. Beattie, The Johns Hopkins Unversity Press, 2001, which is an interesting account of the struggle to get science done during Apollo, told from the perspective of a middle manager at NASA headquarters who dealt with both the scientific community and NASA staff. The book contains many interesting tidbits and, while the first half deals mostly with management/bureaucratic issues, it provides valuable insights into the problems of getting the most out of the limited opportunities available.
To A Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of the Moon, Don E. Wilhelms, University of Arizona Press, 1993, which is a history of lunar exploration told from the perspective of a geologist who participated in the pre-Apollo telescopic and robotic lunar mapping efforts, in the Apollo site selection process, and in the astronauts' geology training. A well-written, fascinating book. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Tracking Apollo to the Moon, Hamish Lindsay, Springer-Verlag, 2001, which is one of the best accounts of manned spaceflight in the 1960s and 70s, with an emphasis on the role played by tracking stations in Australia. Hamish Lindsay worked at the Muchea Station near Perth during Mercury, at Carnarvon a thousand kilometers farther north during Gemini, and at Honeysuckle Creek near Canberra during Apollo. This book belongs on anyone's short shelf of essential Apollo books.
Where No Flag Has Gone Before: Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon
Anne M. Platoff, NASA Contractor Report 188251, Hernadez Engineering, Houston. This excellent, award winning paper also contains detailed design and operational discussions of the flag deployment on Apollo 11. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions
William David Compton, NASA SP-4214, 1989, which is an excellent, book-length history of Apollo, with special emphasis on the interactions - and sometimes conflicts - between engineers and scientists over the planning and conduct of Apollo. The on-line version has been compiled by Journal Contributor David Woods. Paperback copies of this book are still available (in early 1997) from NASA for $19.00. It can be purchased through the NASA Information Center by calling 202-358-0000 and asking for SP-4214.