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John B. Oakes (1913-2001) had been a writer and then editor for the New York Times since 1946 and became editor of the editorial page in 1961.

Hermann J. Oberth (1894-1989) is one of the three recognized fathers of spaceflight. A Transylvanian by birth but a German in his family heritage, he was educated at the Universities of Klausenburg, Munich, Göttingen, and Heidelberg. His doctoral dissertation being rejected because it did not fit into any established scientific discipline, he published it privately as Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("The Rocket into Interplanetary Space") in 1923. It and its expanded version entitled Ways to Spaceflight (1929) set forth the basic principles of space flight and directly inspired many subsequent spaceflight pioneers, including Wernher von Braun. See his "Hermann Oberth: From My Life," Astronautics, June 1959, pp. 38-39, 100-106; Frank Winter, Rockets into Space (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), pp. 17-25; and Helen B. Walters, Hermann Oberth: Father of Space Travel (New York: Macmillan, 1962).

Gerald D. O'Brien was Assistant General Counsel for Patent Matters at NASA between 1958 and 1965 when he was appointed an assistant commissioner of patents by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Previously he had received a B.S. in electrical engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy and a law degree from American University's Washington College of Law in 1940. He then served in the Navy as patent advisor to the National Defense Research Council during World War II. After the war he became Patent Counsel of the Bureau of Ordnance, Department of the Navy, from 1946 to 1958. See "O'Brien, Gerald D.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Charles R. O'Dell (1937- ) was trained as an astronomer at the University of Wisconsin and was project scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope project, 1972-1983, at the Marshall Space Flight Center. He has been on the astronomy faculty at several universities, including the University of Houston where he is Buchanan Professor of Astrophysics.

Hugh Odishaw (1916-1984) became assistant to the director of the National Bureau of Standards from 1946 to 1954, served as executive director of the U.S. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year from 1954 to 1965, and became the executive secretary of the division of physical sciences in the National Academy of Sciences, 1966 to 1972.  See "Odishaw, Hugh," Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Goetz K.H. Oertel (1934 -    ) was educated in Germany but received his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland in 1963.  He started his career with NASA at Langley Research Center in 1963 as an aerospace engineer.  From 1968 to 1975 he was NASA’s chief of solar physics.  From 1975 to 1983 he was the director of the defense and civilian nuclear waste programs at the U. S. Department of Energy.  Professional memberships include: the American Physics Society, the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, the Cosmos Club, and Sigma Xi.  See “Oertel, Goetz K. H.” in Who’s Who in America, 2000, 54th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  Marquis Who’s Who, 1999.

John O'Keefe (1917- ) is an astronomer who worked at the Goddard Space Flight Center from 1958 until 1995. Previously he worked for the Army Corps of Engineers doing geodesy for 16 years. He received NASA's Award of Merit in 1992. O'Keefe is an expert on tektites, small glassy meteorites. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Chicago. ("O'Keefe, John A." biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

Bernard Oliver (1916-1995) earned a B.A. in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935, an M.S. in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1936, and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1940.  Dr. Oliver co-directed a NASA Ames Research Center Cyclops summer study, which examined using radio telescopes to search for extraterrestrial life.   Dr. Oliver served as a senior manager for the NASA SETI effort, until congressional cancellation in 1993.  Dr. Oliver was a key player in finding private funding to continue the effort.  He remained a senior scientist for the privatized project, called Phoenix, until his death in 1995.  See “Oliver, Bernard M.” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Henk Olthof (1944- ) is a Dutch physicist who has worked at ESA since 1977. From 1977-1986, he was responsible for the secretariat of the Astronomy Working Group. Since 1986, Olthof has served as the head of space station and platforms for scientific users at the European Space Research and Technology Centre in the Netherlands. Miscellaneous foreign biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Thomas F. (Tip) O'Neill (1912-1994) (D-MA) served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1953 until 1987. For much of his later service in the House he was Speaker.

Frank Quimby Orrall (1925 -    ) earned his B.S. from the University of Massachusetts in 1950, and his A.M. in 1953 and Ph.D. (astronomy) in 1955 from Harvard University.  His professional career began with a position at the College Observatory of Harvard University in 1955 that ended in 1956.  From 1956 to 1964 he was a solar physicist at the Sacramento Peak Observatory.  He participated in the 1976 “Solar Physics Study” of the National Academy of Sciences.  He also served as a professor of physics at the University of Hawaii.  See “Orrall, Frank Quimby” in American Men and Women of Science, 1998-99, 20th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  R. R. Bower, 1998.

Frank C. Osmers, Jr. (1907-1977) (R-NJ) was first elected to Congress in 1951 and served through the 88th Congress (1963-1965).

Harold C. Ostertag (1896-1985) (R-NY) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1950 and served through 1964.

Don Richard Ostrander (1914-1972) was a career Air Force officer who became a major general in 1958. He was deputy commander of the Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1959 and became director of NASA's launch vehicle programs in late 1959 as NASA began taking over responsibility for the Saturn program. He left NASA in 1961 and retired from the Air Force in 1965 as vice commander of the Ballistic Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, to become vice president for planning of the Bell Aero Systems Corporation ("Don Richard Ostrander," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection).

William J. O’Sullivan (1915-1971) Mr. Sullivan invented the world’s first lightweight inflatable satellite, which was used for the first transcontinental telephone call via space.  He was awarded a $5000 NASA grant for his “significant contribution to space science and technology,” and awarded the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement in 1961.  In addition to being a NASA Scientist, he also worked for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). (“O’Sullivan, William J.” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. )

Carl F.J. Overhage (1910-1995) earned his Ph.D. in physics at Caltech in 1937 and served as acting director of research for Technicolor Motion Picture Corp. until 1941, when he joined the staff of the radiation laboratory at MIT from 1942-1945. After a stint with Eastman Kodak from 1946-1954, he joined the Lincoln Laboratories of MIT, becoming its director from 1957-1964, after which he served as a professor of engineering.

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Frank Pace, Jr. (1912-1988) was president of General Dynamics, Inc. Previously he had been Secretary of the Army, 1950-1953, and had held several other key posts in the Truman administration during the latter 1940s. (William Gardner Bell, _Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits & Biographical Sketches_ [Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1982], p. 136).

Edgar Page (1935- ) is an Irish physicist who specialized in cosmic ray research while at the European Space Research Organization from 1965-1975. Page then became head of ESA's space science department. Beginning in 1986, he has served as the science coordinator for the Ulysses spacecraft mission. Miscellaneous foreign biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Thomas O. Paine (1921-1992) was appointed Deputy Administrator of NASA on January 31, 1968.  Upon the retirement of James E. Webb on October 8, 1968, he was named Acting Administrator of NASA.  He was nominated as NASA's third Administrator March 5, 1969, and confirmed by the Senate on March 20, 1969.  During his leadership the first seven piloted Apollo missions were flown, in which 20 astronauts orbited the earth, 14 traveled to the Moon and four walked upon its surface.  Paine resigned from NASA on September 15, 1970 to return to the General Electric Co. in New York City as Vice President and Group Executive, Power Generation Group, where he remained until 1976.  In 1985 the White House chose Paine as chair of a National Commission on Space to prepare a report on the future of space exploration.  Since leaving NASA fifteen years earlier, Paine had been a tireless spokesman for an expansive view of what should be done in space.  The Paine Commission took most of a year to prepare its report, largely because it solicited public input in hearings throughout the United States.  The Commission report, Pioneering the Space Frontier, was published in a lavishly illustrated, glossy format in May 1986.  It espoused a "pioneering mission for 21st-century America"--"to lead the exploration and development of the space frontier, advancing science, technology, and enterprise, and building institutions and systems that make accessible vast new resources and support human settlements beyond Earth orbit, from the highlands of the Moon to the plains of Mars." The report also contained a "Declaration for Space" that included a rationale for exploring and settling the solar system and outlined a long-range space program for the United States.  See Roger D. Launius, "NASA and the Decision to Build the Space Shuttle, 1969-72," The Historian 57 (Autumn 1994): 17-34 and “Thomas O. Paine” (http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Biographies/paine.html) accessed 23 October 2006.

Eugene Newman Parker (1927 -    ) earned his B.S. degree from the University of Michigan in 1948, his Ph.D. degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1951, and his D.Sc. degree from Michigan State University in 1975.   He developed the theory of the origin of the dipole magnetic field of Earth, and the theoretical basis for X-ray emissions from the Sun and the stars.  He served concurrently at the University of Chicago as professor of physics, from 1962 to 1995, and professor of astronomy and astrophysics, from 1967 to 1995, and was also the chairman of the “Solar Physics Study” of the National Academy of Sciences.  In 1995, he achieved status as professor emeritus.  Professional memberships include: the National Academy of Sciences (H.K. Arctowski Award, 1969); the U.S. Medal of Science Award, 1989; the American Astronautical Society (Henry Norris Russess Lecturer, 1969); the George Ellery Hale Award, 1978; the American Geophysical Union (John Adam Fleming Award, 1968); and the William Bowie Medal, 1990.  See “Parker, Eugene Newman” in Who’s Who in America, 2000, 54th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  Marquis Who’s Who, 1999.

Frank Parker (1916-   ), was Assistant Director, Defense Research and Engineering at the Department of Defense from 1959-1961. Office of Secretary of Defense Historical Branch, Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

William Charles Parkinson (1918 -    ) earned his B.S.E. degree from the University of Michigan, in 1940, his M.S. in 1941, and his Ph.D. in 1948.  He has been in the physics department at the University of Michigan since 1947, and was named professor emeritus  of physics in 1988.  He served as a member of the subcommittee on nuclear structure of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from 1959 to 1968, and supported the advisory panel on physics of the National Science Foundation from 1966 to 1969.  From 1969 to 1970, he was a member on the nuclear physics subpanel on management and costs of nuclear programs.  See “Parkinson, William Charles” in Who’s Who in America, 2000, 54th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  Marquis Who’s Who, 1999.

Robert J. Parks (1922 -   ), was a longtime employee of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), coming there in 1947 after completing his education at nearby California Institute of Technology. Closely associated with robotic planetary exploration, he worked on the Mariner, Ranger, and Surveyor programs. He served as JPL's planetary program director in the 1960s, then became JPL associate and finally deputy director. See "Parks, Robert J.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

John F. Parsons (1908-1969) had been associate director of the Ames Research Center since 1952. He had joined the staff of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory as a junior aeronautical engineer in 1931. He worked there with wind tunnels. He moved to Ames in the 1939-1940 period when it was being set up and worked on planning, design, and construction of the new center. He continued wind tunnel work there and was also chief of the construction division. In 1948-1949 he was assistant to the director of the center. Then from 1949-1956 he supervised the wind tunnel construction program among other duties. ("John F. Parsons," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Morehead Patterson, chairman of the board of the American Machine & Foundry Co., was a member of the [Kimpton] Advisory Committee on Organization (see Chapter One, note 31).

Nathan W. Pearson, vice president of T. Mellon & Sons, was also a member of the Kimpton committee.

Dallas Lynn Peck (1929 -    ) earned a B.S. from California Institute of Technology in 1951, an M.S. from California Institute of Technology in 1953, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1960.  A geologist by profession, Dr. Peck worked for the United States Geological Survey from 1954 to 1995.  He served as chief geologist in the office of geochemistry and geophysics from 1977 to 1981, and as director of the office from 1981 to 1993.  He also served as a member of the Lunar Sample Review Board from 1970 to 1971.  See Who's Who in America 2000 New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who, 1999.

Kenneth S. Pedersen (1939 -    ) served in numerous government agencies-Office of Equal Opportunity, Department of Commerce, Atomic Energy Commission, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-prior to coming to NASA in 1982 as director of international affairs.  In 1988 Pedersen was appointed as NASA associate administrator for external relations, serving until 1990 when he left NASA to accept an academic appointment at Georgetown University.  See "Pedersen, Kenneth S.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Charles J. Pellerin, Jr.,  has a B.S. in physics from Drexel University, in Philadelphia , and a Ph.D. in physics from Catholic University of America, Washington, DC.  He is a longtime NASA official who began his career at the Goddard Space Flight Center as he was completing his Ph.D. in physics from Catholic U in 1974. The next year he moved to NASA Headquarters where he managed the development and integration of scientific instrumentation for flight on the Space Shuttle.  In 1983 he was named director of astrophysics in NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and in 1992 was appointed deputy associate administrator for Safety and Mission Quality, and served in that position until 1994.  See "Pellerin, Charles J., Jr.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Richard S. Perkin (1906-1969) was co-founder ad president of Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1937-1960, and then chairman of the board.

James A. Perkins (1911-   ) was vice president of the Carnegie Corp. from 1951 to 1963 and president of Cornell University, 1963-1969. He served on the Kimpton committee of 1959 to assess the space effort.

Milo Randolph Perkins (1900-1972) began his career as a salesman in 1919, but by 1926 he had become a partner in the King- Perkins Bag Co. He served in a variety of capacities in the Roosevelt administration, ending as executive director of the Board of Economic Warfare in 1941. Thereafter he became a foreign investment consultant.

Wilton B. Persons (1896-1977) was a career Army officer who had entered the U.S. Army Coast Artillery in 1917 and advanced through the ranks to major general in 1944. He had served in both the A.E.F. in World War I and in Europe in World War II. He headed the office of legislative liaison for the Department of Defense between 1948 and his retirement in 1949. He was called back to active duty as a special assistant to General Dwight D. Eisenhower at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe from 1951-1952 and was active on behalf of Eisenhower's presidential campaign in 1952. He became a deputy assistant to the president in 1953 and then was made an assistant to the president in 1958. He served throughout the Eisenhower presidency, handling congressional liaison before he replaced Sherman Adams in 1958 as, effectively, Eisenhower's chief of staff.

Laurence E. Peterson (1931 -   ) is a professor of physics at the University of California, where he started his career in 1962 as a resident physicist.  He received his B.S. in 1954 and his Ph.D. in 1960 from the University of Minnesota.  Dr. Peterson has served on the NASA Space Science Steering Committee since 1964; has been the director of the Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, since 1988; was a fellow with the National Science Foundation, in 1958 and 1959; was a member of the Guggenheim Foundation from 1973 to 1974; and is a fellow of the American Physics Society.  He is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the International Astronomical Union.  He was a member of the panel of participants  in the National Academy of Sciences “Solar Physics Study.”  See “Peterson, Laurence E.” in Who’s Who in America, 2000, 54th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  Marquis Who’s Who, 1999.

Rocco Petrone (1926-2006)  Lt. Col. Rocco Petrone was an instrumental member of the Apollo team.  After earning his bachelor's degree at West Point and a master's degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Petrone worked at the Missile Firing Laboratory of the US Army’s Guided Missile Development Division at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, AL.  Here he developed some of the launch vehicle technology used later in the Apollo launches.  In 1959, he joined the NASA team and became Saturn Project Operator in 1960.  Four years later he transferred to the Kennedy Space Center, where he was the director of Plans, Programs and Resources.  In 1966 he was promoted to Apollo Program Manager, and after the success of the lunar landing, he became Director of the Apollo Program in 1969.  In 1973 he succeeded Dr. Eberhard Rees as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, and became the third highest ranking NASA official.  He left NASA in 1975 to become president and chief executive officer of the National Center for Resource Recovery.  (“Petrone, Rocco” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

Boris N. Petrov (1913-1980) was a leading Soviet scientist whose later years were devoted to space exploration. A senior academician in the Soviet Academy of Science, Petrov was chair of the Inter-Cosmos Council, which promoted cooperation in space among eastern European nations during the height of the Cold War, 1966-1980. See "Boris Petrov, 67, Soviet Expert on Automation, Space Research," Washington Post, August 27, 1980; Kenneth W. Gatland, "Boris Petrov," Spaceflight 23 (January 1981): 29.

Franklyn W. Phillips (1917 -   ) graduated from MIT in 1941 with a degree in mechanical engineering and went to work at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, later moving to Lewis where he did research on aircraft engine materials and stresses. In 1945 he became a member of the NACA director's staff and served as administrator for a variety of NACA research programs in aircraft engines and aircraft and missile structures and loads. In October 1958 he became special assistant to Glennan. He gave up that position in January 1959 to become acting secretary of the National Aeronautics and Space Council, but in February 1960 he returned to his position as Glennan's assistant. He continued in that job under James E. Webb until 1962, when he became director of NASA's new North-Eastern Office. In 1964 he became assistant director for administrative operations at the new NASA Electronics Research Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Background summaries of top NASA staff, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Samuel C. Phillips (1921-1990), was trained as an electrical engineer at the University of Wyoming, but he also participated in the Civilian Pilot Training Program during World War II.  Upon his graduation in 1942 Phillips entered the Army infantry but soon transferred to the air component.  As a young pilot he served with distinction in the Eighth Air Force in England--earning two distinguished flying crosses, eight air medals, and the French croix de guerre--but he quickly became interested in aeronautical research and development.  He became involved both in the development of the incredibly successful B-52 bomber in the early 1950s and headed the Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile program in the latter part of the decade.  In 1964 Phillips, by this time an Air Force general, was lent to NASA to head the Apollo moon landing program.  He went back to the Air Force in the 1970s and commanded Air Force Systems Command prior to this retirement in 1975.  See "Gen. Samuel C. Phillips of Wyoming," Congressional Record, 3 August 1973, S-15689; Rep. John Wold, "Gen. Sarah H. Turner, "Sam Phillips:  One Who Led Us to the Moon," NASA Activities, May/June 1990, pp. 18-19; obituary in New York Times, 1 February 1990, p. D1.

Clifford P. Phoebus (1910-1984) was a naval aviator, flight surgeon and medical corps officer who rose to the rank of captain in 1953 and was commander of the U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine in Pensacola, Florida, from 1960-1964. (See obituary notice, _Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine [February 1985]: 192, which does not give a date of death but does state he died "recently" and gives his age at death as 74.)

Leonard Richard Piasechi worked for the Reynolds Metals Company as a research engineer from 1953 to 1956, an engineer group supervisor from 1956 to 1960, as chief of the solid propellant rockets section from 1960 to 1963, as deputy division chief from 1963 to 1964, and as chief of the propulsion section and Voyager propulsion from 1964 to 1965.  See “Piasechi, Leonard Richard ” in American Men and Women of Science, 1997-98, 19th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  R. R. Bower, 1997.

William H. Pickering (1910-2004) obtained his bachelors and masters degrees in electrical engineering, then a doctorate. in Physics from Caltech before becoming a professor of electrical engineering there in 1946. In 1944 he organized the electronics efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support guided missile research and development, and became project manager for Corporal, the first operational missile JPL developed. From 1954 to 1976 he was director of JPL, which developed the first U.S. satellite (Explorer I), the first successful U.S. cislunar space probe (Pioneer IV), the Mariner flights to Venus and Mars in the early to mid-1960s, the Ranger photographic missions to the moon in 1964-65, and the Surveyor lunar landings of 1966-67. ("William H. Pickering," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection). See also his biographical sketch on the JPL Web site and Douglas J. Mudgway, William H. Pickering: America's Deep Space Pioneer (NASA SP-2007-4113).

Harvey F. Pierce (1909 -   ) was an electrical engineer who worked in the 1930s for the Florida Power & Light Co. and then became a partner in the firm of Maurice H. Connell & Assoc., 1937- 1946; its secretary-treasurer in 1946; and a partner in Connell, Pierce, Garland & Friedman beginning in 1956.

John R. Pierce (1910-2002)is commonly referrred to as the inventor of the communications satellite in 1954. He worked for 35 years as an engineer at Bell Labs and then worked at the California Institute of Technology and its Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Pierce, J. R." Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

Nikolay Alekseyevich Pilyugin (1908-1982) was Chief Designer from 1948-1982 at NII-885 and NII AP.  He led work on missile and spaceship guidance systems.  (Provided by Asif Siddiqi)

I. Irving Pinkel (1913-2008) graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied physics and mathematics, in 1934 and entered government service in 1935 as a physicist with the U.S. Bureau of Mines, with which he did research on the problem of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. He joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1940 and transferred to the Lewis Laboratory in 1942. There, he worked on hydraulics problems of aircraft engine lubricating systems operating at high altitudes. This effort led to the development of a method to control foaming in lubricating oil and to a new lubricant pump that met the stringent demands of high-altitude flight. In 1949 he became associate chief of the physics division at Lewis with responsibility for studying aircraft operating problems. Among other results of this work was a means of reducing the incidence of fire after airplane crashes. Pinkel became chief of the flight problems division in 1956 and of the aerospace safety research and data institute in 1968. ("I. Irving Pinkel," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Kenneth S. Pitzer (1914-1997) was a chemist who served as director of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1949-1951. From 1961-1968, he served as president of Rice University. From 1964-1965, Dr. Pitzer also served on NASA's Science and Technology Advisory Committee. In 1965, President Johnson appointed him a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee. Biographical information from University Relations Office of Rice University, Houston, TX.

Herman Pollack (1920-1993) was a State Department official for 28 years before retiring in 1974. He served as the Department's Director of International Scientific and Technological Affairs for ten years before retiring. Obituaries, Washington Post, 14 April 1993, p.C6 in Biography Other Agency Miscellaneous N-Z file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Richard W. Porter attended the University of Kansas and received his B.S. in 1934.  He was awarded a Ph.D. by Yale University in 1937.  As an electrical engineer he worked on missile programs with the General Electric Company before working Earth sciences programs at the National Academy of Sciences.  In 1964 he was the Academy's delegate to the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR).  See assorted Government officials biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Thomas Power (1905-1970) was an accomplished pilot who served as a general during World War II. As chief of staff to General Curtis LeMay, he was one of several top planners of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After World War II, Power served as the commander of the Air Research and Development Command, which developed early missiles. He served as commander of the Strategic Air Command from 1957-1964, when he retired. "Power, Thomas," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Lt. Col. John A. "Shorty" Powers was a well-known public affairs officer for NASA in the early 1960s during Project Mercury. He was also known as the "Eighth Astronaut" and the "Voice of Mission Control." After enlisting in the Army Air Corps in 1942, Powers became a C-47 pilot with the 349th Troop Carrier Wing. Powers left active service in January 1947, but was recalled to active duty in December 1948 and flew as part of the Berlin Airlift, flying 185 round trip flights. Powers later served in the Korean War and earned the Bronze Star. After Korea, Powers bounced around the Air Force, helping to establish the first Community Relations Program in 1955. After being assigned to the personal staff of Major General Bernard Schriever, Powers handled the public dissemination of information related to the Air Force's ballistic missile program. His experience with public relations caught the attention of the newly formed NASA, and Powers was detailed to NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center in April 1959. He resigned from NASA in 1963 and retired from the Air Force in 1964. He died in 1980 at the age of 57. Source: "John A. 'Shorty' Powers" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Frank Press (1924 -    ) served as President Carter’s Science advisor and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy from 1977 to 1981.   Upon leaving this post, he was elected 19th President of the National Academy of Sciences.  Press earned his Ph.D. in geophysics from Columbia University, and has earned 28 additional honorary doctorates.  See "Press, Frank" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

William Proxmire (1915-2005) was a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin who served from 1957 to 1989.  He was well-known for his "Golden Fleece Awards," which he presented to various Federal Government agencies for projects that he felt wasted taxpayers' money. (Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 (Alexandria, VA:  CQ Staff Directories, Inc., 1996) and "Proxmire, William" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek mathematician who lived in the second century.  His conception of the universe as Earth-centered remained until Copernicus' theory was published in the sixteenth century. ("Ptolemy" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

J. DeWitt Purcell (1912 -1986) was a physicist with the Naval Research Laboratory for nearly three decades before retiring in 1975.  As an authority on optics, spectroscopy, and solar astronomy, he authored hundreds of technical papers.  Additionally, he did optics work for the Skylab space project.  See “J.D. Purcell” in the “Obituaries” of The Washington Post, section C, page 08 in the July 09,1986, issue.

Edward M. Purcell (1912-1997) was a professor of physics at Harvard University during this period and also served on the president's Scientific Advisory Committee from 1957 to 1960 and 1962 to 1965. He had been co-winner of the Nobel prize in physics in 1952 (with Felix Bloch) for the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in solids.

Allen E. Puckett (1919- ) earned his Ph.D. at Caltech in 1949 and went to work for Hughes Aircraft Co. that year, becoming its executive vice president from 1965-1977 and its president thereafter. He served as a member of the Nixon Transition Team's Task force on Space to make recommendation on the new administration's efforts in aerospace that was led by Dr. Charles Townes.

Donald L. Putt (1905-1988) was a career U.S. Air Force officer who specialized in the managementof aerospace research and development activities. Trained as an engineer, he entered the Army Air Corps in 1928 worked in a series in increasingly responsible posts at Air Materiel Command and GHQ Air Force. In 1948-1952 he was director of research and development for the Air Force, and between 1952 and 1954 he was first vice commander and then commander of the Air Research and Development Command. Thereafter, until his retirement in 1958 he served as deputy chief of the development staff at Headquarters USAF.

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Donald A. Quarles (1894-1959) was a deputy secretary of defense between 1957 and 1959. Just after World War II he had been a vice president, first at Western Electric Company, and later at Sandia National Laboratories, but in 1953 he accepted the position of assistant secretary of defense for research and development. He was also secretary of the Air Force between 1955 and 1957.  (“Quarles, Donald” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

J. Danforth (Dan) Quayle served as a Republican Senator from Indiana before becoming George Bush's Vice President from 1989-1993. As Vice President, he chaired the National Space Council and had significant involvementwith the development of the Space Station, Space Shuttle replacement options, the Space Exploration Initiative, and NASA management.

Elwood R. ("Pete") Quesada (1904-1993) was a career Army aviation and Air Force officer who rose through the ranks from private to lieutenant general. He commanded fighter forces in Africa and Europe during World War II and served as the first commander of Tactical Air Command from 1946-1948. A supporter of air-ground cooperation with the Army, he retired in 1951, perhaps because he believed the new Air Force's treatment of tactical air power as less important than the strategic air arm violated a promise to General Eisenhower that there would always be a tactical force to support the Army. He subsequently served as manager at Olin Industries, organizer and director of Lockheed's Missile Systems Division, the controversial but highly successful first administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency, and president of L'Enfant Properties, among other duties. (John Schlight, "Elwood R. Quesada: TAC Air Comes of Age," _Makers of the United States Air Force_ [Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1987], pp. 177-204.)

James M. Quigley (1918- ) was a member of Congress from Pennsylvania in 1955-1957 and 1959-1961, then served as assistant secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1961 to 1966.

Erik Quistgaard, was the Director General of the European Space Agency from 1980-1984. As head of ESA, he oversaw the Ariane rocket's development and Spacelab's many contributions to space science. "Quistgaard, Erik," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

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Norman F. Ramsey (1915- ) is a physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in 1989 for his work on a cesium atomic clock, as well as the hydrogen maser.  He received a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1940, after also studying abroad at Cambridge University.  During World War II, he worked on radar systems and on the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos.  After working as a professor at Colmbia and helping found the Brookhaven National Laboratory, he became a professor at Harvard University in 1947, where he has stayed since then.  (See Emily J. McMurrary, editor, Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists, volume 3 L-R (New York City:  Gale Research, Inc., 1995) and “Ramsey, Norman F.” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

Clark T. Randt (1917- ) worked throughout the 1950s as a professor of neurology at Western Reserve University, moving to NASA in 1959 as director of life sciences. In 1961 he left NASA to accept a professorship in neurology at the New York University School of Medicine. In 1970 he became chair of the department of neurology at NYU. ("Clark T. Randt," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Ernest Clark Ray (1930- ) began work as an aerospace technologist at the Goddard Space Flight Center in 1965.  He received his Ph.D. from the State University of Iowa in 1956 and became an Assistant Professor of Physics there.  He was a National Academy of Sciences fellow at Goddard Space Flight Center from 1962-63.   He is a member of the American Physics Society and the American Geophysics union.  He has researched and published works in theoretical studies of motion of cosmic rays trapped radiation in Van Allen radiation belts.  (Who’s Who in Science from Antiquity to Present; Marquis Who’s Who Inc.  Debus, Allen G.  1968)

Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) was elected President of the United States in 1980, assumed office in January 1981, and served until 1989. He was President when the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle was launched in 1981.  In 1984 he mandated the construction of an orbital space station.  Reagan declared "America has always been greatest when we dared to be great. We can reach for greatness again. We can follow our dreams to distant stars, living and working in space for peaceful, economic, and scientific gain. Tonight I am directing NASA to develop a permanently manned space station and to do it within a decade.” See “Reagan, Ronald” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, and Sylvia D. Fries, "2001 to 1994: Political Environment and the Design of NASA's Space Station System," Technology and Culture, Vol. 29, No.3  (July 1988): 568-93.

Eberhardt Rechtin (1926- ) Dr. Rechtin was one of three engineers to design the digital image transmission system technology that allowed us to receive pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune during the Voyager missions, and the radar technology that allowed mapping of the surface of Venus.   He is the founder of the Deep Space Network (DSN), and worked at the Jet Propulsion Lab from 1949 to 1967.  He was president and CEO of The Aerospace Corporation and Assistant Secretary of Defense for Telecommunications under Nixon from 1972 to 1973.  He earned both his B.S. and Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology.  (“Rechtin, Eberhardt” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

Eberhard F. M. Rees (1908-1998) was at this time deputy director for technical and scientific matters at the Marshall Space Flight Center. A graduate of the Dresden Institute of Technology, he began his career in rocketry in 1940 when he became technical plant manager of the German rocket center at Peenemnde. He came to the U.S. in 1945 with von Braun's rocket team and worked with von Braun at Fort Bliss, Texas, moving to Huntsville in 1950 when the Army transferred its rocket activities to the Redstone Arsenal. He served as deputy director of development operations at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency from 1956 to 1960. In 1970 he succeeded von Braun as director of the Marshall center. He retired in 1973. ("Eberhard Rees," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Edmond Morden Reeves (1934 -    ) earned his B.Sc. in 1956, his M.Sc. in 1957, and his Ph.D. in 1959 from Western Ontario University, Canada.  He has been the director of NASA’s Flight Systems Division, Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications, since 1993.  From 1961 to 1978 he was a research physicist and lecturer of astronomy at Harvard University, and from 1978 to 1982 he was the senior research associate of the Harvard College Observatory.  He also served, from 1968 to 1971, on NASA’s Solar Physics Panel and the Astronomy Missions Board.  See “Reeves, Edmond Morden” in American Men and Women of Science, 1998-99, 20th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  R. R. Bower, 1998.

Francis W. Reichelderfer (1895-1983) joined the Naval Air Service in World War I after graduating from Northwestern in science in 1917 and studying meteorology at Harvard. He became a weather forecaster despite earning his pilot's wings in 1919. While in the Navy, he earned his masters degree at the University of Bergen in Norway. In 1938 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him head of the Weather Bureau. He stated that one of the most significant advances in weather forecasting during his tenure was the orbiting of the Tiros I weather satellite, although he also expanded hurricane forecasting, instituted the use of the telephone in the weather service, provided crop and marine forecasts, instituted frost warnings, and provided hourly reports for aircraft. On his retirement, President John F. Kennedy wrote him, "You presided over the evolution of meteorology . . . from an art to a science." ("Francis W. Reichelderfer," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Henry J. E. Reid (1895-1968) graduated from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1919 with a B.S. in electrical engineering. After a brief stint in private industry, he joined Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1921 as one of a small group of engineers and scientists then on the professional staff there. His principal field of research was the design and improvement of basic instruments for flight research. He became director of the center in 1926 and presided over the extensive growth that accompanied its becoming a leading aeronautical and space research facility. He retired in 1961. ("Henry J. E. Reid," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

William A. Rense (1914 -   ) earned his B.S. (1935) from Case Western University, and his M.S. (1937) and his Ph.D. (1939, physics) from Ohio State University.  He is a scholar of space physics.  He began his career at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in 1949, as an associate professor of physics, and became professor emeritus in 1980.  His professional experiences include:  being a physics instructor at Louisiana State University, 1939 to 1940; an assistant professor at the University of Miami, 1940; visiting assistant professor at Rutgers University, 1941 to 1942; and assistant professor/associate professor at Louisiana State University, 1943 to 1949.  From 1956 to 1978 he was co-director of the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics.  He is a member of the American Geophysical Union, the American Physics Society, Sigma Xi, and the American Astronomical Society.  See “Rense, William A.” in American Men and Women of Science, 1998-99, 20th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  R. R. Bower, 1998.

John T. Rettaliata (1911- ) was president of the Illinois Institute of Technology between 1952 and 1973. He then became chair of the Board of Directors of the Banco di Roma, Chicago. Previously Rettaliata had been involved in business, government, and educational activities associated with scientific research and development. Among many other duties and honors, in 1959 he became a nongovernmental member of the National Aeronautics and Space Council.

Victor G. Reuther (1912-2004) became director of the United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (AFL-CIO) in Indiana in 1937 and rose through a number of other positions to become administrative assistant to the president of the union, a position he held throughout the 1960s.

Richard V. Rhode (1904- ) received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Wisconsin in 1925 and joined the NACA as an aeronautical engineer at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. In 1945 he became chief of the aircraft loads division. In 1949 he transferred to the NACA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., and became assistant director for research (aircraft construction and operating problems). When NASA came into existence in 1958, he became assistant director for advanced design criteria in the space vehicle technology division. There, he was responsible for advanced technology supporting the development of space vehicles. He retired in early 1967 and was awarded the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. ("Richard V. Rhode," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Sid Richardson was a Texas oil millionaire who had contributed money to the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee and to Lyndon Johnson's campaigns. Robert Dallek describes him as "an exceptionally charming conversationalist and a lonely bachelor" who invited Johnson to visit his "privately owned island in the coastal Gulf." (Robert Dallek, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960_ [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991], pp. 160, 201-2, 249, 308-9, quotations from p. 309.) Eisenhower had first met Richardson in 1941, knew he was a Johnson supporter, and through an intermediary got him to put pressure on Johnson at least once. (Fred R. Greenstein, _The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader [New York: Basic Books, 1982], p. 59.)

Sally K. Ride (1951-2012) was the first American woman to fly in space. She was chosen as an astronaut in 1978, and served as a mission specialist for STS-7 (1983) and STS 41 G (1984). Ride was also a member of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident in 1986, and from 1986 to 1987 chaired a NASA task force that prepared a report on the future of the civilian space program entitled Leadership and America's Future in Space (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987). She resigned from NASA in 1987 to join the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University, then left Stanford in 1989 to assume the directorship of the California Space Institute, part of the University of California at San Diego. Ride also served as a member of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. See "Ride, Sally K." biographical folder, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Louis N. Ridenour (1911-1959) received his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1936, and began work at Princeton University. In 1938 he moved to the University of Pennsylvania, were he remained until 1947. He then went to the University of Illinois, but left there in 1951 to become vice president of the International Telemeter Corp. He also served in several positions with scientific organizations in the Federal Government, most significantly as chief scientist with the U.S. Air Force in the early 1950s.

R. Walter Riehlman (1899-1978) (R-NY) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served through 1964.

Charles E. Robbins (1906-1989) worked for the _Wall Street Journal_ in various capacities from 1929-1941. He departed the job there of managing editor to become a member of the business department of the _New York Times_, 1941-1949. In 1953 he became executive manager of the Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc.

Walter Orr Roberts (1915-1990) was an astronomer at the University of Colorado's High Altitude Observatory. He was also instrumental in the creation of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in 1960, and directed the program on food, climate, and the world's future for the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, 1974 to 1981. He was heavily involved in the debate over "nuclear winter" and the possibility of the "Greenhouse Effect" on the Earth in the 1980s.  See "Roberts, Walter Orr," Current Biography Yearbook 1990, p. 660.

Nelson A. Rockefeller (1909-1979) was vice president of the United States from 1974 to 1977. He had previously been the Republican governor of New York, 1958-1973. Obituary in New York Times, January 26, 1979, p. 27.

Felix Michael Rogers (1921-) was a fighter ace who became an Air Force general. He was deputy chief of staff for development plans at the Air Force Systems Command and also served with the United Nations Military Armstice Commission in Korea. After working as the Commander of Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base, he became Commander of the Air Force Logistics Command. See U.S. Air Force Biography, November 1977, for General Felix Michael Rogers, History Office, Air Force Logistics Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

William P. Rogers (1913-2001) was chair of the presidentially-mandated blue ribbon commission investigating the Challenger accident in January 1986. It found that the failure had resulted from a poor engineering decision, an O-ring used to seal joints in the Solid Rocket Booster that was susceptible to failure at low temperatures, introduced innocently-enough years earlier. Rogers kept the commission's analysis on that technical level, and documented the problems in exceptional detail. The commission, after some prodding by Nobel Prize-winning scientist Richard P. Feynman, did a credible job of grappling with the technologically difficult issues associated with the accident. See Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Vol. I (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 6, 1986).

Nancy G. Roman (1925 -    ) received her B.A. from Swarthmore College in 1946 and her Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of Chicago in 1949.  In 1955 she took a position as an astronomer with the Radio Astronomy Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory.  She was the head of the Microwave Spectroscopy Section when, in 1959, she left NRL to become the head of the Observational Astronomy Program at NASA.  She remained at NASA, serving as chief of the astronomy and relativity programs, in the Office of Space Science, until her retirement in 1979.  See “Roman, Nancy G.,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Harold A. Rosen (1926- ) was one of the key scientists at the Hughes Aircraft Company who developed Syncom, the first geosynchronous communications satellite, for NASA. He received the National Medal of Tehnology in 1985. "Rosen, Harold" Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

Herbert H. Rosen was deputy director of the office of public information in NASA in early 1960. He was an engineer who had previously worked for Hayden Publications Corp. as editor of _Electronic Design_ and for the Bureau of Standards both as an engineer and in the areas of public relations and technical information. ("Herbert H. Rosen," biographical file, and Headquarters Telephone Directory for May 1960, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Milton W. Rosen (1915 -    ), an electrical engineer by training, joined the staff of the Naval Research Laboratory in 1940, where he worked on guidance systems for missiles during World War II. From 1947 to 1955, he was in charge of Viking rocket development. He was technical director of Project Vanguard, the scientific earth satellite program, until he joined NASA in October 1958 as Director of Launch Vehicles and Propulsion in the Office of Manned Space Flight. In 1963 he became senior scientist in NASA's Office of the Deputy Associate Administrator for Defense Affairs. He later became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Science (engineering). In 1974 he retired from NASA to become executive secretary of the National Academy of Science's Space Science Board. ("Milton W. Rosen," biographical file 001835, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC; see also his _The Viking Rocket Story_ [New York: Harper, 1955].)

Aaron Rosenthal became director of financial management at NASA in February 1960, assuming oversight over the budget and fiscal offices. Before coming to NASA, he had been controller for the Veterans Administration, an agency for which he had worked since 1936. In September 1961 he transferred to the National Science Foundation. (Two announcements under his name in "biography NASA miscellaneous," NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

H.E. Ross was one of the leaders of the British Interplanetary Society from the time of its inception in 1933. Ross wrote a 1939 article in the BIS's journal that outlined a method of accomplishing a lunar mission. The effort leading to the article had begun in London in February 1937 when the BIS formed a Technical Committee to conduct feasibility studies.

Bruno B. Rossi passed away in 1993 at the age of 88.  He is considered a pioneering figure in the study of high-energy astrophysics, X-ray astronomy, and interplanetary plasma (space physics).  Born in Venice, he received a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Bologna in 1927.  He left Italy in 1938 for Denmark and England, before coming to the United States and joining Cornell University's faculty in 1940.  From 1943 to 1946 he worked at Los Alamos, where the atomic bomb was developed.  Early in his career, he developed significant new techniques for observing cosmic rays.  With his colleagues, he created a detector aboard the Explorer X satellite, which in 1961 discovered the magnetopause, the edge of the Earth's magnetic field.  After its launch in December 1995, NASA renamed its X-Ray Timing Explorer spacecraft in honor of Rossi; the spacecraft is now known as RXTE. (Bruno Rossi obituary, The New York Times, November 24, 1993, page D19 and “Rossi, Bruno, B.” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

Walt W. Rostow (1916-2003) has spent his career, since completing his Ph.D. at Yale in 1940, moving between academic and government positions. He began his career in the economics department of Columbia University, but he served with the State Department in European recovery efforts following the war. Throughout the 1950s he was a professor of economic history at MIT. In 1961 he returned to Washington as an assistant to the president for national security affairs and served in that and other similar capacities throughout the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Thereafter he accepted an academic post with the University of Texas.

Joseph H. Rothenberg(1940- ) joined NASA in 1983 at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In 1995, he was named as Goddard’s Center Director. He holds a B.S. in engineering science and an M.S. in engineering management from Long Island University. In 1998, he came to NASA Headquarters to work as Associate Administrator of the Office of Space Flight where he was in charge of human exploration and development of space. Before joining the Agency, he worked in the aerospace industry in various and engineering and management positions. He retired from NASA in 2001. See “Joseph H. Rothenberg,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

Addison M. Rothrock (1903-1971) graduated from Penn State in 1925 with a B.S. in physics and began working at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory the next year. He worked in the areas of fuel combustion and fuel rating, rising to the position of chief of the fuel injection research laboratory and writing more than 40 papers and reports. In 1942 he made the move to Lewis Laboratory, where he was chief of the fuels and lubricants division and then chief of research for the entire laboratory. In 1947 he became assistant director for research at NACA Headquarters. With the foundation of NASA, he assumed the duties of assistant director of research (power plants). Two months later, he became the scientist for propulsion in and then (1961), the associate director of, the office of program planning and evaluation. He retired in 1963 and taught for five years at George Washington University. ("Addison M. Rothrock," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

John Edward Roush (1920-2004) (D-IN) served in the House of Representatives from 1959-1964.

Herbert J. Rowe (1924- ) was NASA Associate Administrator for External Affairs, 1975-1978. He also worked with several high-technology industrial firms, including Aerovax Corp.

Konstantin Nikolayevich Rudnev (1911-1980) was Chairman of the State Committee for Defense Technology in 1958-1961. He served as the Chairman of the State Commission for Yuriy Gagarin’s Vostok mission in 1961.  (Provided by Asif Siddiqi)

Dean Rusk (1909-1994) was a Rhodes scholar who studied philosophy, politics, economics, and later on, law. After teaching government and international relations and serving in the military in World War II, Rusk joined the State Department in 1946. He held increasingly responsible positions culminating in his appointment as Secretary of State in 1961. He served as Secretary for eight years, through the entire Kennedy and Johnson Administrations. He was a strong supporter of U.S. involvement in Vietnam and also presided over U.S. foreign policy during the Bay of Pigs incident and the Cuban Missile Crisis. "Rusk, Dean" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Richard B. Russell, Jr. (1897-1971) (D-GA) was a United States Senator from 1933 until his death. He was influential force in the Senate, and served as chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee, 1951-1969.

David Maurice Rust (1939 -    ) was a research fellow of solar physics at the National Center of Atmospheric Research, while finishing his Ph.D. studies in 1966.  From 1966 to 1968 he was a Carnegie Fellow of astrophysics at the Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatory.  From 1968 to 1974, he was an astrophysicist with the Sacramento Peak Observatory, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories.  He later became the senior staff scientist at American Science and Engineering, Incorporated, and remained in that position until 1983.  While at American he was invited to participate in the “Solar Physics Study” sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences.   He has been in his current position as physicist with the Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, since 1983.  His professional memberships include:  the American Geophysical Union, the American Astronomical Society, and the International Astronomical Union.  See “Rust, David Maurice” in American Men and Women of Science, 1998-99, 20th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  R. R. Bower, 1998.

Vasiliy Mikhaylovich Ryabikov (1907-1974) was Chairman of the Special Committee for ICBM development from 1955-1957. He served as the Chairman of the State Commission for the historic Sputnik launch on 4 October 1957.  (Provided by Asif Siddiqi)

Cornelius Ryan was an influential journalist who worked with Collier's magazine in the 1950s and was in large measure responsible for the issues of the magazine devoted to space that appeared between 1952 and 1955. He became best known for his World War II trilogy: The Longest Day: June 6, 1944 (1959); A Bridge Too Far (1974); and The Last Battle (1966).

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Roald Z. Sagdeyev (1932- ) was one of the leading lights of Soviet Space Science from the 1960s through the 1980s. He was involved in virtually every lunar and planetary probe of the Soviet Union during this era, including the highly successful Venera and Vega missions. He also advised Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev on space and arms control at the 198 Geneva, 1987 Washington, and 1988 Moscow summits. In he late 1980s he left the Soviet Union and settled in the United States where he headed the East-West Science and Technology Center at the University of Maryland, College Park. See Roald Z. Sagdeyev, The Making of a Soviet Scientist: My Adventures in Nuclear Fusion and Space From Stalin to Star Wars (New York: John Wiley, 1995.

Robert M. Salter, Jr. (1920- ) was a physicist who worked with the North American Aviation, 1946-1948; Rand Corp., 1948-1954; Lockheed Aircraft Co., 1954-1959; Quantatron, Inc., 1960-1962; and Xerad, Inc., since 1962. He was responsible for much of the early thinking at Rand on the possibility of an artificial Earth-orbiting satellite.

Leverett Saltonstall (1892-1979) (R-MA) was governor of Massachusetts from 1939-1944, when he won election to the U.S. Senate. He served in the Senate from then until 1967 and became one of its Republican leaders.

Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien (1619-1655) was a French writer whose works combined political satire and fantasy. As a young man he joined the company of guards, but was wounded at the siege of Arras in 1640 and retired from military life. He then studied under philosopher and mathematician Pierre Gassendi, whose influence was significance. His two best known written works were his two novels of spaceflight to the Moon. He has become famous in the twentieth century largely through the 1897 novel by Edmond Rostand, who described him as a gallant and brilliant, but ugly man with the large nose. ("Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien," The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1987 ed.), 3:829.)

Julian Scheer (1926-2001) served as NASA’s Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs from 1963 until 1971.  He began his career in 1939 as an apprentice for a chain of weekly newspapers in his native Richmond, VA and went on to serve in the Merchant Marines during World War II and later in the U.S. Naval Reserve.  Scheer earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of North Carolina in 1950 and worked as the university’s Assistant Director of Sports Information until he joined NASA in 1962 as a consultant.  As NASA’s missions progressed in the 1960s they attracted unprecedented public and press attention, creating ever-increasing demands for instantaneous information in every form.  Under Scheer’s direction, NASA anticipated and planned for the press needs in connection with Apollo piloted flights, including a worldwide communications network for disseminating television pictures live from the Moon on Apollo 11.  His Public Affairs program received several national awards, including the 1970 University of Missouri School of Journalism Special Achievement Award which cited the NASA program “for its outstanding, almost inconceivable, contributions to journalism technology.”  His personal awards include NASA’s Exceptional Service Medal in 1968 and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1969.  See “Scheer, Julian,” biographical file 001902, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC

Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910) was an Italian astronomer and senator of the Kingdom of Italy. He studied astronomy in Berlin beginning in 1854 under Johann F. Encke. Two years later he was appointed assistant observer at Pulkovo Observatory, Russia. In 1860 he returned to Italy as an observer at Brera Observatory in Milan. There he made controversial observations of Martian canali, or straight lines, that set off speculation about the possibility of intelligent life who had constructed them. He also discovered the asteroid Hesperia and correctly calculated the Perseid meteor showers. (Frederick I. Ordway III, "The Legacy of Schiaparelli and Lowell," Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, January 1986, pp. 18-22.)

William R. Schindler (1928 -    ) was head of the Delta rocket program at Goddard Space Flight Center, where Echo, Telstar, Relay, and Syncom communication satellites were placed into orbit, as well as the Tiros weather satellites, several Explorer scientific satellites, an orbiting solar observatory and the Ariel satellite.  He received his first training in rocketry as a member of the Vanguard project team in late 1957.  He joined NASA at its beginning in 1958 and became the Delta project technical director.  See “Schindler, William R.,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Walter M. Schirra Jr. (1923 -    ) was one of the original seven astronauts chosen by NASA in 1959.  He became the fifth American in space in 1963 when he piloted the Mercury 8 mission.  Schirra earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1945.  As a Navy pilot he flew 90 combat missions over Korea and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and two Air Medals for his service.  He then attended the Naval Air Safety Officer School at the University of Southern California and completed test pilot training at the Naval Air Test center in 1958.  Schirra was the only person to fly in America’s first three space programs-Mercury, Gemini and Apollo-logging over 295 hours in space.  In 1969 he was awarded three separate honorary doctorates in Astronautical Engineering, Science, and Astronautics.  See “Schirra, Walter M. Mercury Flight,” biographical file 001915, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC and (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/schirra-wm.html) accessed 23 October 2006.

James R. Schlesinger (1929 -   ) served in numerous governmental positions during the 1960s and 1970s. After a career at the University of Virginia, 1955-1963, and RAND Corporation between 1963 and 1969, he went to the Bureau of the Budget/Office of Management and Budget, 1969-1971. He also served as chair of the Atomic Energy Commission, 1971-1973, and Secretary of Defense, 1973-1975. In 1977 he was appointed head of the newly created Department of Energy. "Schlesinger, James," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Harrison H. Schmitt (1935 -    ) occupied the lunar module pilot seat as a scientist-astronaut on Apollo 17.  Schmitt conducted the longest and most productive lunar exploration of the Apollo program during this mission, spending twenty two hours exploring the surface of the moon and bringing back the largest lunar sample to date.  He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1957 and a doctorate in geology from Harvard in 1964.  Before joining NASA in 1965, Schmitt worked with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Astrogeology Center at Flagstaff, Arizona, where he was project chief for lunar field geological methods.  While at this position, he was among the USGS astrogeologists that instructed NASA astronauts during their geological field trips.  In 1974, after assuming additional duties as Chief of Scientist-Astronauts, he was appointed NASA Assistant Administrator for Energy Programs.  Dr. Schmitt left NASA in 1975 to run for the United States Senate and subsequently served a six-year term in his home state of New Mexico.  In 2005 he became chair of the NASA Advisory Council.  See “Schmitt, Dr. Harrison (Jack) thru A-17,” biographical file 001925, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC and (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/schmitt-hh.html) accessed 3 October 2006.

William C. Schneider (1923-1999) joined NASA in June 1963 and was the Gemini mission director for seven of the ten piloted Gemini missions. From 1967 to 1968, he served as Apollo mission director and the Apollo program’s deputy director for missions. He then served from 1968 to 1974 as the Skylab program’s director. After that, he worked as the Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Transportation Systems for almost four years. From 1978 to 1980, he served as the Associate Administrator for Space Tracking and Data systems. He received a Ph.D. in engineering from Catholic University. See “Schneider, William C.,” biographical file 001927, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

August Schomburg (1908-1972) was a career Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. From 1960 to 1962 he was commander of the Army missile ordnance command at Redstone Arsenal.

Bernard A. Schriever (1910-2005) earned a B.S. in architectural engineering from Texas A&M in 1931 and was commissioned in the Army Air Corps Reserve in 1933 after completing pilot training. Following broken service, he received a regular commission in 1938. He earned an M.A. in aeronautical engineering from Stanford in 1942 and then flew 63 combat missions in B-17s with the 19th Bombardment Group in the Pacific Theater during World War II. In 1954, he became commander of the Western Development Division (soon renamed the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division), and from 1959-1966 he was commander of its parent organization, the Air Research and Development Command, renamed Air Force Systems Command in 1961. As such, he presided over the development of the Atlas, Thor, and Titan missiles, which served not only as military weapon systems but also as boosters for NASA's space missions. In developing these missiles, Schriever instituted a systems approach, whereby the various components of the Atlas and succeeding missiles underwent simultaneous design and test as part of an overall "weapons system." Schriever also introduced the notion of concurrency, which has been given various interpretations but essentially allowed the components of the missiles to enter production while still in the test phase, thereby speeding up development. He retired as a general in 1966. He received NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal in 1999. See Jacob Neufeld, "Bernard A. Schriever: Challenging the Unknown," Makers of the United States Air Force (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1986), pp. 281-306; Robert L. Perry, "Atlas, Thor . . .," A History of Rocket Technology, Eugene M. Emme, ed. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1964), pp. 144-160; Robert A. Divine, The Sputnik Challenge: Eisenhower's Response to the Soviet Satellite (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 25, as well as "Schriever, Bernard A." Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Division, Washington, DC.

Fred Schulman (1919-1996) graduated from Brooklyn College and subsequently received an M.S. and then a Ph.D. in chemistry from Georgetown University. He worked as a chemist with the Office of Naval Research; later he became the propulsion and power systems development coordinator for the chief of naval operations. Schulman became associated with NASA in 1960. While with the Agency, he worked on Apollo 13. He retired from NASA in 1973. See “Fred Schulman,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

Russell L. Schweickart (1935 -   ) served as lunar module pilot during the Apollo 9 mission in 1969, during which he tested the portable life support backpack which was subsequently used on the lunar surface explorations.  He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956 and then served as a fighter pilot in the Massachusetts Air National Guard until 1963.  He then returned to MIT as a graduate student and research scientist at the school’s Experimental Astronomy Laboratory, earning a Master of Science degree in 1963.  That same year, Schweickart was selected by NASA to be in the third group of astronauts and fly in the Apollo program.  After Apollo he served as backup commander for the first Skylab mission in 1973 and assumed responsibility for the development of hardware and procedures associated with erecting the emergency solar shade and deployment of the jammed solar array wing following the loss of the Skylab vehicle’s thermal shield.  Schweickart finished his career at NASA serving as the Director of User Affairs in the Office of Applications in Washington, DC.  (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/schweickart-rl.html) accessed 3 October 2006.

David R. Scott (1932 -   ) was selected as one of the third group of astronauts in 1963 and flew in the Gemini 8, Apollo 9, and Apollo 15 missions.  He graduated near the top of his class at West Point with a Bachelor of Science degree and then chose to commission into the Air Force.  He completed pilot training at Webb Air Force Base, Texas, in 1955 and was assigned to the 32d Tactical Fighter squadron stationed in Netherlands until 1960.  Upon completing his tour of duty, Scott returned to the U.S. to study at MIT where he earned a Master of Science degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics as well as an engineering degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics, both in 1962.  After leaving the astronaut corps in 1972, he was named Technical Assistant to the Apollo Program Manager at Johnson Space Center.  He retired from the Air Force in March 1975 with the rank of Colonel and over 5600 hours of flying time.  In that same year, Scott was appointed Director of Dryden Flight Research Center where he remained until he left NASA for private business ventures in 1977.  Recently, Scott was the technical consultant to the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.  See “Scott, David R. (Post – NASA),” biographical file 001958, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC and (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/scott-dr.html) accessed October 3, 2006.

Glenn T. Seaborg (1912-1999) earned a Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1937 and worked on the Manhattan Project in Chicago during World War II. Afterward, he became associate director of Berkeley's Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, where he and associates isolated several transuranic elements. For this work Seaborg received the Nobel Prize in 1951. He also served as chair of the Atomic Energy Commission between 1961 and 1971, and thereafter returned to the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley. See David Petechuk, "Glenn T. Seaborg," in Emily J. McMurray, ed., Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists (New York: Gale Research Inc., 1995), pp. 1803-1806.

Robert C. Seamans, Jr. (1918 -2008 ) was born on October 30, 1918, in Salem, Massachusetts. He attended Lenox School, Lenox, Massachusetts; earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering at Harvard University in 1939; a Master of Science degree in Aeronautics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1942; and a Doctor of Science degree in Instrumentation from MIT in 1951. Dr. Seamans also received the following honorary degrees: Doctor of Science from Rollins College (1962) and from New York University (1967); Doctor of Engineering from Norwich Academy (1971), from Notre Dame (1974), and from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in 1974. In 1960, Dr. Seamans joined NASA as Associate Administrator. In 1965, he became Deputy Administrator, retaining many of the general management-type responsibilities of the Associate Administrator and also serving as Acting Administrator. During his years at NASA he worked closely with the Department of Defense in research and engineering programs and served as Co-chairman of the Astronautics Coordinating Board. Through these associations, NASA was kept aware of military developments and technical needs of the Department of Defense and Dr. Seamans was able to advise that agency of NASA activities which had application to national security. Seamans left NASA in late 1967; in 1969 President Nixon named him Secertary of the Air Force. He subsequently became the first Administrator of the Energy Research and Development Administration. For further information on Robert C. Seamans, Jr., click here or see his autobiography, Aiming at Targets (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4106, 1996), his monograph Project Apollo: the Tough Decisions (Washington, DC: NASA SP-2005-4537).

Frederick Seitz (1911-2008) was trained in mathematics and physics at Stanford and Princeton Universities and worked in variety of corporations, laboratories, and government organizations throughout his career. He served on the National Defense Research Committee from 1941-1945; was consultant to the Secretary of War, 1945; director of the atomic energy training program at Oak Ridge, 1946-1947; science advisor to NATO, 1959-1960; and a faculty member of several universities during his career. In 1962 he was elected president of the National Academy of Sciences, and reelected to a six year term in 1965. In 1968 he left the National Academy of Sciences to become president of Rockefeller University in New York City and served until his retirement. "Seitz, Frederick" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Yuriy Pavlovich Semenov (1935- ) was the lead designer of Soyuz and Zond at OKB-1 (Korolev) and then General Designer at RKK Energiya from 1989-2005.  (Provided by Asif Siddiqi)

Ivan Dmitriyevich Serbin (1910-1981) was Chief of the Central Committee’s defense industries department from 1958-1981, and was the ideological Communist Party watchdog for Soviet space personnel.  (Provided by Asif Siddiqi)

Willis H. Shapley (1917-2005), son of famous Harvard astronomer Harlow Shapley, earned a B.A. from the University of Chicago in 1938. From that point until 1942, he did graduate work and performed research in political science and related fields at the latter institution. He joined the Bureau of the Budget in 1942 and became a principal examiner in 1948. From 1956-1961 he was assistant chief (Air Force) in the bureauís military division, becoming progressively deputy chief for programming (1961-1965) and deputy chief (1965) in that division. He also served as special assistant to the director for space program coordination. In 1965 he moved to NASA as associate deputy administrator, with his duties including supervision of the public affairs, congressional affairs, DOD and interagency affairs, and international affairs offices. He retired in 1975 but rejoined NASA in 1987 to help it recover from the Challenger disaster. He served as associate deputy administrator (policy) until 1988, when he again retired but continued to serve as a consultant to the administrator. See ìShapley, W.H.,î Biographical File, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Edward R. Sharp (1893-1961) joined NACA at Langley in 1922. He moved to become construction manager of the new Aircraft Engine Laboratory in 1941, which was to become Lewis Research Center in 1958. He became manager in 1942, when the laboratory began operations. In 1947, he was named as Director and he held that title until his retirement in 1960. Sharp never had a technical degree, rather his background was in law. However, he received multiple technical honors from universities and various professional associations. See “Edward R. Sharp,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

Joseph F. Shea (1926-1999) served NASA as Deputy Director of the Office of Manned Space Flight at Headquarters in Washington, DC, and as manager of the Apollo spacecraft program in Houston.  He earned bachelor’s degrees in both engineering and mathematics and a master’s and doctorate degree in engineering mechanics, all at the University of Michigan.  Shea worked in numerous positions in private companies, including Space Program Director at the Space Technology Laboratories in California, Advance Systems R & D Manager with General Motors, and Military Development Engineer with the Bell Telephone Laboratories.  Shea officially retired from NASA in 1993 after his health began to fail him.  He also was Senior Vice President for Engineering at Raytheon Co. from 1980 until his death in 1999.  See “Shea, Joseph F.,” biographical file 2007, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Timothy E. Shea (1898-1995) was a manufacturing executive who had held a variety of positions. Since 1957 he had been vice president for engineering with Western Electric.

Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (1923-1998) was a member of the first group of seven astronauts in 1959 chosen to participate in Project Mercury. He was the first American in space, piloting Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7), and was backup pilot for Mercury-Atlas 9. He was subsequently grounded due to an inner ear ailment until May 7, 1969 (during which time he served as chief of the astronaut office). Upon returning to flight status Shepard commanded Apollo 14, and in June 1971 resumed duties as chief of the astronaut office. He retired from NASA and the U.S. Navy on August 1, 1974, to join the Marathon Construction Company of Houston, Texas, as partner and chairman. See Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton, Moonshot: The Inside Story of America's Race to the Moon (New York: Turner Publishing, Inc., 1994); The Astronauts Themselves, We Seven (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962); (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/schirra-wm.html) accessed 23 October 2006.

Eduard A. Shevardnadze (1927- ) was a reform leader of the Soviet Union along with Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s. He was heavily involved in the transformation of the nation from a communist state to one built on capitalism, and in a variety of senior positions negotiated with the United States for international cooperation in space, including the building of a space station in the 1990s. See Eduard Shevardnadze, The Future Belongs to Freedom (New York: Free Press, 1991).

George P. Shultz (1920- ) served as director of the Office of Management and Budget after 1970, during the Nixon administration. Before that time he had been Nixon's Secretary of Labor. During the Reagan administration, 1981-1989, Shultz had served as U.S. Secretary of State ("Shultz, George P(ratt)," 1988 Current Biography Yearbook, pp. 525-30.

Hugh S. Sidey (1927- 2005 ) was a top reporter for Time and Life magazines during the Kennedy Presidency.  He graduated from Iowa State University with a bachelor’s degree in 1950 and immediately began working with numerous publications such asthe Omaha World-Herald and the Free Press.  He would later author a biography of President Kennedy entitled John F. Kennedy, President.  See Who’s Who in America, 1966-1967 (Chicago, IL:  Marquis, 1966).

Gerald Siegel (1917-2000) served during the 1950s in various staff positions in the Senate, including those of counsel to the Democratic Policy Committee and the preparedness investigating subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He also served de facto as staff director of the Senate Special Committee on Space and Aeronautics during 1958 when it considered the Eisenhower administration's proposal for what became the Aeronautics and Space Act. Soon thereafter, Siegel left the Senate to lecture for three years at Harvard and then became vice president and chief counsel of the Washington Post. Sadly, Mr. Siegel died on 15 October 2000. ("The Legislative Origins of the Space Act," [transcribed] proceedings of a videotape workshop conducted on 3 April 1992 by Professor John Logsdon of the George Washington University Space Policy Institute, copy available in NASA Historical Reference Collection; Alison Griffith, The National Aeronautics and Space Act: A Study of the Development of Public Policy [Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1962], p. 28.)

Albert Siepert earned a B.A. from Bradley University in 1936.  Siepert began his NASA career as director of administration at NASA Headquarters in 1958.  He later served as deputy director of the NASA launch operations center at Kennedy Space Center.  See “Siepert, Albert F.” speech file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Milton A. Silveira (1929-2013) was a longtime NASA employee, who worked at the agency's Lewis Research Center, 1955-1963; and in the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, 1963-1967. He also served as deputy manager of the orbiter project at the Johnson Space Center, 1967-1981; assistant to the Deputy Administrator at NASA, 1981-1983; and as NASA Chief Engineer, 1983-1986.

Abe Silverstein (1908-2001), who earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering (1929) and an M.E. (1934) from Rose Polytechnic Institute, was a longtime NACA manager.  He had worked as an engineer at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory between 1929 and 1943 and had moved to the Lewis Laboratory (later, Research Center) to a succession of management positions, the last (1961-1970) as director of the center.  Interestingly, in 1958 Case Institute of Technology had awarded him an honorary doctorate.  When Glennan arrived at NASA, Silverstein was on a rotational assignment to the Washington headquarters as Director of the Office of Space Flight Development (later, Space Flight Programs) from the position of Associate Director at Lewis, which he had held since 1952.  During his first tour at Lewis, he had directed investigations leading to significant improvements in reciprocating and early turbojet engines.  At NASA Headquarters he helped create and direct the efforts leading to the space flights of Project Mercury and to establish the technical basis for the Apollo program.  As Lewis's director, he oversaw a major expansion of the center and the development of the Centaur launch vehicle.  He retired from NASA in 1970 to take a position with Republic Steel Corp.  On the career of Silverstein see, Virginia P. Dawson, Engines and Innovation:  Lewis Laboratory and American Propulsion Technology (Washington, DC:  NASA SP-4306, 1991), passim; "Silverstein, Abe," biographical file 002072, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

John A. Simpson (1916- )  Dr. Simpson is the founder of the Laboratory for Astrophysics and Space Research at Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies.  Additionally, he is the Arthur H. Compton Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago, and the Martin Marietta Chair in Space History at the Smithsonian Institute’s National Air and Space Museum.  He earned his Ph.D. from New York University in 1943.  (“Simpson, John A.” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.)

S. Fred Singer (1924- ), a physicist at the University of Maryland, proposed a Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of the Earth (MOUSE) at the fourth Congress of the International Astronautics Federation in Zurich, Switzerland, in the summer of 1953. It had been based upon two years of previous study conducted under the auspices of the British Interplanetary Society, which had built on the post-war research of the V-2 rocket. The Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel at White Sands discussed Singer's plan in April 1954. In May, Singer presented his MOUSE proposal at the Hayden Planetarium's fourth Space Travel Symposium. MOUSE was the first satellite proposal widely discussed in non-governmental engineering and scientific circles, although it never was adopted. See "Singer, S. Fred," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

B[ernice] F. Sisk (1910-1995 ) (D-CA) was first elected to Congress in 1954 and served in every successive Congress through the 95th (1977-1979), although he represented three different districts over that period.

Eugene Skolnikoff served on the staff of the White House science advisor from 1958-1963. Afterwards, he went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he served as a political science professor specializing in science, technology, and foreign policy issues. "Skolnikoff, Eugene" Biographical file, NASA Historical Refence Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

Donald K. Slayton (1924-1993) was named one of the original seven Mercury astronauts in 1959, but was relieved of this assignment following the discovery of a heart condition in August of that same year.  Instead he assumed the role of Director of Flight Crew Operations in 1963, bringing upon himself the responsibilities of directing the activities of the astronaut office, the aircraft office, the flight crew integration division, the crew training and simulation division, and the crew procedures division.  Born and raised in Sparta, Wisconsin, Slayton joined the Air Force after high school and earned his wings in 1943.  As a B-25 pilot with the 340th and 319th Bombardment groups, he flew a total of 63 combat missions over Europe and Japan.  Upon completion of his tour of duty he attended the University of Minnesota, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1949.  He then worked for two years as an aeronautical engineer with the Boeing Aircraft Corporation until he was recalled to active duty in 1951 with the Minnesota Air National Guard.  After his second tour of duty, he attended the USAF Test Pilot School in 1955 at Edwards Air Force Base, California, where he subsequently served as a test pilot until 1959.  Slayton resigned from the Air Force in 1963 to fully devote himself to his  duties at NASA.  In 1972, following a comprehensive review of his medical status, he was finally restored to full flight status and certified eligible for piloted space flight.  Two years later he made his first space flight as Apollo docking module pilot of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, logging over 217 hours in space.  Slayton retired from NASA in 1982 and  founded a company to develop rockets for small commercial payloads.  (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/slayton.html) accessed 16 October 2006.

John L. Sloop (1916- ) graduated from the University of Michigan in 1939 with a B.S. in electrical engineering. He served the government with 31 years of aeronautical and space research and management. He joined NACA at the Langley Laboratory in 1941. In 1960, he was brought to NASA Headquarters to work as a technical assistant. At Headquarters, he participated in planning on the Saturn Vehicle and Apollo Missions. In 1964, he rose to the position of Assistant Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Propulsion. See “John L. Sloop,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

Jacob E. Smart rose to the rank of general in the U.S. Army, serving as Deputy Commander of the U.S. European Command. He joined NASA in 1966 as Special Assistant to the Administrator. He then became the Acting Assistant Administrator for Administration, the Assistant Administrator for Policy Analysis, and the Assistant Administrator for DoD and Interagency Affairs. He was graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1931. "Smart, Jacob" Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

Leonid Vasilyevich Smirnov (1916-2001) was Chairman of the Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) from 1963-1985 and thus managed the entire Soviet military-industrial complex (including the space program) during that time.  (Provided by Asif Siddiqi)

C. R. Smith (1899-1990) worked in banking until he became manager of Texas Air Transport, a subsidiary of the Texas-Louisiana Power Company. In 1934, this company reorganized, becoming American Airlines. He was chief executive until he became secretary of commerce in 1968, a position which he held for one year. He retired in 1969 and passed away in 1990. See ìSmith, C.R. (Cyrus Rowlett)î in John S. Bowman, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography (Cambridge, England: The Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Henry J. Smith (1928 -    ) received his Ph.D. degree from Harvard University in 1955.  He was named deputy director of the physics and astronomy program, Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), in 1963.  An astronomer by education, he was the director of Harvard Observatory’s Boyden Station, South Africa, from 1952 to 1954 and director of the Harvard Observatory solar project in New Mexico from 1955 to 1962.  Prior to NASA, he was chief of the Sun-Earth Relations Section of the National Bureau of Standards Central Radio Propagation Division in Boulder, Colorado.  See “Smith, Henry J.,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Howard K. Smith (1914-2002) graduated from Tulane University in 1936 and became a Rhodes scholar the next year. He was the foreign correspondent of United Press in London in 1939 and the Berlin correspondent for CBS in 1941. He served as a war correspondent in Europe in 1944 and covered the Nuremberg trials in Germany the following year. He was the chief European correspondent and European director for CBS in London from 1946-57 and then moved to the CBS Washington bureau from 1957-1961 as chief correspondent and general manager. In 1962 he became a news analyst for ABC, also in Washington, D.C. A winner of many awards for his journalism, Smith also wrote several books, including Last Train from Berlin_ (1942).

Kent H. Smith (1894-1980) served as acting president of Case Institute of Technology during Glennan's absence at NASA. A life-long Cleveland resident, he was the son of Albert W. Smith, who had been on the faculty at CIT. In 1917, as a young man, Smith had enlisted in the aviation section of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, been commissioned a second lieutenant, and sent to France. During World War I he commanded ground personnel supporting combat air operations. He also learned to fly and maintained a lifelong interest in aerospace developments. Afterward he entered business, in several capacities, but especially as the head of the Lubrizol firm, which he helped found and which made lubrication products for automobiles and other vehicles. Kent was chairman of the board of Lubrizol from 1951-1959 and served as its director from 1928-1980. (C.H. Cramer, _Case Institute of Technology: A Centennial History, 1880-1980_ [Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University, 1980], pp. 202-206).

Murray Snyder (1911-1969) had been assistant White House press secretary between 1953 and 1957 and then became assistant secretary of defense for public affairs (1957-1961). Prior to that time he had been political journalist for several media organizations, and after leaving public office he became vice chairman of a public relations firm.

Walter D. Sohier (1924- ), a graduate of Columbia Law School, had worked for the CIA and the Air Force before joining NASA in 1958 as assistant general counsel. He became deputy general counsel in 1961 and general counsel in 1963. He left NASA in 1966 to become a partner in a New York law firm. "Sohier, Walter" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC).

Charles P. Sonnett (1924-   ) served as chief of NASA’s Lunar and Planetary Sciences from 1960-62.  He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1949 and a Masters and Ph.D. both in Nuclear Physics from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1951 and 1954, respectively.  From 1954 to 1960 he was the Senior Staff Head of the Space Physics Section of Space Technology Laboratories while at the same time lecturing in the U.C.L.A. department of engineering.  In 1962 Dr. Sonnett became the head of the Space Sciences Division at Ames Research Center, where he oversaw research for the nation’s space program in the areas of geophysics, interplanetary and planetary physics, planetary sciences, astronomy, and astrophysics.  See “Sonnett, Dr. Charles P.,” biographical file 002160, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

John J. Sparkman (1899-1985) (D-AL) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1936 and served until 1946, when he was elected to the Senate. He served in the Senate into the late 1970s.

Tony Spear is a 36-year veteran of the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA.  As Project Manager for the Mars Pathfinder Mission, he oversaw the mission from its conception to the successful landing in 1997. After the success of Viking Lander 1 in 1976, he stepped down from his position as project manager and joined the Advanced Deep Space System Development Program (called X2000). Upon joining NASA in 1962, he was an engineer in several positions.  In 1974 he was the Advanced Projects Planning manager for the NASA/ JPL Deep Space Communications and Spacecraft Tracking Network.  Spear was manager of the 1989 Magellan mission to map the surface of Venus, manager of the synthetic aperture imaging radar instruments that flew aboard several Space Shuttle missions in the early 1990’s, and was an engineer on the 1978 Seasat oceanographic satellite mission. Spear earned a B.S. in electrical engineering from Carnegie Mellon University, an M.S. in EE from the University of Southern California, and an M.S. in mechanical engineering from UCLA.  He retired from JPL in 1998.  (Media Relations Office, JPL)

Athelstan Frederick Spilhaus (1911-1998) was born in Cape Town, South Africa and earned a B.Sc. and D.Sc. from the University of Cape Town before coming to the United States in 1931.  He then earned a S.M. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1933 and a D.Sc. from Coe College in 1961.  He was a research assistant at MIT from 1934 to 1935 and then became Assistant Director of Technical Services for the Union of South Africa Defense Force until 1936.  In 1947 he served as Meteorological Advisor for the Union of South African Government.  Additionally, he was the United States Commissioner for the Seattle World’s Fair in 1961-62, the Chairman of the National Fisheries Center and Aquarium Advisory Board for the United States Department of the Interior and a member of the Advanced Commission for Armed Forces.  His awards include a Decorated Legion of Merit Exceptional Civilian Service Medal from the United States Air Force, and a Patriotic Civilian Service Award from the United States Army.  He is credited with research and development of meteorological equipment, radar and radio upper wind finding, spherics, and the development of meteorological instruments for measurements from aircraft in flight.  (Who’s Who in Science from Antiquity to Present; Marquis Who’s Who Inc.  Debus, Allen G.  1968)

Lyman, Jr. Spitzer (1914-1997) earned his B.A. and D.Sc. from Yale (1935, 1958); Ph.D. from Princeton (1938); D.Sc. from Case Institute of Technology (1960); and his LL.D. from Toledo University (1963).  He was an instructor of physics and astronomy and associate professor of Astrophysics (1946-47) at Yale.  He also taught at Princeton as a professor of astronomy, Charles A. Young Professor of Astronomy, and became the Chairman of the Astrophysical Sciences Department and director of the observatory in 1947.  Dr. Spitzer was the director of Project Matterhorn (1953-61) and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Plasma Physics Lab (1961-66).  His memberships include the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, International Academy of Astronautics, and he was the president of the American Astronomical Society.   Dr. Spitzer received the Rittenhouse Medal (1957), NASA Medal (1972), Bruce Medal (1973), and Draper Medal (1974). He is the author of Physics of Fully Ionized Gasses (printed first in 1956), Diffuse Matter in Space (1968), and was the editor of Physics of Sound in the Sea.  Included in his research projects is research on interstellar matter, cosmogony, stellar atmospheres, and plasma physics.  He also pioneered research on controlled thermonuclear fusion and in space astronomy.  (See:  Who’s Who 1976-77:  An Annual Biographical Dictionary.  St. Martin’s Press, New York.  1976.)

Elmer B. Staats (1914- ) was deputy director at the Bureau of the Budget. A career government official, he received a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1939 and joined the BOB staff that year. He became deputy director from 1950 to 1953 and again from 1958 to 1966, serving in the interim with the National Security Council. In 1966 he became comptroller general of the U.S., a post he held until the early 1980s.

John Stack (1906-1972) graduated from MIT in 1928 and joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory as an aeronautical engineer. In 1939 he became director of all the high-speed wind tunnels and high-velocity airflow research at Langley. Three years later he was named chief of the compressibility research division there. He was promoted to assistant chief of research in 1947 and subsequently had that title changed to assistant director of the research center. He guided much of the research that paved the way for transonic aircraft, and in 1947 he was awarded the Collier Trophy together with the pilot of the X-1 who broke the sound barrier, (by then) Major Charles E. Yeager. He won the award again in 1952 and later won the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy among other awards. From 1961-1962 he was director of aeronautical research at NASA Headquarters before retiring to become vice president for engineering at Republic Aircraft Corp (later part of Fairchild Industries) from which he retired in 1971. ("John Stack," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Thomas P. Stafford (1930- ), a career military officer who retired as lt. gen. in the U.S. Air Force, was chosen by NASA in the second group of astronauts, in 1962. He served as backup pilot for Gemini 3, pilot for Gemini 6; became command pilot for Gemini 9 upon the death of a prime crew member; and was backup commander for Apollo 7, commander of Apollo 10, and commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. He resigned from NASA on November 1, 1975, to become commander of the Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California. He was promoted to Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Research and Development in March 1978. He then retired from the Air Force in November 1979 and became Executive Vice President of Commercial Sales and Finance for American Farm Line in Oklahoma City, OK. He also worked as a consultant with Defense Technology, Oklahoma City, and thereafter as Vice Chairman, Stafford, Burke and Hecker, Inc., Alexandria, VA. He joined the Spectrum Information Technologies Technical Advisory Board in 1993. "Stafford, Thomas P.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Maurice H. Stans (1908-1998) was a longtime Republican in Washington. He served in several positions with the Eisenhower administration, notably as deputy director of the Bureau of the Budget between 1957 and 1958, then director from 1958-1961. In 1969 he was appointed as secretary of commerce for the Nixon administration and served until 1972. He was finance director of the 1972 Nixon re-election campaign and pleaded guilty in 1975 to five misdemeanor charges of violating campaign laws during the campaign ("Maurice H. Stans," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection).

Frank Stanton (1908- ) earned a Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1935 and went on to become a business executive, serving most notably as president of CBS, Inc. from 1946 to 1971 and its vice chairman from 1971 to 1973.

Edward V. Stearns (1922- ) was trained in physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and worked in several research positions in industry and universities. He was a physicist with the Rand Corp., 1949-1954; and assistant Chief Engineer with the Lockheed Missile and Space Co., after 1954.

Joseph A. Stein (1912- ) was an aviator in the U.S. Navy during World War II and then became a reporter for Portland, Oregon, newspapers. In 1954-1955 he was an information specialist at Lewis Laboratory before becoming (1955-1958) an aeronautical information specialist for NACA Headquarters. With the creation of NASA he became chief of the news division in the office of public information, and in July 1960 he was promoted to deputy director of the office.

John C. Stennis (1901-1995) (D-MS) was elected to the Senate in 1947 and served until 1989. He was a member of the Appropriations, Armed Services, and Aeronautical and Space Sciences committees in the early 1960s. In 1988, NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories in Mississippi became the John C. Stennis Space Center in his honor. ("John C. Stennis," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)

Kurt R. Stehling (1919-1997) was head of the launch vehicle division of project Vanguard at the Naval Research Laboratory and transferred with the program to NASA.  In the early years of NASA, he was senior scientist on the staff of the NASA Administrator.  In the mid 1960s, he was vice president of Electro-Optical Systems Corporation, and in 1971 he became a senior aerospace and technology advisor on undersea technology at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  See “Stehling, Kurt R.,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Robert Ten Broeck Stevens (1899-1983) was secretary of the Army for President Eisenhower between 1953 and 1955. He had long been associated with the textile industry, notably as president of the J.P. Stevens & Co. between 1929 and 1942 and chair of the board between 1945 and 1953. Stevensserved in the Army in World Wars I and II. After leaving the Department of the Army in 1955 he returned to his business activities in New York City, serving as president of J.P. Stevens Co., 1955-1959, and chair of its executive committee, 1969-1974. (William Gardner Bell, _Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits & Biographical Sketches_ [Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1982], p. 138; _New York Times_, 1 February 1983, p. D23; "Stevens, Robert T[en Broeck)," _Current Biography 1953_, pp. 591- 92).

Ted Stevens (1923- ) (D-AK) was elected to the United States Senate in 1968 and served until 2009.

Horton Guyford Stever (1916-2010) earned a Ph.D. in physics at Caltech in 1941 and became a member of the staff at the Radiation Lab of MIT until 1942, when he went to London as a scientific liaison officer through the end of World War II. He then returned to MIT as a member of the faculty, rising to become associate dean of engineering from 1956-1959. He remained a professor of aeronautical engineering until 1965 and then served as president of Carnegie-Mellon University until 1972. Meanwhile, he had begun an extensive and distinguished additional career of service to government. For example, he was chief scientist of the Air Force from 1955-1956 and served on its scientific advisory board from 1947-1969 (as chairman, 1962-1969). He was director of the National Science Foundation, 1972-1976, and in 1973 he became scientific and technical advisor to President Gerald R. Ford, Jr., a post he held until 1977. Along the way, he served on advisory committees to the NACA, including its special committee on space technology, and to NASA, including a stint as chairman of an independent panel of experts established by the National Research Council to advise NASA and monitor its compliance with the recommendations of the Rogers Commission that investigated the Challenger explosion in 1986. ("H. Guyford Stever," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Homer J. Stewart  (1915 - 2007) earned his doctorate in aeronautics from Caltech in 1940, joining the faculty there two years before that. In 1939 he participated in pioneering rocket research with other Caltech engineers and scientists, including Frank Malina, in the foothills of Pasadena.  Their efforts resulted in the creation of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Stewart maintained his interest in rocketry there. He was involved in developing the first American satellite, Explorer I, in 1958.  In that year, on leave from Caltech, he became director of NASA's program planning and evaluation office, and returned to Caltech in 1960 to a variety of positions, including chief of the advanced studies office at JPL, from 1963 to 1967, and professor of aeronautics.  See "Stewart, Homer" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC; Clayton R. Koppes, JPL and American Space Program: A History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982, pp. 23, 32, 44, 47, 79-80, 82.

Andrew J. Stofan  (1935 -    )  began his career with NASA, in 1958, as a research engineer at the Lewis Research Center.  Throughout his 30 years at NASA, he held numerous managerial and administrative positions.  He was the associate administrator for the Space Station office from June 30, 1986, until his retirement on April 1, 1988.    See “Stofan, Andrew J.,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Morton J. Stoller (1917-1963) was a leading figure in the Nation’s weather and communications satellite program.   He joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1939, as an electrical engineer, at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, and in 1958 became NASA’s chief of space science in the office of the assistant director for Space Science.  In early 1960 he was named assistant director for the satellite and Sounding Rocket program, in the Office of Space Flight, and in 1962 was named director of the Office of Applications.  See “Stoller, Morton J.,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Julius A. Stratton (1901-1994) earned an Sc.D. from the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (technical institute of the Swiss Confederation), Zurich, in 1928 and began as a research associate at MIT in 1924, rising to the rank of professor in 1941. He became chancellor of MIT in 1956 and president in 1959.

Samuel S. Stratton (1916-1990) (D-NY) was first elected to Congress in 1958 and served into the late 1980s. In the early 1960s he was a member of the House Armed Services Committee.

Lewis L. Strauss (1915-1974) was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1953-1958 and secretary of commerce 1958-1959. He also held the rank of Admiral in the U.S. Navy.

William G. Stroud (1923 -    ) earned a bachelor of arts degree from Pennsylvania State University, and graduate degrees in physics from the University of Chicago and Princeton University.  In 1959, before joining NASA, he was chief of the Astro-Instrumentation Branch of the Astro-Electronics Division at the U.S. Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey.  In 1960 he was chief of meteorology in the Satellite Applications Systems Division of the Goddard Space Flight Center and project manager for Tiros I, the meteorological satellite launched April 1, 1960. He became chief of the Aeronomy and Meteorology Division at Goddard, and then special assistant to the director of flight projects there.  See “William G. Stroud," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Hubertus Strughold (1898-1986) served as director of the Physiological Institute of the University of Heidelberg from 1946 through 1947.  Later in 1947 he joined the staff of the U.S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas.  In 1949 he was named chief of the newly founded Department of Space Medicine.  In 1951 he received the title of Professor of Aviation Medicine from the Air University, who named him the First Professor of Space Medicine.  In 1958 he was appointed Advisor for Research, USAF Aerospace Medical Center, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, and in 1960 was named chairman of the Advanced Studies Group of the Center. In early 1962 he was named chief scientist of the Aerospace Medical Division (AFSC).  See “Strughold, Hubertus,” biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Ernst Stuhlinger (1913 -    ) was a physicist who earned his Ph.D. at the University of Tbingen in 1936 and continued research into cosmic rays and nuclear physics until 1941, while serving as an assistant professor at the Berlin Institute of Technology. He spent two years as an enlisted man in the German army on the Russian Front before being assigned to the rocket development center at Peenemunde, Germany. There he worked principally on guidance and control of rockets. After World War II, he came to the United States as part of Project Paperclip and worked with Wernher von Braun at Fort Bliss, Texas, and then at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.  He transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1960, was director of the space science lab from until 1968, and associate director for science from 1968 to 1975 when he retired and became an adjunct professor and senior research scientist with the University of Alabama, at Huntsville. He directed early planning for lunar exploration and the Apollo telescope mount, which flew on Skylab, and produced a wealth of scientific information about the Sun. He was also responsible for the early planning on the high energy astronomy observatory and contributed to the initial phases of the space telescope project. His work included studies of electric propulsion and scientific payloads for the Space Shuttle. See “Ernst Stuhlinger," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Peter Andrew Sturrock (1924 -    ) earned his B.A. in 1945, his M.A. in 1948, and his Ph.D. (math) in 1951 from Cambridge University.  He began his professional career as the Harwell Senior Fellow, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, England, in 1951.  Other positions held include: fellow, St. John’s College, 1952 to 1955; research associate for microwaves, Stanford University, 1955 to 1958; and the Ford Fellow for plasma physics, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland.  See “Sturrock, Peter Andrew” in American Men and Women of Science, 1998-99, 20th Ed. New Providence, NJ:  R. R. Bower, 1998.

Stuart Symington (1901-1988) (D-MO) served in the Senate between 1953 and 1977. He entered government in 1945 when his fellow Missourian, Harry S. Truman, appointed him chair of the Surplus Property Board. He later served Truman as secretary of the Air Force and was an outspoken advocate of building a strong aerospace presence. As such, he repeatedly charged the Eisenhower administration with balancing the budget at the expense of national security and was one of its most vocal critics after the launch of Sputnik, predicting what proved to be a fallacious missile gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. He left the Senate in 1977. (New York Times, December 15, 1988, p. D26; Robert A. Divine, The Sputnik Challenge: The U.S. Response to the Soviet Satellite [New York: Oxford University Press, 1993], pp. 20, 43, 125, 178-183.)

Vladimir S. Syromiatnikov (1934-2006) designed the Androgynous Peripheral Assembly System, a unique docking system which linked the U.S. Apollo and Soviet Soyuz space capsules in the 1970s. In the 1990s he updated his docking system for the meeting of the Mir space station and the shuttle Atlantis at the International Space Station. He graduated with a degree in engineering from the Bauman Moscow High Technical University and the School of Mechanics at the Moscow State University. In 1956 he went to work for the S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia as an engineer, where he helped design the first piloted spacecraft that cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin rode in 1961. He then rose through the ranks to become a department head in 1977, helping design and overseeing the development of docking systems, onboard manipulators, and reusable solar arrays. Syromyatnikov was a Professor and head of the Technical Cybernetics Department at Moscow State University, an Invited Professor at the International Space University, and an Academician of the International Academy of Astronautics. His awards include the Lenin Prize, Honorable Scientific Worker of Russia, and the Friendship Order. See “Syromyatnikov, Vladimir” Biographical File 18654, NASA Historical Reference Collection, History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.


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Updated August 12, 2013
Steve Garber, NASA History Web Curator
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