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A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources

The following suggestions for citations of Internet sources in history and the historically based humanities are derived from the essential principles of academic citation in Kate L. Turabian, *A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , *5th ed. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1987). I have also draw upon suggestions from some of the works listed below. The >guide has been improved by the the students of my Historical Methods classes at East Tennessee State University and my fellow H-AFRICA editors whom I thank for their assistance. Since the Internet is an evolving institution, this guide is not intended to be definitive. Corrections, additions, comments, suggestions, and criticisms are therefore welcome. Please address them to the author at pagem@etsuarts.east-tenn-st.edu When the need for revisions and updates become apparent, new versions of the guide will be issued.

Bibliographic Citations

Basic citation components and punctuation

Author's Last Name, First Name. [author's internet address, if available]. "Title of Work" or "title line of message." In "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate. [internet address]. Date, if available.

The samples below indicate how citations of particular electronic sources might be made.

Listserv Messages

Walsh, Gretchen. [gwalsh@acs.bu.edu]. "REPLY: Using African newspapers in teaching." In H-AFRICA. [h-africa@msu.edu]. 18 October 1995.

World Wide Web

Limb, Peter. "Relationships between Labour & African Nationalist/Liberation Movements in Southern Africa." [http://neal.ctstateu.edu/history/world_history/archives/limb-l.html]. May 1992.

FTP Site

Heinrich, Gregor. [100303.100@compuserve.com]. "Where There Is Beauty, There is Hope: Sau Tome e Principe." [ftp.cs.ubc.ca/pub/local/FAQ/african/gen/saoep.txt]. July 1994.

Gopher Site

"Democratic Party Platform, 1860." [wiretap.spies.com WiretapOnlineLibrary/civic & Historical/Political Platforms of the U.S.]18 June 1860.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. "Making Difference." [gopher.uic.edu The Researcher/History/H-Net/H-Amstdy (American Studies)/Essays & Discussions About American Studies]. 20 July 1995.

Usenet Group Messages

Dell, Thomas. [dell@wiretap.spies.com]. "[EDTECH] EMG: Sacred Texts (Networked Electronic Versions)." In [alt.etext]. 4 February 1993.

Legg, Sonya. [legg@harquebus.cgd.ucar.edu]. "African history book list." In [soc.culture.african]. 5 September 1994.

E-mail Messages

Page, Mel. [pagem@etsuarts.east-tenn-st.edu]. "Africandance...and Malawi." Private e-mail message to Masankho Banda, [mbanda@igc. apc.org]. 28 November 1994.

Footnote and Endnote Citations

Basic citation components and punctuation

<note number> Author's First name and Last name, [author's internet address, if available], "Title of Work" or "title line of message," in "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate, [internet address], date if available.

The examples below indicate how citations of particular electronic sources might be made.

Listserv Messages

<1> Gretchen Walsh, [gwalsh@acs.bu.edu], "REPLY: Using African newspapers in teaching," in H-AFRICA, [h-africa@msu.edu], 18 October 1995.

World Wide Web

<2> Peter Limb, "Relationships between Labour & African Nationalist/Liberation Movements in Southern Africa," [http://neal.ctstateu.edu/history/world_history/archives/limb-l.html], May 1992.

FTP Site

<3> Gregor Heinrich, [100303.100@compuserve.com], "Where There Is Beauty, There is Hope: Sao Tome e Principe," [ftp.cs.ubc.ca/pub/local/FAQ/african/gen/saoep.txt], July 1994.

<4> Sonya Legg, [legg@harquebus.cgd.ucar.edu], "African history book list," in [soc.culture.african], 5 September 1994.

Gopher Site

<5> "Democratic Party Platform, 1860," [wiretap.spies.com Wiretap Online Library/civic & Historical/Political Platforms of the U.S.], 18 June 1860.

<6> Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, "Making Difference," [gopher.uic.edu The Researcher/History/H-Net/H-Amstdy (American Studies)/Essays & Discussions About American Studies], 20 July 1995.

Usenet Group Messages

<7> Thomas Dell, [dell@wiretap.spies.com] "[EDTECH] EMG: Sacred Texts (Networked Electronic Versions)," in [alt.etext], 4 February 1993.

E-Mail Messages

<8> Mel Page, [pagem@etsuarts.east-tenn-st.edu], "African dance...and Malawi," private e-mail message to Masankho Banda, [mbanda@igc.apc.org], 28 November 1994.

Additional Source Material on Internet Citations

Dodd, Sue A. "Bibliographic References for Computer Files in the Social Sciences: A Discussion Paper." [gopher://info.monash.edu.au:70/00/handy/cites]. Revised May 1990. {Published in IASSIST Quarterly, 14, 2(1990): 14-17.}

Li, Xia and Nancy Crane. Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information. Westport: Meckler, 1993.

University of Chicago Press Chicago Guide to Preparing Electronic Manuscripts: for Authors and Publishers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Walker, Janice R. "MLA-Style Citations of Internet Sources." [http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/janice.html]. April 1995.


version 1.1 30 October 1995


Melvin E. Page, Author
Steven J. Dick, NASA Chief Historian
Steve Garber, NASA History Web Curator
For further information email histinfo@hq.nasa.gov

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