Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience

Source Notes: Chapter One
 
 
1. J. M. Grimwood and B. C. Hacker, On the Shoulders of Titans, NASA SP-4203 Washington, D.C., 1977, p.xvi.
 
2. McDonnell Corporation, NASA Project Gemini Familiarization Manual, 1965, vol. 2, pp. 8.7,8.45.
 
3. Lenz, in Conrad D. Babb, Charles E. Dunn, John J. Lenz, and John L. Sweeney interview, IBM at Owego, NY, by Ivan Ertel, April 25, 1968, transcript in Johnson Space Center History Office; McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, p. 8.45.
 
4. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, p. 8.8.
 
5. Grimwood and Hacker, On The Shoulders of Titans, pp. 356,358.
 
6. Grimwood and Hacker, On The Shoulders of Titans, p. 370.
 
7. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, pp. 8.10-8.11, 8.48-8.49.
 
8. J. M. Grimwood, B. C. Hacker, and P. J. Vorzimmer, Project Gemini; Technology and Operations, G.P.O., Washington, D.C., 1969, p. 40.
 
9. Grimwood, Hacker, and Vorzimmer, Technology and Operations, p. 110; Lenz in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
10. Lenz, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
11. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, p. 8.72.
 
12. Sweeney, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
13. IBM, IBM Gemini Guidance Computer, Fact Sheet at Johnson Space Center History Office, February 17, 1966.
 
14. "Astronauts Control Flights, Aided by a Versatile Digital Computer," Electronics 71-76, (May 3, 1965).
 
15. P. W. Malik and G. A. Souris, Project Gemini: A Technical Summary, NASA CR-1106 Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 117.
 
16. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, pp. 8.75, 8.80; Lenz, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
17. Lenz, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
18. Homer W. Hutchison interview, Owego, NY, by Ivan Ertel, April 25, 1968; transcript in Johnson Space Center History Office.
 
19. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, p. 8.143.
 
20. "Magnetic Tape Memory Stores More Data in Space," Prod. Eng., 47 (April 25, 1966).
 
21. Hutchison interview.
 
22. Babb, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview; "Magnetic Tape Memory," Prod. Eng., 47.
 
23. Hutchison interview.
 
24. Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 120.
 
25. Harold E. Dodge interview, Owego, NY, by John J. Lenz, April 25, 1968; transcript at Johnson Space Center History Office.
 
26. Grimwood and Hacker, On the Shoulders of Titans, p. 252.
 
27. Grimwood and Hacker, On the Shoulders of Titans, p. 254.
 
28. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, pp. 8.82-8.89.
 
29. See the October 1983 issue of the Annals of the History of Computing (Vol. 5, [4]) for several articles on SAGE.
 
30. See Frederick P. Brooks, The Mythical Man-Month Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1975.
 
31. Lenz, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
32. James Joachim interview, April 25, 1968; transcript in Johnson Space Center History Office; Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 251.
 
33. Grimwood, Hacker, and Vorzimmer, Technology and Operations, p. 102; Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 251.
 
34. Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 254.
 
35. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, p. 8.104.
 
36. Dale F. Bachman interview, IBM at Owego, NY, by John J. Lenz, April 25, 1968, transcript at Johnson Space Center History Office; Lee Jackson interview, IBM at Owego, NY, by Ivan Erte1, April 25, 1968, transcript at Johnson Space Center History Office; Leroy S. Jimerson, Jr., interview, IBM at Owego, NY, by Ivan Erte1, April 26, 1968, transcript at Johnson Space Center History Office; Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, pp. 254-255; Sweeney, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
37. Joachim interview.
 
38. Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 118.
 
39. Dodge interview; Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 118; McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, pp. 8.44, 8.51-8.52, 8.121,8.123.
 
40. Malik and Souris, Gemini Technical Summary, p. 137; McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, pp. 8.46,8.48.
 
41. Gene Cernan interview, telephone from Houston, November 7, 1983.
 
42. John Young interview, telephone from Houston, March 6, 1984.
 
43. IBM, p. 3.
 
44. Cernan interview.
 
45. Young interview.
 
46. McDonnell Corporation, Gemini Familiarization Manual, p. 8.47.
 
47. Bachman interview.
 
48. "Astronauts Control Flights", Electronics; Sweeney, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
49. Sweeney, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
50. Sweeney, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
51. Westkaemper, in Lee Jackson and Robert M. Westkaemper interview, IBM at Owego, NY, by Ivan Ertel, Apr. 25, 1968; transcript in Johnson Space Center History Office.
 
52. Hutchison interview.
 
53. Joachim interview.
 
54. Babb, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 
55. Lenz, in Babb, Dunn, Lenz, and Sweeney interview.
 

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