Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience

Source Notes: Chapter Five
 
 
1. J.R. Casani, A.G. Conrad, and R.A. Neilson, "Mariner 4 - A Point of Departure," Astronaut. Aeronaut., 16-24, (August 1965).
 
2. Interview with Richard Malm, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, May 31, 1984.
 
3. Malm interview.
 
4. Casani et al, "Mariner 4 - A Point of Departure," p. 17.
 
5. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, The Mariner R Project Progress Report, September 1, 1962 to January 3,1963, Tech. Rep. no. 32-422, Vol. 1, Pasadena, CA, 1963.
 
6. H.K. Bouvier, R.G. Farney, and S.Z. Szirmay, "Mariner 4 Maneuver and Attitude Control," Astronaut. Aeronaut.," 38 (October 1965).
 
7. Casani et al, "Mariner 4 - A Point of Departure," p. 17.
 
8. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mariner-Venus 1962 : Final Project Report, NASA SP-59 Washington, D.C., 1965.
 
9. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mariner Mars 1964 Project Report: Spacecraft Performance and Analysis, Tech. Rep. No. 32-882, Pasadena, CA, February 15, 1967.
 
10. N.H. Herman and U.S. Lingon, "Mariner 4 Timing and Sequencing." Astronaut. Aeronaut., 40 (October 1965).
 
11. Interview with Edward Greenberg, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, May 30, 1984.
 
12. Greenberg interview.
 
13. J.R. Scull, "Mariner Mars 1969 Navigation, Guidance, and Control," Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA, 1970; A.J. Aukstikalnis, "Spacecraft Computers: A Survey," Astronaut. Aeronaut., 33 (July-August 1974); C.R. Koppes, The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the American Space Program, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1982.
 
14. Malm interview.
 
15. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mariner Mars 1969 Final Project Report: Development, Design, and Test, Volume 1, Tech. Rep. no. 32-1460, Pasadena CA, November 1, 1970.
 
16. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Development, Design. and Test, p. 325.
 
17. Greenberg interview.
 
18. J.R. Scull, "Mariner Mars 1969 Navigation, Guidance, and Control," Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA, 1970.
 
19. Interview with Don Johnson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, May 16, 1984.
 
20. Greenberg interview.
 
21. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Development, Design, and Test, p. 328.
 
22. A.J. Hooke, "In Flight Utilization of the Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," J. Br. Interplanet. Soc., 29, 277 (April 1976).
 
23. Hooke, "Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," p. 277; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mariner Mars 1969 Final Project Report: Development, Design, and Test, p. 328.
 
24. Greenberg interview.
 
25. After the example given by A.J. Hooke, "The 1973 Mariner Mission to Venus and Mercury," Spaceflight, 30 (January, 1974).
 
26. Greenberg interview.
 
27. J.A. Gleason, Mariner Mars 1971 Space Flight Operations Plan: Mission Operation Specifications and Constraints, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, April 6, 1971, Vol. 4, pp. 2, 112-113.
 
28. Hooke, "Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," p. 275.
 
29. C.E. Kohlhase, H.W. Norris, H.M. Shurmeier, and J.A. Stallkamp, "The 1969 Mariner Mission to Mars," Astronaut. Aeronaut., 84 (July, 1969).
 
30. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Development and Testing of the Central Computer and Sequencer for the Mariner Mars 1971 Spacecraft ,Tech. Rep. no. 33-501, October 15, 1971, pp. 2-3.
 
31. Hooke, "Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," p. 273.
 
32. Hooke, "Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," pp. 279-81.
 
33. Hooke, "Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," p. 285.
 
34. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Development and Testing of the Central Computer and Sequencer for the Mariner Mars 1971 Spacecraft. p. 12.
 
35. A.J. Hooke, "Mariner Mission to Venus and Mercury," p. 29.
 
36. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Development and Testing of the Central Computer and Sequencer for the Mariner Mars 1971 Spacecraft, p. 4.
 
37. Hooke, "Mariner 10 Spacecraft Computer," p. 285.
 
38. A. Avizienis, F.P. Mathur, D. A. Rennels, and J.A. Rohr, "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers and Spacecraft Information and Control Systems," Tech. Rep. no. 32-1449, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1969, p.1.
 
39. Avizienis et al., "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," pp. 10-11.
 
40. Avizienis et al., "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," p. 10.
 
41. A. Avizienis, "Design Methods for Fault-Tolerant Navigation Computers," Tech Rep. no. 32-1409, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, October 15, 1969, p. 4.
 
42. Avizienis et al, "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," p. 9.
 
43. A. Avizienis, An Experimental Self-Repairing Computer, NASA-TR-32-1356, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1968, p. E30.
 
44. Avizienis et al, "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace. Computers," p. 10.
 
45. Avizienis, An Experimental Self-Repairing Computer, p. E31.
 
46. Avizienis, An Experimental Self-Repairing Computer. p. E32.
 
47. A. Avizienis, "The STAR Computer: A Self-Testing-and-Repairing Computer for spacecraft Guidance, Control, and Automatic Maintenance," in The Application of Digital Computers to Guidance and Control, AGARD, London, June 2, 1970, p.17.1
 
48. Avizienis, An Experimental Self-Repairing Computer, p. E3 1.
 
49. Avizienis et al., "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," p. 3; Avizienis, "Design Methods for Fault-Tolerant Navigation Computers," p. 7.
 
50. Avizienis et al., "The STAR (Self-Testing and Repairing) Computer: An Investigationof the Theory and Practice of Fault-Tolerant Computer Design," IEEE Trans. Comput., C (1971), p. 1316.
 
51. Avizienis et al, "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," p. 2.
 
52. Avizienis, An Experimental Self-Reparing Computer, p. E33.
 
53. Avizienis et al., "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," p. 6.
 
54. Avizienis et al., "The STAR (Self-Testing and Repairing) Computer: An Investigation of the Theory and Practice of Fault-Tolerant Computer Design," p. 1314.
 
55. Avizienis et al., "Automatic Maintenance of Aerospace Computers," p. 7.
 
56. Avizienis, "The STAR Computer: A Self-Testing-and-Repairing Computer for Spacecraft Guidance, Control, and Automatic Maintenance," p. 17.8.
 
57. Avizienis, "Design Methods for Fault-Tolerant Navigation Computers," p. 5.
 
58. Avizienis, "The STAR Computer: A Self-Testing-and-Repairing Computer for Spacecraft Guidance, Control, and Automatic Maintenance," p. 17.8.
 
59. Avizienis, "The STAR Computer: A Self-Testing-and-Reparing Computer for Spacecraft Guidance, Control, and Automatic Maintenance," p. 17.8.
 
60. Avizienis et al., "The STAR (Self-Testing and Repairing) Computer: An Investigation of the Theory and Practice of Fault-Tolerant Computer Design," p. 1320.
 
61. "A Star is Born," Time (Decemher 7, 1970).
 
62. Carole McKelvey, "JPL's STAR Computer is Out of This World," Glendale News-Press, 3-594 (May 29, 1971).
 
63. H. Hecht, "Fault-Tolerant Computers for Spacecraft," J. Spacecr. Rockets, 14, 579-586 (1977).
 
64. Avizienis, "The STAR Computer: A Self-Testing-and-Repairing Computer for Spacecraft Guidance, Control, and Automatic Maintenance," p. 17.8.
 
65. Interview with William Stewart, Goddard Spaceflight Center, July 10, 1984.
 
66. J. Rhea, "Space Electronics: Electronics Research Center is Focal Point of Future Efforts," Aerospace Tech., 54 (November 20, 1967).
 
67. Greenberg interview.
 
68. Samuel K. Deese, letter to the author, June 3, 1985.
 
69. The complete story of the Viking project can be found in Edward and Linda Ezell's history, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet: 1958-1978, NASA SP-4212, Washington, D.C., 1984.
 
70. Greenberg interview.
 
71. Greenberg interview.
 
72. W.H. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Hardware, No. V075-4-2005-2A, Pasadena, CA Jet Propulsion Lab, Jan 17, 1975, p. 20.
 
73. Greenberg interview.
 
74. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Hardware, p. 20; Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Software, No. 075-4.2005-2A, Pasadena, CA Jet Propulsion Lab, January 17, 1975, p. 7.
 
75. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Hardware, p. 13.
 
76. R.A. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, 612-28 (DRL Line Item No. N4-SE24), Vol. 1, Pasadena, CA Jet Propulsion Lab, November 20, 1974, pp. A.1.21-22; Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Software, p. 30.
 
77. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Hardware, p. 13.
 
78. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Hardware, p. 5.
 
79. Greenberg interview.
 
80. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. A.1.21.
 
81. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. 3.15.
 
82. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Software, p. 16.
 
83. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. 3.125.
 
84. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. 3.165.
 
85. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, pp. 228-234.
 
86. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Software, pp. 31-33 contains a complete list of the instructions.
 
87. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. 3.6.
 
88. Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Hardware; Kohl, Functional Requirement Viking Orbiter 1975 Flight Equipment Computer Command Subsystem Software.
 
89. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. 4.2.
 
90. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p. 4.1.
 
91. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight Software Design Description, p.4.4
 
92. Proud et al., Viking 75 Orbiter Computer Command Subsystem Flight software Design Description, p. 5.7.
 
93. Martin-Marietta Corp., Viking Software Data, Rome Air Development Center, TR-77-168, p. 107.
 
94. B.A. Claussen II and R.E. Wachs, "Software First: Our Viking Experience and Continuing Research," Proceedings of the 1977 Summer Computer Simulation Conference, New York: AIAA, 1977, p. 108.
 
95. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 107.
 
96. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 111.
 
97. Claussen and Wachs, p. 108.
 
98. An excellent introduction to microcode is contained in D.A. Patterson, "Microprogramming", Scientific American, March, 1983.
 
99. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 118.
 
100. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 107.
 
101. Claussen and Wachs, p. 108.
 
102. Martin Marietta Corp., p. 106.
 
103. Claussen and Wachs, p. 108.
 
104. Martin-Marietta Corp., pp. 131-132.
 
105. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 110.
 
106. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 111.
 
107. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 114.
 
108. Martin-Marietta Corp., pp. 150,154.
 
109. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 104.
 
110. Martin-Marietta Corp., p. 149.
 
111. RADC-TR-77-168, May, 1977.
 

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