LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Chapters Page
   2. Space Environment:  
  Figure 1. The solar system 11
   3. Trajectories and Orbits:  
  Figure 1. Types of paths 20
  Figure 2. Interplanetary trajectories 22
  Figure 3. Velocity requirements for ballistic missile and space flight 24
   4. Rocket Vehicles:  
  Figure 1. Velocity characteristics of rocket vehicles 29
  Figure 2. Rocket vehicle characteristics 30
   5. Propulsion Systems:  
  Figure 1. Schematic of solid-propellant rocket 32
  Figure 2. Schematic of liquid-propellant rocket 33
  Figure 3. Nuclear rocket 35
  Figure 4. Solar sail 37
  Figure 5. Ion rocket engine 38
  Figure 6. Plasma jet 39
   7. Internal Power Sources:  
  Figure 1. Solar-powered alternator unit 50
  Figure 2. Utilization of isotope power 52
  Figure 3. Promethium battery 53
   8. Structures and Materials:  
  Figure 1. Sheet stringer construction 56
  Figure 2. Waffle construction 57
  Figure 3. Typical sandwich panel with hexagonal cell core 57
   9. Flight Path and Orientation Control:  
  Figure 1. Jet-vane control 61
  Figure 2. Control by rotating mass 63
   13. Atmospheric Flight:  
  Figure 1. Glide path 86
  Figure 2. Typical glide rocket 87
  Figure 3. Various types of atmospheric entry 89
  Figure 4. Approach paths from space 90
  Figure 5. Aerodynamic braking, shift from a parabolic approach orbit to a satellite orbit 91
  Figure 6. Aerodynamic forces on various bodies 92
  Figure 7. Density distribution in planetary atmospheres 93
  Figure 8. A simple analogy 95
  Figure 9. Velocity and deceleration during direct entry into the Earth's atmosphere from space at various angles 96
  Figure 10. Velocity and deceleration during direct entry from space atgreek letter Theta=90° into three planetary atmospheres 97
   14. Landing and Recovery:  
  Figure 1. Impact vehicle with penetration spike 103
  Figure 2. Rough landing instrument carrier 103
  Figure 3. Soft landing vehicle 103
  Figure 4. Soft landing vehicle, full assembly 104
   15. Environment of Manned Systems:  
  Figure 1. Stress-time effects on humans 107
  Figure 2. Human time-tolerances-oxygen partial pressure 109
  Figure 3. Human tolerances-atmospheric composition and pressure 111
  Figure 4. Human time-tolerance-carbon dioxide partial pressure 112
  Figure 5. Human time-tolerance-acceleration 115
  Figure 6. Approximate human time-tolerances Temperature 117

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252 ASTRONAUTICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS-Continued
Chapters
   15. Environment of Manned Systems-Continued: Page
  Figure 7. Effect of temperature on water, food, and oxygen requirements 119
  Figure 8. Human tolerances to radiation 121
  Figure 9. Production of X-rays inside space vehicle due to Bremsstrahlung caused by protons and electrons 122
   17. Nuclear Weapon Effects in Space:  
  Figure 1. Weapon effects at surface (20 KT) 132
  Figure 2. Nuclear radiation intensities (20 KT) 133
   20. Specific Flight Possibilities:  
  Figure 1. Ballistic missile range 146
  Figure 2. Velocity requirements for sounding rockets and satellites 147
  Figure 3. Typical satellite ascent trajectory 148
  Figure 4. Earth satellite velocity and period versus orbital altitude 149
  Figure 5. "Kick-in-the-apogee" technique of satellite launching 151
  Figure 6. Recoverable satellite ejection and reentry velocities 152
  Figure 7. Satellite recovery parameters 153
  Figure 8 Moon-rocket transit trajectory-impact 154
  Figure 9 Moon-rocket trajectory as seen from the Moon 155
  Figure 10. Effect of varying velocity on impact location 155
  Figure 11. Initial conditions for lunar impact 156
  Figure 12. Total velocity and path angle tolerances to hit the Moon 158
  Figure 13. Transit time from Earth to Moon 159
  Figure 14. Return near Earth after passing near the Moon-returning vehicle moving in same direction as Earth's rotation 160
  Figure 15. Return near the Earth after passing near the Moon- returning vehicle moving in direction opposite from Earth's rotation 161
  Figure 16. Transit trajectory-escape from the Earth 162
  Figure 17. Transit trajectory-lunar satellite 163
  Figure 18. Moon satellite orbit 164
  Figure 19. Relative positions of libration centers in the Earth- Moon system 165
  Figure 20. Flights to Venus in various positions 169
  Figure 21. Velocity penalty for launching after most favorable dates 170
   21. Observation Satellite:  
  Figure 1. Photograph 176
  Figure 2. Analysis of photograph (fig. 1) 177
  Figure 3. Photograph 179
  Figure 4. Lunar photography and aerial photography: Resolution comparison 186
  Figure 5. Viewing an area on the Earth at 45° latitude from the "24 hour" satellite 187
  Figure 6. Required focal length variation with altitude for ground resolutions of 1, 4, 20, and 100 feet assuming a film resolution of 100 lines per millimeter 189
   22. Meteorological Satellites:  
  Figure 1. Photograph 194
   26. Bombing from Satellites:  
  Figure 1. Bomb delivery from a satellite 208
   27. Scientific Space Exploration:  
  Figure 1. The radiation spectrum 210

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