Aeronautics and Space Report of the President FY 1995 Activities


Appendix C

U.S. and Russian Human Spaceflights, 1961-Sep. 30, 1995

Spacecraft Launch Date Crew Flight Time
(days:hrs:min)
Highlights
Space Shuttle
Endeavour (STS-57)
Jun. 21, 1993 Ronald J. Grabe
Brian J. Duffy
G. David Low
Nancy J. Sherlock
Peter J. K. Wisoff
Janice E. Voss
9:23:46 Fifty-sixth STS flight. Carried Spacelab commercial payload module and retrieved European Retrievable Carrier in orbit since August 1992.
Soyuz TM-17 Jul. 1, 1993 Vasiliy Tsibliyev
Aleksandr Serebrov
Jean-Pierre Haignere
196:17:45a Docked with Mir space station July 3. Haignere returned to Earth with Soyuz TM-16. Serebrov Tsibliyev landed in TM-17 spacecraft after end of fiscal year on Jan. 14, 1994.
Space Shuttle
Discovery (STS-51)
Sep. 12, 1993 Frank L. Culbertson, Jr.
William F. Readdy
James H. Newman
Daniel W. Bursch
Carl E. Walz
9:20:11 Fifty-seventh STS flight. Deployed ACTS satellite to serve as testbed for new communications satellite technology and U.S./German ORFEUS-SPAS.
Space Shuttle
Columbia (STS-58)
Oct. 18, 1993 John E. Blaha
Richard A. Searfoss
M. Rhea Seddon
Shannon W. Lucid
David A. Wolf
William S. McArthur
Martin J. Fettman
14:0:29 Fifty-eighth STS flight. Carried Spacelab Life Sciences-2 payload to determine the effects of microgravity on human and animal subjects.
Space Shuttle
Endeavour (STS-61)
Dec. 2, 1993 Richard O. Covey
Kenneth D. Bowersox
Tom Akers
Jeffrey A. Hoffman
Kathryn C. Thornton
Claude Nicollier
F. Story Musgrave
10:19:58 Fifty-ninth STS flight. Restored planned scientific capabilitities and reliability of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Soyuz TM-18 Jan. 8, 1994 Viktor Afanasyev
Yuri Usachev
Valery Polyakov
182:0:27a Docked with Mir space station Jan. 10. Afanasyev and Usachev landed in the TM-18 spacecraft on July 9, 1994. Polyakov remained aboard Mir in the attempt to establish a new record for endurance in space.
Space Shuttle
Discovery (STS-60)
Feb. 3, 1994 Charles F. Bolden, Jr.
Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr.
N. Jan Davis
Ronald M. Sega
Franklin R. Chang-Diaz
Sergei K. Krikalev (Russia)
8:7:9 Sixtieth STS flight. Carried the Wake Shield Facility to generate new semi-conductor films for advanced electronics. Also carried SPACEHAB. Krikalev's presence signified a new era in cooperation in space between Russia and the United States.
Space Shuttle
Columbia (STS-62)
Mar. 9, 1994 John H. Casper
Andrew M. Allen
Pierre J. Thuot
Marsha S. Ivins
13:23:17 Sixty-first STS flight. Carried U.S. Microgravity Payload-2 to conduct experiments in materials processing, biotechnology, and other areas.

a Figures supplied by Marcia S. Smith, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, based on information in Tass.


(continued)

Spacecraft Launch Date Crew Flight Time
(days:hrs:min)
Highlights
Space Shuttle
Endeavour (STS-59)
Apr. 9, 1994 Sidney M. Gutierrez
Kevin P. Chilton
Jerome Apt
Michael R. Clifford
Linda M. Godwin
Thomas D. Jones
11:5:50 Sixty-second STS flight. Carried the Space Radar Laboratory-1 to gather data on the Earth and the effects humans have on its carbon, water, and energy cycles.
Soyuz TM-19 July 1, 1994 Yuri I. Malenchenko
Talgat A. Musabayev
125:22:53a Docked with Mir space station July 3. Both Malenchenko and Musabayev returned to Earth with the Soyuz TM-19 spacecraft, landing in Kazakhstan on Nov. 4 together with Ulf Merbold of Germany, who went up aboard Soyuz TM-20 on Oct 3, 1994. Merbold gathered biological samples on the effects of weightlessness on the human body in the first of two ESA missions to Mir to prepare for the International Space Station.
Space Shuttle
Columbia (STS-65)
July 8, 1994 Robert D. Cabana
James D. Halsell, Jr.
Richard J. Hieb
Carl E. Walz
Leroy Chiao
Donald A. Thomas
Chiaki Naito-Mukai (Japan)
14:17:55 Sixty-third STS flight. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-2 to conduct research into the behavior of materials and life in near weightlessness.
Space Shuttle
Discovery (STS-64)
Sep. 9, 1994 Richard N. Richards
L. Blaine Hammond, Jr.
L. Blaine Hammond, Jr.
J. M. Linenger
Susan J. Helms
Carl J. Meade
Mark C. Lee
10:22:50 Sixty-fourth STS flight. Used LIDAR In-Space Technology Experiment to perform atmospheric research. Included the first untethered spacewalk by astronauts in over 10 years.
Space Shuttle
Endeavour (STS-68)
Sep. 30, 1994 Michael A. Baker
Terrence W. Wilcutt
Thomas D. Jones
Steven L. Smith
Daniel W. Bursch
Peter J. K. Wisoff
11:5:36 Sixty-fifth STS flight. Used Space Radar Laboratory-2 to provide scientists with data to help distinguish human-induced environmental change from other natural forms of change.
Soyuz TM-20 Oct. 3, 1994 Alexsandr Viktorenko
Telena Kondakova
Ulf Merbold (ESA)
* Soyuz TM-19 returned to Earth on Nov. 4, 1994, with Yuri Malenchenko, Talgat Musabayev, and Ulf Merbold. Valeriy Polyakov remained aboard Mir.
Space Shuttle
Atlantis (STS-66)
Nov. 3, 1994 Donald R. McMonagle
Curtis L. Brown, Jr.
Ellen Ochoa
Joseph R. Tanner
Jean-Francois Clervoy
(ESA)
Scott E. Parazynski
10:22:34 Sixty-sixth STS flight. Three main payloads: the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3), the first Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS-1), and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) spectrometer. Astronauts also conducted protein crystal growth experiments.

a Figures supplied by Marcia S. Smith, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, based on information in Tass.

*Mir crew members stayed for various and overlapping lengths of time.


(continued)

Spacecraft Launch Date Crew Flight Time
(days:hrs:min)
Highlights
Space Shuttle
Discovery (STS-59)
Feb. 3, 1995 James D. Wetherbee
Eileen M. Collins
Bernard A. Harris, Jr.
C. Michael Foale
Janice E. Voss
Vladimir G. Titov (Russia)
8:6:28 Sixty-seventh STS flight. Primary objective: first close encounter in nearly 20 years American and Russian spacecraft as a prelude to between establishment of International Space Station. (Shuttle flew close by to Mir.) Main Payloads: Spacehab 3 experiments and Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 204, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test. Also launched very small Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS).
Space Shuttle
Endeavour (STS-67)
Mar. 2, 1995 Stephen S. Oswald
William G. Gregory
John M. Grunsfeld
Wendy B. Lawrence
Tamara E. Jernigan
Ronald A. Parise
Samuel T. Durrance
16:15:8 Sixty-eighth STS flight. Longest Shuttle mission to date. Primary payload was a trio of telescopes called Astro-2.
Soyuz TM-21 Mar. 14, 1995 Vladimir Dezhurov
Gennadi Strekalov
Norman Thagard (U.S.)
* Thagard was the first American astronaut to fly on a Russian rocket and to stay on the Mir space station. Soyuz TM-20 returned to Earth on Mar. 22, 1995, with Valeriy Polyakov, Alexsandr Viktorenko, and Yelena Kondakova. Polyakov set world record by remaining in space for 438 days.
Space Shuttle
Atlantis (STS-71)
June 27, 1995 Robert L. Gibson
Charles J. Precourt
Ellen S. Baker
Gregory Harbaugh
Bonnie J. Dunbar
9:19:22 Sixty-ninth STS flight and one hundredth U.S. human spaceflight. Docked with Mir space station. Brought up Mir 19 crew (Anatoly Y. Solovyev and Nikolai M. Budarin). Returned to Earth with Mir 18 crew (Vladimir N. Dezhurov, Gennady M. Strekalov, and Norman Thagard). Thagard set an American record by remaining in space for 115 days.
Space Shuttle
Discovery (STS-70)
July 13, 1995 Terence Henricks
Kevin R. Kregel
Nancy J. Currie
Donald A. Thomas
Mary Ellen Weber
8:22:20 Seventieth STS flight. Deployed Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). Also conducted various biomedical experiments.
Soyuz TM-22 Sep. 3, 1995 Yuri Gidzenko
Sergei Avdeev
Thomas Reiter (ESA)
* Soyuz TM-21 returned to Earth on Sep. 11, 1995, with Mir 19 crew (Anatoliy Solovyev and Nikolay Budarin).
Space Shuttle
Endeavour (STS-69)
Sep. 7, 1995 David M. Walker
Kenneth D. Cockrell
James S. Voss
James H. Newman
Michael L. Gernhardt
10:20:28 Seventy-first STS flight. Deployed Wake Shield Facility (WSF-2) and SPARTAN 201-03.

*Mir crew members stayed for various and overlapping lengths of time.


Table of Contents Previous Forward

Curator: Lillian Gipson
Last Updated: September 5, 1996
For more information contact Steve Garber, NASA History Office,
sgarber@hq.nasa.gov