International Aeronautical and Space Activities
Discussions Concerning Arms Control of Space-Related Weaponry
During FY 1995, the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) participated in the development and implementation of a wide variety of national and international policies relating to missiles and space. ACDA continued to support U.S. efforts to expand and strengthen the 28-member Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), which is intended to prevent the proliferation of missiles, space launch vehicles, and other unmanned aerial vehicles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction. ACDA actively supported U.S. initiatives that resulted in South Africa and Brazil agreeing not to develop or acquire offensive military missiles covered by the MTCR. By meeting these and other membership criteria, both countries were admitted as full members in the MTCR. During this year, ACDA also worked intensively with Russia to resolve various outstanding arms control issues and to help Russia implement comprehensive export controls. The capstone of these efforts was Russia being admitted to the MTCR as well. ACDA also contributed to U.S. regional missile nonproliferation efforts, particularly in southern Asia, aiming to freeze, roll back, and ultimately eliminate ballistic missile programs in India and Pakistan and to prevent the import of such weapons there.
ACDA continued to be involved deeply in the policy process addressing the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and the use of U.S. and foreign excess ballistic missiles as space launch vehicles. Regarding the U.S. ballistic missiles that are to become excess under START I and START II, it is U.S. policy to retain them for U.S. Government use or to eliminate them. Since the signing of START I, some of the other START parties have initiated programs for using their excess ballistic missiles for nonmilitary space launch purposes. Such use has both military and proliferation implications. As an active participant in the National Security Council (NSC)-chaired Excess Ballistic Missile Working Group, ACDA assisted in crafting U.S. policy in this area, which is that the U.S. Government will consider, on a case-by-case basis, the requests of U.S. companies to avail themselves of such foreign space launch services. As a member of START's Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission (JCIC), ACDA participated in negotiating an agreement with the JCIC partners, which confirms that any space launch vehicle that employs the first stage of an intercontinental ballistic missile or of a submarine-launched ballistic missile is subject to the START provisions.
ACDA continued its involvement with a number of interagency working groups concerned with missile-related issues during FY 1995. On the international level, ACDA actively supported the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq's (UNSCOM) efforts to destroy or remove from Iraq virtually all materials, equipment, and facilities related to missiles with a range of greater than 150 kilometers.
Curator: Lillian Gipson|
Last Updated: September 5, 1996
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