Table of Contents for Appendix F

Appendix F
F.1 Business Park User Market
F.1.1 Principal Microgravity Uses
F.1.2 Pharmaceuticals
F.1.3 Pharmaceuticals Contacts
F.1.4 Semiconductor Groth & Markets
F.1.5 Migro-G Semiconductor Research
F.1.6 Micro-G GaAs Crystal Research
F.1.7 Pharmaceuticals
F.1.8 Micro-G Metals and Alloys
F.1.9 Miscellaneous Micro-G Projects
References

Commercial Space Transportation Study


Appendix F New Missions Appendix

F.1 Business Park User Market

F.1.1 Principal Microgravity Uses

  1. Improved quality and size of protein crystals
  2. Improved Separation Process (electrophoresis)
  3. Improved capability for drug testing (rats)
  4. Growth of replacement tissues for transplants
  5. Improved quality of semi-conductor crystals

The total demand for micro-gravity processing is a composite of these totally separate and as yet unestablished markets. The estimated total demand for microgravity processing assuming a successfaul transition of the major products to production status is shown in Figure F.1.1-1. Supporting data for this table follows. Note, that this table is the source for the low probability market projection at $20,000 per locker.


Market by Year ($M)
Market Sector20012002200320042005200620072008
Pharmaceutical1003006001,0001,2001,6002,0002,500
Semi-Conductor501002003005008001,2001,400
Other (Metals, Medical, etc.)501502003505006008001,000
Total2005508001,6502,2003,0004,0004,900

Figure F.1.1-1. Estimated Total Demand for Microgravity Processing Individual markets will be discussed in the sections following.

F.1.2 Pharmaceuticals

Protein Crystal Market

The principal customers for micro-gravity processing are pharmaceutical companies and microprocessor producers. Among the pharmaceuticals there are eight small research companies which focus on structure base drug design, thirty worldwide major pharmaceuticals with drug design departments and approximately one hundred biotechnology companies that currently conduct research, development, and commercialization. These potential users are listed below:

Structure Base Drug Design Research Companies
BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Vertex pharmaceuticals Agouron Pharmaceuticals International Pharmaceuticals
Arvis Pharmaceuticals Procept Pharmaceuticals Ariast Pharmaceuticals 3D Pharmaceuticals

Major Pharmaceutical Companies With Drug Design Departments
Abbott Laboratories Genetech Inc. American Cyanamid Co. Marion Merrell Dow Inc.
Bayer Group Merck and Company Burroughs-Wellcome Proctor and Gamble Co.
Ciba-Geigy Group Schering Plough Searle Monsanto Smith-Kline Beecham Plc.
Dupont Merck Pharmaceutical Co. Sandoaz Ltd. Eli Lilly and Co. Upjohn Co.
Glaxo Holdings Plc. Warner-Lambert Co. Eastman Kodak Co. Johnson and Johnson
Bristol-Meyers Squibb Co. Hoechst Group

Protein Crystal Growth is the most mature micro-gravity application and has the potential to be an anchor tenant for the space business park. At any time in the development process there are thousands of proteins in various phases of pre-clinical study. Of those a few hundred begin to show promise and proceed to further development.

There are several steps that require protein crystals: protein molecule solution in order to discover the location and composition of the active site; heavy metal doping to clarify and amplify the active site; and the testing of many possible drug compounds. The production of crystals that have sufficient size and clarity is a time consuming process.

The protein crystals need to be produced on a regular basis for a period of years and this is very expensive process. It is estimated that $15,000 to $40,000 per month is spent growing crystals of one protein in order to meet the requirements of the drug development process.

This assumption is based on data from Eli Lilly who spent approximately $965M in R&D in 1992A-1, of which 67%A-2 is spent on pre-clinical discovery and drug development. This amounts to approximately $54M per month of which 5% - 15% is spent on growing crystals. This leads to an estimate of a conservative medium probability market for crystal growing of $5M to $8M per year per major company.

A large pharmaceutical company will have 100 or more drugs undergoing some phase of clinical testA-2. During this process the most intensive effort is to search for side effects and unexpected short and long term complications. Having a better characterization of the active site of the protein means the drug molecule will be much more accurately tailored.

This minimizes the problem of bonding of the drug to the active sites of other proteins and hence reduces the side effects and complications of drug use. The result is that on average each drug undergoing clinical tests will see a reduction in the cost of testing of approzimately $700,000. This is based upon the assumption that 33% of the $965M is spent on clinical trials of which 20% is saved through better understanding of the drug. This saving amounts to $3.2M per year per drug.

Of all the drugs tested, the few that are successful undergo a lengthy development and qualification process, Often competing companies are in a race to reach market first and obtain substantial marketing advantage. Using protein crystals grown in micro-gravity results in an average reduction of the total development process of approximately one yearA-3.

Also the costs of these drugs during their pre-clinical development consissts mostly of the cost of capital that must be invested by the company before a return on the investment is realized. If the developemnt time is reduced by a year then the time for recovery of the cost of development is reduced accordingly. The savings to each of ten successful drugs would be in excess of $8MA-2.

When a pharmaceutical company has a more accurate tool for the development of drugs, such as micro-gravity protein crystal growth, the opportunity for additional successful drugs exists. Micro-gravity processing allows for a closer analysis of the structure of the protein and different perspectives of the protein due to additional morphologies which presents new opportunities for the use of small molecule drugs. Statistically, this would result in the addition of a new successful drug to the companies inventory. conservatively, this would be an additional value to the company of $50MA-2.

F.1.3 Pharmaceuticals Contacts

TL 797 G86
1990,
Space Enterprise,
Beyond NASA,
Gump, D.P. p.112
McDonald Douglas (MD)
Ortho Pharmaceuticals
3M’s Riker Laboratories
French space agency
CNES
Matra Espace
Roussel Uclaf (French drug company)
$$$ in drugs, eg. a pound of interferon can be made into 4.5 million doses at $10 a dose, a pound is worth $45 million MD spent $21 million to devolop continuous flow electrophoresis, to separate and purify biologicals (in this case erythropoeitin), advantage to space electrophoresis is faster production and greater purity.
Ortho Pharmaceuticals put in $8 million to develop the hormone in 1988 MD gave up and donated its space processing hardware to NASA, including small units for shuttle’s middeck crew and larger "factory" units for cargo bay Ortho pulled out because it could bring the hormone to market faster using ground based techniques: "The partnership with Ortho failed from the primary threat to all space manufacturing plans: ground-based competetion that moves more quickly than space-based operations. Extremely long waits between flights often cripple space research--promising initial results are put on the shelf for months or years until follow-up experiments can be flown."
Europe plans for electrophoresis unit in Mir (1991), space shuttle (1993) and on SSF
TL 797 G86
1990
Space Enterprise,
Beyond NASA,
Gumpp. 139
Dr. Charles Bugg, Univ. of Alabama, Center for Macromolecular Crystallography; Burroughs Wellcome Company (British); Merck & Company; Upjohn Company; Smith Kline & Beckman; Eli Lily; Kodak; DuPont; Procter & Gamble; Schering Corporation (actually research, not production) growth of giant protein crystals for cancer research eg. the humac C-reactive protein and bacterial nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) an enyzme that destroys cancer-fighting cells start up firm, BioCryst Ltd, working thru the Univ. of Alabama with $5.2 million in funding from business, is trying to develop a commercial product for treating AIDS
629.1771
P943 v. 110
Commercial Opportunities in Space,
"Commercial Bioprocessing in Space,"
D.W. Clifford
McDonnell Douglas
biologicals for processing in space
productsmedical useannual patients
immunoglobulinsemphysema100,000
anthiemophilic factors VII & IXhemophelia20,000
beta cellsdiabetes600,000
epidermal growth factorsburns150,000
erythropoietinanemia1,600,000
immune sereumviral infections185,000
interferonviral infections10,000,000
granulocyte stimulation factorwounds 2,000,000
lymphocytedsantibody production600,000
petuitary cellsdwarfism850,000
transfer factorleprosy/MS550,000
urokinaseblood clots1,000,000
predictions for value of pharmaceuticals processed in space by 2000 to be between $2 to $14.9 billion (Center for Space Policy, 1985)

F.1.4 Semiconductor Growth/Microprocessor Manufacturing Markets

Currently Proposed Microgravity Research Materials
ZnZn-quartzCd-QuartzTe-Se-quartz
Te-SeZn-FeAl FoamHg2Br2
Ge-Sb-SPbCl2-CuClBiOClGaAs-Cr
InSbGaSbAl + CuPbTe
Fluoro-beryllate glassGe(+I2)Bi2(Se, Te)3Bi bTe3
GaPGe alloyed with InAlGaAs/GaAs liquidSaccharose Crystals
Pb(SeTe)CdHgTeCuSO4-5H2OV2O5
PbSnGe+GaSn +PbNdCo2-CeMn2
GaInPAg-SiCNaCl-NaFCd-Hg-Te
Super-conductorsTin + 4% leadMolybdenum-GaNiobium-tin
Pseudo AlloysAl-bismuthBi + SbAl-magnesium

F.1.5 Pertinent Microgravity Semiconductor Research

N92-19778
Microgravity science & applications progam tasks
p. 172
1991
NASA Langley:
Dr. A. L. Fripp
Mr. W. J. Debman
Dr. I. O. Clark
Dr. R. K. Crouch, NASA HQ
Compound semiconductor growth in space. Lead tin telluride--used in infrared detectors and tunable diode lasers to be flown on Space Shuttle
as above
p. 176
8/90-5/93
Grunman Corporate Research Center:
Dr. David J. Larson Jr.
Dr. Alvin Levy
Dr. J. Iwan Alexander, UAH
Dr. Ratnaker R. Neurhaonakar, Rockwell
Dr. Donald Gillies, NASA/MSFC
NAS8-38147
Orbital processing of high-quality CdZnTe Compound Semiconductors study to compare ground produced samples with samples grown on the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) on U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1).
as above
p.179
NASA/MSFC
Dr. Sandor L. Lehoczky
Dr. Frank R. Szofran
Dr. Donald C. Gillies
Growth of solid solution crystals study to show advantages of Hg1-xCdxTe growth in space to be flown on USMP-2, Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace.
as above
p. 181
NASA/MSFC
Dr. Sandor L. Lehoczky
Dr. Frank R. Szofran
Dr. Ching-Hua Su/ USRA
Dr. Rosalia N. Andrews, Univ. of Alabama
Ms. Lucia Bubalac, Rockwell
Crystal growth of selected II-VI semiconducting alloys by directional solidification to obtain a limited amount of high quality materials for testing Hg1-xZnTe and Hg1-xZnxSe for CGF on USML
as above
p.187
10/90-10/91
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute:
Prof. Heribert Wiedemeier
Vapor growth of semiconductor crystals Hg1-xCdxTe-HgI2 compare ground tests to USML-1 flight experiment

F.1.6 Pertinent Micro-gravity GaAs Crystal Research

N92-19778
Microgravity science & applications progam tasks
p. 171
10/90-9/91
GTE Lab. Inc.:
Dr. Brian Ditchek
Dr. David Matthiesen
Mr. Alfred Bellows
Mr. Glenn Duchene
NASA, LeRC
Dr. R. Lauver,
NAS3-24644
Study to determine effects of buoyancy driven flow on melt grown Ga As crystals ground based tests GAS can on STS-40, June 5,1991
as above
p. 183
GTE Lab Inc.:
Dr. David H. Mattheisen
Mr. Alfred Bellows
Dr. Brian Ditchek
NAS8-38148
Gravitational and thermal techniques for complete uniformity during crystal growth for Crystal Growth Furnace on United States Microgravity Laboratory
as above
p. 27
MIT
Prof. August F. Witt
NAGW-1563
Growth control experiments using Bridgman and gradient freezes geometries, ground based experiment designed to be compatible with the Crystal Growth Furnace
N92-22659
NASA-TM-105320
"GaAs Crystal Growth Experiment Flown on Shuttle" Research and Technology 1991 LeRC Annual Report
p. 117
Richard W. Lauver
NASA/LeRC
(216) 433-2860
Experiment was flown on STS-40 resulting in what "appears to be one of the finest crystals in the program." Hardware failures allowed only one crystal to be grown during the flight. Bibliography - D. Matthiesen has published the following papers: AIAA 90-0742, Jan. 1990, "Free Float Acceleration Measurements Aboard NASA's KC-135 Microgravity Aircraft" AIAA 90-0319, Jan. 1990, "Interface Demarcation in GaAs Current Pulsing"
TL 797 G86 1990
Space Enterprise, Beyond NASA, Gump
p. 115
Exec. V.P. Russell Ramsland Jr.
Microgravity Research Associates
1004 North Big Spring
Suite 600
Midland, TX 79701
(915) 684-5693
Todays GaAs sells for $100,000 per pound, space GaAs could sell for $500,000 per pound. Superspeed GaAs chips could work 100 times faster than todays silicon. Silicon moves electrons 12,000 cm2/sV, space produced GaAs will go 1,500,000 cm2/sV estimates. Full scale production factory 13 feet long, 7,500 pounds producing 50 pounds of crystal wafers.
TL 797 G86 1990
Space Enterprise, Beyond NASA, Gump
Grumman Aerospace
International Space Corporation
Both companies plan high temp. crystal furnaces

F.1.7 Pharmaceuticals

TL 797 G86 1990
Space Enterprise, Beyond NASA, Gump, D.P.
p.112
McDonald Douglas (MD)
Ortho Pharmaceuticals
3M’s Riker Laboratories
French space agency, CNES
Matra Espace
Roussel Uclaf (French drug company)
$$$ in drugs, eg. a pound of interferon can be made into 4.5 million doses at $10 a dose, a pound is worth $45 million MD spent $21 million to devolop continuous flow electrophoresis, to separate and purify biologicals (in this case erythropoeitin), advantage to space electrophoresis is faster production and greater purity. Ortho Pharmaceuticals put in $8 million to develop the hormone in 1988 MD gave up and donated its space processing hardware to NASA, including small units for shuttle’s middeck crew and larger “factory” units for cargo bay Ortho pulled out because it could bring the hormone to market faster using ground based techniques: "The partnership with Ortho failed from the primary threat to all space manufacturing plans: ground-based competetion that moves more quickly than space-based operations. Extremely long waits between flights often cripple space research--promising initial results are put on the shelf for months or years until follow-up experiments can be flown." Europe plans for electrophoresis unit in Mir (1991), space shuttle (1993) and on SSF
TL 797 G86 1990
Space Enterprise, Beyond NASA, Gump
p. 139
Dr. Charles Bugg
Univ. of Alabama
Center for Macromolecular Crystallography; Burroughs Wellcome Company (British); Merck & Company; Upjohn Company
Smith Kline & Beckman; Eli Lily; Kodak; DuPont; Procter & Gamble; Schering Corporation
(actually research, not production) growth of giant protein crystals for cancer research eg. the humac C-reactive protein and bacterial nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) an enyzme that destroys cancer-fighting cells start up firm, BioCryst Ltd, working thru the Univ. of Alabama with $5.2 million in funding from business, is trying to develop a commercial product for treating AIDS
629.1771
P943 v. 110
Commercial Opportunities in Space,
"Commercial Bioprocessing in Space,"
D.W. Clifford
McDonnell Douglas
biologicals for processing in space
productsmedical useannual patients
immunoglobulinsemphysema100,000
anthiemophilic factors VII & IXhemophelia20,000
beta cellsdiabetes600,000
epidermal growth factorsburns150,000
erythropoietinanemia1,600,000
immune sereumviral infections185,000
interferonviral infections10,000,000
granulocyte stimulation factorwounds 2,000,000
lymphocytedsantibody production600,000
petuitary cellsdwarfism850,000
transfer factorleprosy/MS550,000
urokinaseblood clots1,000,000
predictions for value of pharmaceuticals processed in space by 2000 to be between $2 to $14.9 billion (Center for Space Policy, 1985)

F.1.8 Microgravity Metals and Alloys

N92-19778
Microgravity science & applications progam tasks p. 195
Vanderbilt Univ.
Prof. Robert J. Bayuzick
Dr. William H. Hofmeister
NASA/MSFC
Dr. Michael B. Robinson
Containerless processing of refractory metals and alloys Used drop tube at MSFC and elecromagnetic levitation Ti-51at% Al
as above
p. 197
9/90-12/91
MIT:
Prof. Merton Flemings
Prof. Harold Brody
NASA/MSFC:
R.C. Darty
Alloy undercooling experiments in microgravity Nickel and iron base alloys Columbia STS 61-C, Jan 1986 to be on IML-2

F.1.9 Miscellaneous Microgravity Projects

N90-11195
NASA TM 100378
Concepts for Microgravity ExperimentsUtilizing Gloveboxes
Roger L. Kroes,
Donald A.Reiss
Barbara Facemire
Space Science Laboratory
Science and Engineering Directorate
includes list of 87 experiments flown on Apollo, Skylab, or STS missions suitable for gloveboxes and description of 15 typical experiments proposed by Microgravity Science and Applications Division
N92-23600 thru N92-23642
NASA TM 4353
First International Microgravity Laboratory Experiment Descriptions including names of principal investigators for each experiment experiments in life sciences and microgravity science,
TL 797 G86 1990
Space Enterprise, Beyond NASA, Gump
pp. 125-134
3M Corporation
3M Center
St. Paul, MN 55144
(612) 733-7229
Began space research in 1983. Interests: "smart" adhesives; sticky on command super-strength plastics, hard at high temp; optical computers; fiber optic communications. Experiments: organic crystal growth; thin film experiment to see how molecules attach themselves to a surface; creating plastics with a greater percentage of crystallization; made deal with NASA to fly 62 experiments over the next ten years.

References

A-1. Eli Lilly and Company 1992 Annual Report.

A-2. Cost of Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 1991.

A-3. Conversations with Dr. Larry DeLucal, UAB Center for Macromolecular Crytallography, 1992.


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