Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI) Group
SDI Inventory, Organized by Framework Element
Working Draft, Version 3, October 8, 1996
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Environmental Endowments

Ecological Capacity

Ecological Capacity Definition: The overall ability of an ecosystem to maintain its natural, original, or current condition and to produce goods and services. This includes both the current stock and the ability of an ecosystem to produce more of a specific resource. This includes surface and subsurface renewable resources. This includes both land and ocean ecosystems.

Candidate SDI:

Ecosystem Health (14 PCSD)
Definition: Increase in the health of ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, wetlands, surface waters, and coastal lands:
Issue: Biodiversity/Ecosystem Health
Ecological Capacity Characteristic: TBD

Environmental Equity (12 PCSD)
Definition: exposure by income level
Issue: Equity/Environmental Equity
Ecological Capacity Characteristic: Number of People

Air Capacity

Air Capacity Definition: The ability water resources to maintain the ecosystem in its natural, original, or current state. This includes the capacity of the water to provide Oxygen and water to the biota and carry off Carbon Dioxide from the biota in the ecosystem. This includes both man-made and naturally occurring substances found in air that interact with water and soil, each other, and biota to produce adverse or undesirable affects. This does not include waste products managed by man, which fall under Man-made Capital.

Candidate SDI:

Ambient Toxins In Air (139 CEQ)
Definition: measured concentrations of harmful chemicals at USGS National Trends Network stations
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Air Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Tropospheric Ozone (188 NOAA)
Definition: O3 tropospheric
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Air Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Ozone

Unclean Air Areas (136 CEQ)
Definition: number of nonattainment areas for the NAAQS pollutants.
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Air Capacity Characteristic: Area of Land

Unclean Air Days (138 CEQ)
Definition: number of Pollution Standards Index days greater than 100
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Air Capacity Characteristic: Time

Biota Population

Biota Population Definition: The total population of each species of biota. This does not include human population (see Population under Human Capital).

Candidate SDI:

Algal Blooms (171 NOAA)
Definition: Algal blooms & ecosystem functioning
Issue: Environment Quality/Eutrophication
Biota Population Characteristic: Number of Algae Blooms

Contaminants in Biota (432 SDI Group)
Definition: Chemical contaminants in Land, estuarine, & marine biota
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Biota
Biota Population Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Dead Forest Water Bodies (79 USDA FS)
Definition: Number of water bodies that have lost half of their native fish populations
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Biota Population Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Forest Species Population (66 USDA FS)
Definition: Population levels of representative species from diverse habitats monitored across their range.
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Biota Population Characteristic: Species Population

Livestock in Dryland (304 UN CSD)
Definition: Livestock levels per km2 in dryland
Issue: Climate/Desertification
Biota Population Characteristic: Number Livestock per Area

Marine Max Sustained Yield (295 UN CSD)
Definition: Division in stock of marine species from maximum sustained yield (or another level) (%)
Issue: Resource/Declining Fisheries
Biota Population Characteristic: Species Population

Maximum Sustained Yield Ratio (296 UN CSD)
Definition: Ratio between Maximum Sustained Yield (or another) abundance and actual average abundance (%)
Issue: Resource/Declining Fisheries
Biota Population Characteristic: Species Population

Sea Mammal Population Change (168 NOAA)
Definition: Marine mammals & sea turtles/percent that are stable or increasing
Issue: Biodiversity/Species Extinction
Biota Population Characteristic: Number of Species

Ecosystem Diversity

Ecosystem Diversity Definition: The ability to naturally maintain a wide variety of ecosystems. This capacity generally applies to a broad geographic area and whole classes of ecosystems.

Candidate SDI:

Diminished Forest Land (74 USDA FS)
Definition: area and percent of forest land with diminished biological components indicative of changes in fundamental ecological processes (e.g. soil, nutrient cycling, seed dispersion, pollination)
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Ecosystem Diversity (385 SDI Group)
Definition: Area of threatened ecosystems organized by type
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Land

Ecosystem Fragmentation (383 SDI Group)
Definition: Area of fragmented ecosystem types
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Land

Forest Diversity by Age (59 USDA FS)
Definition: extent of area by forest type and by age class or successional stage
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Forest Diversity by Type (58 USDA FS)
Definition: Ecosystem Diversity Extent of area by forest type relative to total forest area
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Forest Fragmentation (62 USDA FS)
Definition: fragmentation of forest types
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Old Growth Forest Area (17 PCSD)
Definition: total old growth forest area
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystem Diversity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Species Diversity

Species Diversity Definition: The ability to naturally maintain multiple species within a single or multiple ecosystems.

Candidate SDI:

Coastal Water Biodiversity (179 NOAA)
Definition: Diversity & distribution of fishes & invertebrates in coastal waters
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Endangered Forest Species (64 USDA FS)
Definition: the status (rate, threatened, endangered, or extinct) of forest dependent species at risk of not maintaining viable breeding populations, as determined legislation or scientific assessment
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Endangered Species (21 PCSD)
Definition: number of endangered species
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Endangered Species (154 CEQ)
Definition: number of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Endangered Species (169 NOAA)
Definition: Status of species listed under the ESA
Issue: Biodiversity/Species Extinction
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Forest Defendant Species (63 USDA FS)
Definition: The number of forest dependent species;
Issue: Government/Sustainable Development Education
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Genetically Threatened Species (386 PCSD)
Definition: number of species with nearly identical genetic makeup
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Reduced Range Forest Species (65 USDA FS)
Definition: number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Reduced Range Species (384 SDI Group)
Definition: number of species that occupy a small portion of their former range
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Species Extinction Rate (409 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of species lost to extinction in the United States each year
Issue: Biodiversity/Species Extinction
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Species In Trouble (444 SDI Group)
Definition: The total number of species in trouble in the United States.
Issue: Biodiversity/Species Extinction
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Threatened Species (322 UN CSD)
Definition: Threatened species as % of total native species
Issue: Biodiversity/Species Extinction
Species Diversity Characteristic: Number of Species

Contribution to Global System

Contribution to Global System Definition: The ability of an ecosystem to affect the behavior of global subsystems, specifically, the global atmosphere (weather and climate) and oceans.

Candidate SDI:

Forest Products Biomass (84 USDA FS)
Definition: total mass of carbon in wood products
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Contribution to Global System Characteristic: Mass of Carbon

Total Forest Biomass (83 USDA FS)
Definition: total mass of carbon in forest ecosystem
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Contribution to Global System Characteristic: Mass of Carbon

Human Habitat Capacity

Human Habitat Capacity Definition: The ability of an ecosystem to provide space and resources to support human habitations. Habitations include buildings, structures, roads, dams, power lines, and other such human-made capital.

Candidate SDI:

Coastal Area Population (183 NOAA)
Definition: Population increases in coastal areas
Issue: Land Use/Urbanization
Human Habitat Capacity Characteristic: Human Population

Coastal Area Population Growth (292 UN CSD)
Definition: Population growth in coastal areas (%)
Issue: Land Use/Urbanization
Human Habitat Capacity Characteristic: Human Population

Coastal Housing (184 NOAA)
Definition: Housing trends in coastal areas
Issue: Land Use/Urbanization
Human Habitat Capacity Characteristic: Area of Land

Informal Settlements (253 UN CSD)
Definition: Area and population of informal settlements (km, no)
Issue: Population/Refugee Population
Human Habitat Capacity Characteristic: Number of People per Area

Population Density (229 UN CSD)
Definition: Population density (people/km2)
Issue: Population/Population Shifts
Human Habitat Capacity Characteristic: Number of People per Area

Productive Capacity

Productive Capacity Definition: The ability of an ecosystem to produce the raw materials necessary for economic activities. This includes all renewable resources, such as agricultural products, fibers, foodstuffs, timber, water, etc. This includes all renewable resources found both on and below the surface of the Ecosystem.

Candidate SDI:

Coastal Water Fish Kills (176 NOAA)
Definition: Fish kills in coastal waters
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Water
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Number of Fish kills

Fish Stock Use (166 NOAA)
Definition: Fish stocks/percent fully utilized
Issue: Resource/Declining Fisheries
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Fish

Forest Land for Timber (67 USDA FS)
Definition: Area of forest land and net area of forest land available for timber production.
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Renewable Resource Use (28 PCSD)
Definition: ratio of amount extracted to amount regenerated
Issue: Resource/Renewable Resources
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Natural Resources

Shellfish Quality (182 NOAA)
Definition: Quality of shellfish harvesting areas
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Biota
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Tender Stocks (317 UN CSD)
Definition: Tender stocks (m3)
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Volume of Lumber

Total Tree Growing Stock (68 USDA FS)
Definition: Total growing stock of both merchantable and nonmerchantable tree species on forest land available for timber production.
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Productive Capacity Characteristic: Volume

Soil Capacity

Soil Capacity Definition: The ability of the local soil resources to maintain the ecosystem in its natural, original, or current state. This includes the capacity of the soil to provide nutrients and minerals to the biota in the ecosystem. This also includes the amount of soil available for use by an ecosystem. This includes both man-made and naturally occurring substances found in soil that interact with twater and air, each other, and biota to produce adverse or undesirable affects. This does not include waste products managed by man, which fall under Man-made Capital.

Candidate SDI:

Diminished Soil Forest Land (77 USDA FS)
Definition: Area forest land with soil of low organic content divided by total forest area
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Erosion Index (300 UN CSD)
Definition: Area affected by soil erosion/erosion index
Issue: Production/Erosion
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Area of Eroded Land

Salination and Waterlogging (312 UN CSD)
Definition: Area affected by salination and waterlogging (km3)
Issue: Production/Over Irrigation
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Volume of Soil

Soil Chemistry (394 SDI Group)
Definition: Soil chemical content organized by location (e.g., iso-contours across the United States)
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Chemical Content

Soil Compaction Forest Land (78 USDA FS)
Definition: Area forest land with compacted soil divided by total forest area
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Soil Loss (15 PCSD)
Definition: topsoil lost per year
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Volume of Soil

Soil Moisture Content (392 SDI Group)
Definition: Average seasonal soil moisture organized by location (e.g., iso moisture contours across the United States)
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Water

Soil Nutrients (391 SDI Group)
Definition: Average seasonal nutrient content organized by location (e.g., iso nutrient contours across the United States)
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Nutrients

Soil Structure (393 SDI Group)
Definition: Soil structure (grain size, compaction, etc.) organized by location (e.g., iso-contours across the United States)
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Granule size

Soil Types (390 SDI Group)
Definition: Land area organized by soil type
Issue: Resource/Soil Quality
Soil Capacity Characteristic: Area of Land

Water Capacity

Water Capacity Definition: The ability water resources to maintain the ecosystem in its natural, original, or current state. This includes the capacity of the water to provide nutrients and minerals to the biota in the ecosystem. This also includes the amount of water available for use by the ecosystem. This includes both man-made and naturally occurring substances found in wate that interact with soil and air, each other, and biota to produce adverse or undesirable affects. This does not include waste products managed by man, which fall under Man-made Capital.

Candidate SDI:

Coastal Water Nutrients (170 NOAA)
Definition: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Nitrogen, & Phosphorus loadings into coastal waters (point & nonpoint sources)
Issue: Environment Quality/Eutrophication
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Nutrients

Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen (359 SDI Group)
Definition: Amount of atmospheric nitrogen absorbed into water bodies.
Issue: Environment Quality/Eutrophication
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Nitrogen

Drought (195 NOAA)
Definition: Drought
Issue: Climate/Drought
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Water

ENSO (203 NOAA)
Definition: ENSO, NAO
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Water

Estuarine Biota Impact (178 NOAA)
Definition: Impacts on estuarine & marine biota
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Biota
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Freshwater Faecal Coliform (288 UN CSD)
Definition: Concentration of faecal coliform in freshwater bodies (no/100 ml)
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Bacteria

Groundwater Contamination (353 SDI Group)
Definition: Area of land with contaminated ground water
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Water
Water Capacity Characteristic: Area of Land

Groundwater Drawdown (352 SDI Group)
Definition: Change in depth of water table over time
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Capacity Characteristic: Distance per Time

Groundwater Reserves (287 UN CSD)
Definition: Groundwater reserves (M3)
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Groundwater

Heavy Metals in Water (377 CEQ)
Definition: concentrations of Lead, Cadmium, and Ammoniun
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Marine Biota Contaminants (177 NOAA)
Definition: Chemical contaminants in estuarine & marine biota
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Biota
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Oxygen in Water (289 UN CSD)
Definition: BOD and COD in water bodies (mg/1)
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Oxygen

Palmer Drought Severity Index (210 NOAA)
Definition: PDSI
Issue: Climate/Drought
Water Capacity Characteristic: Area of Drought Land

People Drinking Water (2 PCSD)
Definition: # of people living in areas that do not meet safe drinking water standards
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Capacity Characteristic: Number of People

Snow Cover (200 NOAA)
Definition: Snow cover
Issue: Climate/Drought
Water Capacity Characteristic: Area of Snow Cover

Snow cover (214 NOAA)
Definition: Snow cover
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Capacity Characteristic: Area of Snow Cover

Snow Survey (219 NOAA)
Definition: Snow survey
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

Total Precipitation (212 NOAA)
Definition: Total precip.
Issue: Climate/Drought
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

Water Constituents (140 CEQ)
Definition: concentrations of selected chemical physical, and sanitary constituents of water at stations
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Water Quality Index (446 SDI Group)
Definition: Index of water quality measuring the appropriate concentrations of selected chemical physical, and sanitary constituents of water at stations
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Constituents

Water Resource Availability (220 NOAA)
Definition: Total water available organized by major watersheds
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Capacity Characteristic: Amount of Water

Ecosystems, Land

Ecosystems, Land Definition: An area on the Earth's land surface, extending to high-tide mark, with a characteristic physical environment and biological community.

Candidate SDI:

Acid Rain (357 SDI Group)
Definition: Area of land with high ph level resulting from excess Sulfuric and Nitric acid.
Issue: Environment Quality/Acidification
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Hazardous Waste Land (340 UN CSD)
Definition: Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Soil
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Contaminated Land

Land Conversion Rates (424 SDI Group)
Definition: The conversion rate of one land ecosystem type to another.
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area

Land Cover (351 SDI Group)
Definition: Area of land ecosystems organized by type
Issue: Biodiversity/Changing Biodiversity
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Land Use (299 UN CSD)
Definition: Area of land ecosystems organized by use
Issue: Government/Public Policy
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Major Land Use, Including Urban (423 SDI Group)
Definition: The total land area in the United states broken down by major estuarine and land ecosystem. This includes both urban and agricultural land.
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area

McKee Drought Index (209 NOAA)
Definition: McKee index, % area in short/long- term drought
Issue: Climate/Drought
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Drought Land

Palmer Drought Severity Index (211 NOAA)
Definition: PDSI % area in severe/ext. wet spell
Issue: Climate/Drought
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Drought Land

Protected Land (323 UN CSD)
Definition: Protected area as % of total land area
Issue: Government/Conservation
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Protected Land

Reclaimed Land (314 UN CSD)
Definition: Area of land reclaimed (km2)
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Reclaimed Land

Toxic Land Area (75 SDI Group)
Definition: Area and percent of land experiencing an accumulation of persistent toxic substances, including superfund and brown field sites
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Soil
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Urban Land Conversion (20 PCSD)
Definition: land area converted to urban use per year
Issue: Land Use/Urbanization
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Vegetation Index (223 NOAA)
Definition: Vegetation Index (from AVHRR)
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Ecosystems, Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Agricultural Land

Agricultural Land Definition: All ecosystems modified or created by man specifically to grow or raise biological products for human consumption or use. This includes cropland, pasture, orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticultural areas, and confined feeding areas.

Candidate SDI:

Agriculture Land Conversion (415 SDI Group)
Definition: Prime agricultural land area converted to urban use per year
Issue: Land Use/Urbanization
Agricultural Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Arable Land Per Capita (310 UN CSD)
Definition: Arable land per capita (ha/capita)
Issue: Land Use/Arable Land
Agricultural Land Characteristic: Area of Agricultural Land

Exotic Species Plantations (69 USDA FS)
Definition: The area and growing stock of plantations of native and exotic species
Issue: Biodiversity/Exotic Species
Agricultural Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Irrigated Arable Land (311 UN CSD)
Definition: Irrigation % of arable land
Issue: Production/Over Irrigation
Agricultural Land Characteristic: Amount of Irrigated Land

Barren Land

Barren Land Definition: Those ecosystems in which less than one third of the area has vegetation or other cover. In general, Barren Land has thin soil, sand, or rocks. Barren lands include deserts, dry salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, exposed rock, strip mines, quaries, and gravel pits.

Candidate SDI:

Desertification Index (306 UN CSD)
Definition: Land affected by desertification (km3)/desertification on index
Issue: Climate/Desertification
Barren Land Characteristic: Area of Desert Land

Desertification Rate (397 SDI Group)
Definition: Land area converted to desert per year
Issue: Climate/Desertification
Barren Land Characteristic: Area of Desert Land

Forest Land

Forest Land Definition: Those ecosystems that have a tree crown density (crown closure percentage) of 10% or more and are stocked with trees capable of producing timber or other wood products. This includes land from which trees have been removed to less than 10%, but which have not been developed for other uses.

Candidate SDI:

Cultural Forest Land (98 USDA FS)
Definition: area and percent of forest land managed in relation to the total area of forest land to protect the range of cultural, social and spiritual needs and values
Issue: Government/Conservation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Forest Area (149 CEQ)
Definition: percentage of U.S. covered with forests, which vary from sparse scrub forests of the interior West to highly productive forests of the Pacific Coast and the South
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Forest Area (318 UN CSD)
Definition: Forest area (km2)
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Forest Recreation Facilities (92 USDA FS)
Definition: Number of facilities per visitor
Issue: Individual/Recreation
Forest Land Characteristic: Number of Facilities

Forest Substanance Use (103 USDA FS)
Definition: Protected areas of Forest Land used for subsistence purposes.
Issue: Government/Conservation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Modified Forest Land (72 USDA FS)
Definition: Area and percent of forest affected by processes or agents beyond the range of historic variation, e.g. by insects, disease, competition from exotic species, fire, storm, land clearance, permanent flooding, salinisation, and domestic animals
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Polluted Forest Land (73 USDA FS)
Definition: Area and percent of forest land subjected to levels of specific air pollutants (e.g. sulfates, nitrate, ozone) or ultra violet B that may cause negative impacts on the forest ecosystem.
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Land

Protected Forest by Age (61 USDA FS)
Definition: Extent of areas by forest type in protected areas defined by age class or successional stage
Issue: Government/Conservation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Protected Forest by Type (60 USDA FS)
Definition: Extent of areas by forest type in protected area categories as defined by IUCNN2 or other classification systems.
Issue: Government/Conservation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Protected Forest Land (321 UN CSD)
Definition: Protected forest area as % of total land area
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Protected Forest Land

Recreational Forest land (91 USDA FS)
Definition: Area and percent of forest land managed for general recreation and tourism, in relation to the total area of forest land.
Issue: Individual/Recreation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Reforestation Rate (320 UN CSD)
Definition: Reforestation rate (km3/annum)
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Forest Land Characteristic: Volume Lumber per Year

Reforested Land (150 CEQ)
Definition: millions of acres of public and private forest land reforested
Issue: Land Use/Deforestation
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Reforested Land

Total Forest Biomass (82 USDA FS)
Definition: Total forest ecosystem biomass and carbon pool, and if appropriate, by forest type, age class, and successional stages.
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Forest Land Characteristic: Mass of Carbon

Toxic Forest Land (81 USDA FS)
Definition: Area and percent of forest land experiencing an accumulation of persistent toxic substances.
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Soil
Forest Land Characteristic: Area of Forest Land

Rangeland

Rangeland Definition: Those ecosystems dominated by grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, or shrubs and dominated by herbavors. Most of the rangelands in the United States are to the west of an irregular North/South line that cuts through the Dakotas, Nebraska, Knasas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Candidate SDI:

Native Grasslands (19 PCSD)
Definition: Increased number of acres of healthy native grasslands.
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Rangeland Characteristic: Area of Grasslands

Urban

Urban Definition: Those ecosystems dominated by man-made structures. Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas.

Candidate SDI:

Ambient Urban Pollutants (330 UN CSD)
Definition: Ambient concentrations of SO2, COx, NOx, 02 and TSP in urban area (ppm)
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Urban Characteristic: Amount of Pollutants

Exposure to Air Pollution (240 UN CSD)
Definition: % of people exposed to high concentrations of health damaging air pollution
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Urban Characteristic: Number of People

Flood Prone Cities (356 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of urban areas located on flood planes or other areas experiencing a major flood at least once per decade
Issue: Environment Quality/Natural Disasters
Urban Characteristic: Number of Cities

High Growth Urban Areas (360 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of urban areas experiencing a growth rate of greater than 50% per year
Issue: Infrastructure/Public Infrastructure
Urban Characteristic: Number of Cities

Megacities (251 UN CSD)
Definition: Number of megacities (10 million or more)
Issue: Population/Population Shifts
Urban Characteristic: Number of Cities

Ozone Exposed People (137 CEQ)
Definition: number of people living in counties that do not meet the ground level ozone standard
Issue: Environment Quality/Air Quality
Urban Characteristic: Number of People

Urban Decay (368 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of cities experiencing a sharp decline in population and income within the last 30 years.
Issue: Land Use/Urban Decay
Urban Characteristic: Number of Cities

Urban Population (252 UN CSD)
Definition: % of population in urban areas
Issue: Population/Population Shifts
Urban Characteristic: Number of People

Urban Population Growth (249 UN CSD)
Definition: Rate of growth of urban population (%)
Issue: Population/Population Shifts
Urban Characteristic: Number of People

Urban Public Parks (31 PCSD)
Definition: urban green space, park space, and recreational areas
Issue: Land Use/Outdoor Recreational Services
Urban Characteristic: Area of Park Land

Water Shortages (398 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of cities that have oversubscribed the available water resources
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Urban Characteristic: Number of Cities

Water systems

Water systems Definition: Those ecosystems persistantly covered by water. This includes streams, creeks, rivers, canals and other linear bodies of water. This also includes lakes (both fresh and salt water) and reserviors.

Candidate SDI:

Acid Lakes (358 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of standing lakes, streams, and receivers with high ph level resulting from excess Sulfuric and Nitric acid.
Issue: Environment Quality/Acidification
Water systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Dead Forest Water Bodies (80 USDA FS)
Definition: Percent of water bodies in forest areas (e.g. stream kilometers, lake hectares ) with significant variation from the historic range of variability in pH, dissolved oxygen, levels of chemicals (electrical conductivity), sedimentation or temperature change.
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Fragmented Water Systems (389 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of water systems fragmented from their original condition by human activities
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Healthy Lakes (18 PCSD)
Definition: Number of water systems classified as safe for fish harvest
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Lakes Requiring Cleanup (142 CEQ)
Definition: percentage of rivers, lakes, and streams that need pollution control actions, as determined by EPA
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Lakes With Lead (143 CEQ)
Definition: number of water systems that exceed the lead action level of 15 ppb suggested by EPA
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Lakes With Thermal Pollution (388 SDI Group)
Definition: number of water systems with temperatures that exceed the normal by 5 degrees centigrade
Issue: Environment Quality/Water Quality
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Modified Forest Streams (76 USDA FS)
Definition: Percent of stream kilometers in forested catchments in which stream flow and timing has significantly deviated from the historic range of variation.
Issue: Production/Erosion
Water Systems Characteristic: Length of Streams

Seasonal Water Bodies (387 SDI Group)
Definition: Number of water bodies with significant seasonal or annual variations
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Water Systems Characteristic: Number of Water Bodies

Wetland

Wetland Definition: Those ecosystems where the water table is at, near, or above the land surface for a significant part of most years and dominated by hydrophytic vegitation and biota. Wetlands include marshes, mudflats, swamps, wet meadows, and perched bogs. Wetlands also include seasonally flooded basins, playas, or potholes with no surface water outflow. Wetlands do not include shallow water areas with submerged aquatic vegitation falls (see Water Systems and Ocean Ecosystems). This does not include tidal, estuarian wetlands (see Estuarian Ecosystems).

Candidate SDI:

Wetlands Lost (16 PCSD)
Definition: Area wetlands lost per year
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Wetland Characteristic: Area of Wetlands

Wetlands Lost or Restored (144 CEQ)
Definition: number of wetlands lost and restored under the Pilot Wetlands Reserve Program
Issue: Biodiversity/Habitat Change
Wetland Characteristic: Area of Wetlands

Ecosystems, Estuarine

Ecosystems, Estuarine Definition: Those ecosystems consisting of tidal catchments and adjacent tidal wetlands that are usually semi-enclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed, or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. This ecosystem extends to the high-tide mark. The Estuarine System also includes offshore areas of continuously diluted sea water.

Candidate SDI:

Coastal Resource Oil Spill (180 NOAA)
Definition: Coastal resources at risk from spilled oil
Issue: Environment Quality/Toxic Chemical Releases
Ecosystems, Estuarine Characteristic: Length of Shoreline

Shellfish Harvest Areas (145 CEQ)
Definition: percentage of waters in 23 shellfish growing states approved for harvest at all times by the NOAA National Ocean Service
Issue: Environment Quality/Contamination of Biota
Ecosystems, Estuarine Characteristic: Area of Shellfish Fisheries

Ecosystems, Marine

Ecosystems, Marine Definition: Those ecosystems consisting of the open ocean overlying the continental shelf and its associated high-energy coastline, extending to the high-tide mark. Shallow coastal indentations or bays without appreciable freshwater inflow are also considered part of the marine system.

Candidate SDI:

Algae Index (297 UN CSD)
Definition: Algae index
Issue: Environment Quality/Eutrophication
Ecosystems, Marine Characteristic: Amount of Algae

Atmosphere

Atmosphere Definition: The gaseous mass or envelop surrounding the Earth, retained by the Earth's gravitational feild. The atmosphere extends from the Earth's surface (commonly called the atmospheric boundry layer) to an altitude of about 110 miles (660 km). The atmosphere is divided into layers based on how the temperature varies with altitude.

Candidate SDI:

Arctic Optical Depth (192 NOAA)
Definition: Arctic haze/ optical depth
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Air Clarity

Carbon Dioxide (185 NOAA)
Definition: CO2
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Greenhouse Gases

Climate Extremes Index (213 NOAA)
Definition: Climate Extremes Index
Issue: Climate/Drought
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

ClorFloroCarbons (190 NOAA)
Definition: CFCs, HFCs
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Greenhouse Gases

Drought Frequency (307 UN CSD)
Definition: Drought frequency (or intensity)
Issue: Climate/Drought
Atmosphere Characteristic: Number of Droughts

Greenhouse Climate Response Index (215 NOAA)
Definition: Arithmatic average of 1) percent of U.S. with much above normal minimum temperatures, 2) percent of U.S. with much above normal precipitation during the months of October through April, 3) percent of U.S. in extreme or severe drought during the months of May through September and 4) the percent of the U.S. with a much greater than normal proportion of precipitation derrived from extreme one day precipitation events (exceeding 2 inches).
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Temperature

Maximum Temperature (197 NOAA)
Definition: Maximum temperature
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Temperature

Methane (186 NOAA)
Definition: CH4
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Greenhouse Gases

Methane Isotopes (193 NOAA)
Definition: CH4 Isotope
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Air Clarity

Minimum Temperature (198 NOAA)
Definition: Minimum temperature
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Temperature

Nitrous Oxides (191 NOAA)
Definition: N2O
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Greenhouse Gases

Optical Depth (194 NOAA)
Definition: Optical Depth
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Atmosphere Characteristic: Air Clarity

Precipitation Extremes (199 NOAA)
Definition: Precipitation extremes
Issue: Climate/Drought
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

Rainfall Frequency (218 NOAA)
Definition: Rainfall frequency
Issue: Climate/Drought
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

Snow Water Equivalent (216 NOAA)
Definition: Snow H2O equiv.
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

Streamflow Forecasts (217 NOAA)
Definition: Streamflow forecasts
Issue: Resource/Water Resources
Atmosphere Characteristic: Amount of Precipitation

Ultraviolet-B Radiation (221 NOAA)
Definition: Ultraviolet-B radiation
Issue: Climate/Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Atmosphere Characteristic: Radiation Flux

Stratosphere

Stratosphere Definition: The layer of the Earth's atmosphere between 10-50 km defined by an exponential increase in temperature as a function of altitude. The temperature peaks at about 270 degrees Kelvin at approximately 50 km. The ozone layer lies in the stratosphere.

Candidate SDI:

Stratospheric Ozone Concentration (187 NOAA)
Definition: O3 total
Issue: Climate/Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Stratosphere Characteristic: Amount of Ozone

Stratospheric Temperature (204 NOAA)
Definition: Stratospheric temp.
Issue: Climate/Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Stratosphere Characteristic: Temperature

Stratospheric Water Vapor (189 NOAA)
Definition: H2O stratospheric
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Stratosphere Characteristic: Amount of Water Vapor

Oceans

Oceans Definition: The entire body of salt water that covers approximately 72% of the Earth's surface.

Candidate SDI:

Ocean Surface Temperature (196 NOAA)
Definition: Ocean Surface temperature
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Oceans Characteristic: Temperature

Sea Ice Volume (201 NOAA)
Definition: Sea Ice
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Oceans Characteristic: Volume of Sea Ice

Sea Surface Temperature (222 NOAA)
Definition: Sea surface temperature (from AVHRR)
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Oceans Characteristic: Temperature

Temperature Gradients (207 NOAA)
Definition: Temp. gradients -- NH-SH, land-ocean, pole-equator
Issue: Climate/Global Climate Change
Oceans Characteristic: Temperature

Non-Renewable Resources

Non-Renewable Resources Definition: The ability of an ecosystem to produce the raw materials necessary for economic activities. This includes non-renewable resources, such as metals, minerals, and fossil fuels. This includes all non-renewable resources found both on and below the surface of the Ecosystem.

Candidate SDI:

Energy Reserves by Type (271 UN CSD)
Definition: Proven energy reserves (% equivalents) organized by type (hydroelectric, fossil fuel, nuclear, etc.)
Issue: Resource/Energy Resources
Non-Renewable Resources Characteristic: Amount of Fossil Fuel

Energy Reserves Lifetime (272 UN CSD)
Definition: Lifetime of proven energy reserves (years)
Issue: Resource/Energy Resources
Non-Renewable Resources Characteristic: Amount of Fossil Fuel

Fossil Fuel Reserves (155 CEQ)
Definition: proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas plant liquids
Issue: Resource/Energy Resources
Non-Renewable Resources Characteristic: Amount of Fossil Fuel

Mineral Depletion (268 UN CSD)
Definition: Depletion of mineral resources (% of proven reserves)
Issue: Resource/Mineral Reserves
Non-Renewable Resources Characteristic: Amount of Mineral Reserves

Mineral Reserves (270 UN CSD)
Definition: Proven mineral reserves(1)
Issue: Resource/Mineral Reserves
Non-Renewable Resources Characteristic: Amount of Mineral Reserves

Renewable Nonrenewable Energy (275 UN CSD)
Definition: Ratio of consumption of renewable over non renewable energy resources
Issue: Resource/Renewable Resources
Non-Renewable Resources Characteristic: Amount of Natural Resources