FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 

                                    BUDGET SUMMARY 


                            SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 

                                                FY 1994          FY 1995           FY 1996   
	                                                   (Thousands of Dollars) 

Policy, oversight, and standards		 27,273	          15,475	    17,600    
Quality management                                3,452            9,118             8,100    
Software independent verification and validation  3,575            8,186             6,400    
Engineering                                          --            5,921             5,500  

      Total                                      34,300           38,700            37,600 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 

Johnson Space Center                              3,957            4,794             4,700 
Kennedy Space Center                              1,472            1,449             1,400 
Marshall Space Flight Center                      1,841            1,795             1,750 
Stennis Space Center                                663              415               400 
Ames Research Center                                725              550               535 
Dryden Flight Research Center                         8              125               100 
Langley Research Center                           2,261            1,480             1,425 
Lewis Research Center                             4,504            3,845             3,790 
Goddard Space Flight Center                       4,641            5,685             5,300 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory		          3,348            4,929             4,850 
Headquarters                                     10,880           13,633            13,350 

      Total                                      34,300           38,700            37,600 

                                         MISSION SUPPORT 

                                     FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 


OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER                                    QUALITY ASSURANCE 


To ensure the safe and successful execution of NASA programs by providing oversight of NASA's flight and ground systems 
development and operations programs; by developing agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability, quality assurance and 
engineering policies, standards and practices; and by providing for the identification and qualification of key technologies to improve 
the performance and reliability of NASA flight systems. 


NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and Office of the Chief Engineer (OCE) provide leadership in promoting and 
ensuring the safety, innovation, and quality of all NASA programs; and improving the practice of engineering in NASA programs.  
This work is performed in four programmatic areas.  These are the Policy, Oversight, and Standards; Quality Management; Software 
Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V); and Engineering programs.  Targeted initiatives in each of these areas are intended 
to facilitate the ability of NASA's strategic enterprises to accomplish their goals in a safe and efficient manner. 

Beginning in FY 1995, the engineering function and associated funding previously managed by NASA's OSMA are transferred to the 
OCE.  No interruption in the conduct of these activities will occur. 

The Policy, Oversight, and Standards program supports the areas of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality assurance 
(SRM&QA).  Activities include studies and investigations to formulate NASA safety and mission assurance policy; and safety 
oversight and flight readiness assessments for NASA programs.  Documentation and analysis of NASA experience in the SRM&QA 
disciplines, mishap investigations, NASA emergency preparedness, and range safety helps improve the safety and risk management 
practices of NASA programs.  Guidance to the Agency's SRM&QA organizations for the conduct of self-assessments will be used to 
augment OSMA's oversight role and enhance the implementation of SRM&QA policies.  Compliance with the Occupational Safety 
and Health Act is supported and monitored.  NASA is also in the process of adopting the international standard for quality, ISO 
9000, in concert with the Department of Defense (DoD) and other federal agencies. 

The focus of the Quality Management program is to support the early introduction of tailored safety, reliability, and quality 
requirements into space flight systems design and manufacture in the early stages of a program.  This approach is expected to 
result in decreased life cycle costs in NASA programs, by reducing or eliminating costly redesign of systems in the latter stages of 
development and test.  The Quality Management program provides direct assurance support to NASA robotics, aeronautics, and 
expendable launch vehicle programs.  Studies of optimized quality assurance surveillance for Space Transportation System (STS) 
processing are also performed.  Studies are conducted of risk factors in specific flight programs; the effectiveness of qualification test 
methods; and non-destructive evaluation techniques.  Improved qualification methods for electrical, electronic, and electro-
mechanical (EEE) parts and qualification of advanced EEE parts and packaging technologies for use by NASA flight programs are 
supported.  New focus will be given to qualification of parts manufacturing processes rather than the previous focus on auditing 
parts quality. 

NASA's Software IV&V program supports the management of NASA's IV&V facility located at Fairmont, West Virginia.  This program 
supports the development of software assurance standards, practices, and technology for evaluation of flight system, mission 
control, and science data processing systems software.  This initiative is expected to result in enhanced performance and reliability 
of increasingly complex and critical software used throughout NASA facilities and systems. 

The Engineering program provides both oversight and improvement of NASA's technical ability to successfully execute its programs.  
The OCE provides direct support to the NASA Administrator by conducting independent evaluation of the performance of NASA 
programs and other engineering issues.  The OCE also coordinates the activities of NASA's Engineering Management Council.  The 
OCE develops NASA engineering policies, standards and guidelines; promotes increased use of industry and international standards 
to enhance the interoperability of NASA and other aerospace systems; encourages cooperative endeavors; and seeks to improve 
NASA-industry exchanges.  Efforts to improve engineering practices in areas such as systems engineering, software engineering, 
structural analysis, and test methods will facilitate continuous improvement of NASA capabilities.  Validation of critical 
technologies, focusing on demonstration of potential program applications to improve system reliability and performance, is also 

As a part of their responsibilities, the two NASA Headquarters offices also coordinate NASA activities with various external groups 
and agencies, such as by providing funds to the Air Force Composite Pressure Vessel Standards to develop a joint standard meeting 
NASA and DoD needs at greatly reduced cost to NASA.  Innovative packaging techniques for electronic systems are jointly supported 
by industry, NASA, and the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).  NASA also participates in the Government-Industry Data 
Exchange Program (GIDEP), a Governmentwide initiative.  Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and NASA are co-
funding studies and experiments on the explosive equivalence of large-quantity H2/O2 mixtures; and NASA, NASDA, and the 
European, Canadian, and Russian Space Agencies are to form an international SRM&QA working group focusing on safety, quality 
assurance, and electronic parts.  NASA also participates in the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel for issues related to NASA's 
use of nuclear systems, as in the case of the Cassini mission. 

NASA supports a joint effort with the Departments of Commerce, Defense and Energy in development of an international Product 
Data Exchange Standard; with the Department of the Air Force for development and qualification of space batteries; and with the 
Federal Aviation Administration for U.S. adoption of NASA fracture analysis methods for aging aircraft.  A cooperative program with 
the aerospace industry will demonstrate commercial implementation of laser-initiated ordnance systems.  NASA also participates in 
the U.S. Secretariat of the International Standards Organization for adoption of standards for the design, safety, and interoperability 
of space flight systems. 


NASA adoption of international standards for space systems development and quality promises to improve NASA's ability to 
coordinate its affairs with its international partners and to improve the competitiveness of U.S. industry in world markets. 



Mishap Prevention             The mishap prevention program will continue to contribute to reducing time lost to accidents at 
                              NASA facilities. 

Independent Assessments,      Independent assessments, oversight, and flight readiness reviews will contribute to the safety  
Oversight, and Reviews        and success of NASA missions by ensuring that programs have resolved all technical issues.  
                              This includes review of the adequacy of program SRM&QA and engineering efforts and 
                              independently analyzing critical issues. 

Engineering Standards         and Establishment of baseline standards for NASA use will increase commonality and  
Practices                     interoperability of aerospace systems; and enhance experience-based engineering practice. 

Safety and Quality            NASA specifications and standards will be replaced, where possible, with industry, voluntary,  
Specifications and Standards  and international standards.  Adoption of ISO 9000 for quality programs is a major component 
                              of this effort.  This will reduce the direct cost of requiring NASA unique standards in the 
                              procurement of flight and ground systems. 

Technology Validation         Ground and flight demonstration of maturing technology in critical areas will improve the 
                              reliability of systems and facilitate advanced technology utilization throughout industry. 

EEE Parts and Packaging	      Parts selection databases will enable projects to quickly select the most reliable parts available.  
                              Qualification of advanced parts and packaging technologies will reduce the size, weight, and 
                              power requirements of spacecraft systems. 

Non-destructive evaluation    Transferring improved NDE technologies from laboratory demonstrations to production use 
(NDE) Technologies            will reduce the need for costly and time-consuming tear downs, replacements, and destructive 


In FY 1994, the SRM&QA program achieved a number of successes in assurance oversight and support; formulation of agencywide 
policies and standards; and validation and program integration of advanced technologies.  Seven flights of the Space Transportation 
System (STS) were supported, including the complex First Servicing Mission for the Hubble Space Telescope.  Independent review 
and certification efforts related to the Hubble mission were also conducted.  Flight Readiness Reviews, risk assessments, and direct 
support to "better, faster, cheaper" space flight programs were conducted through a series of special reviews.  Direct support to all 
NASA major program design reviews was also provided. 

Independent reviews were conducted on Space Shuttle engine weld integrity and test requirements for the super-lightweight tank.  
Special technical readiness reviews were performed for the WIND and NOAA-14 spacecraft launches.  The loss of Mars Observer was 
documented for improvement of future spacecraft designs.  Reliability Centered Maintenance and predictive maintenance techniques 
for use by STS facilities were adopted.  An Independent Assessment function was established for the international Space Station; 26 
formal assessments were completed.  Work to initiate a joint set of NASA/Russian safety standards and standard equivalence was 
begun.  Streamlined reliability and assurance requirements for low-cost missions were developed by OSMA, enabling the Near Earth 
Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), and Mars Pathfinder programs to better balance mission risks against 
cost constraints. 

The OSMA also performed functional management reviews of all NASA Centers' SRM&QA programs in FY 1994.  Structured 
surveillance, problem reporting and corrective action programs were implemented at the Kennedy Space Center. 

Policies and standards in the areas of explosives handling, fire hazards, factors of safety, vibro-acoustic testing, structural loads 
definition, and software life-cycle management were initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 1995.  Standardization of 
NASA use of materials was also initiated in FY 1994, and NASA participation in international standardization of space systems was 
significantly increased.  Guidelines for selecting breakdown resistant wiring systems and improved measurement and test 
calibration for space applications was also completed in FY 1994.  A set of Reliability Best Practices and Maintainability Preferred 
Practices was issued throughout the Agency.  NASA also formally adopted ISO 9000, the international quality standard, in  
FY 1994. 

The NDE techniques for optically-stimulated electron emission, STS window defect analysis, and silicon nitride ball bearings in 
oxygen environments were developed.  Monolithic microwave integrated circuits, opto-electric circuits, multi-chip modules and other 
electronic packaging techniques were qualified for use, providing advanced technology for NASA's new better, faster, cheaper space 
flight systems.  Radiation testing was completed on several classes of electronic parts.  Work on advanced pyrotechnics and metric 
fasteners was also completed in FY 1994.  NASA's IV&V facility opened at Fairmont, West Virginia; a cooperative agreement with 
West Virginia University was concluded and research began on software assurance methodologies, including quantitative, fault 
analysis, and formal methods of analysis.  As a part of its support to the nation's Federal Emergency Management program, the 
SRM&QA program provided funding for aerial reconnaissance in the aftermath of the Northridge, California earthquake. 

In FY 1995, oversight and support for the seven deployments of the STS, including the Space Shuttle/MIR rendezvous missions; 
Critical Design Review (CDR) of the super-lightweight tank, alternate fuel turbopump, and lightweight solid rocket booster programs; 
and continued evaluation of test methods and assurance techniques for small spacecraft will be supported.  Oversight and analysis 
will continue for the three Space Shuttle/Mir rendezvous missions.  Independent assessment of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) 
mission and technical reviews of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility (AXAF), Cassini, and POLAR missions are planned. 

Independent assessment of the international Space Station will continue to evaluate the program using a prioritized task list while 
also responding to any newly-identified concerns.  A structured Mission Needs Analysis approach has been adopted for the review of 
hardware design approaches, safety hazards, and integration and test procedures.  Six NASA Centers are scheduled for Functional 
Management Reviews in FY 1995. 

NASA policies for mishap reporting, human factors for safety, robotic system and expendable launch vehicle safety, and risk 
management are to be reviewed.  An initiative to effectively use previous test and operating experience to improve the design, test, 
and mission assurance processes over the life-cycle of spacecraft programs is also being supported.  An agencywide career 
development and training program to increase the NASA personnel SRM&QA skills will be initiated. 

The NDE techniques for optically-stimulated electron emission and STS window defect analysis will be qualified for production use.  
A long-term effort to reduce spacecraft size and weight through electronic miniaturization will be initiated.  New approaches to 
product assurance for micro-spacecraft, such as the planned New Millennium program, will be developed.  Flight demonstration of a 
fiber-optic gyroscope and a laser-initiated ordnance system will complete efforts to enhance the performance, reliability, and safety 
of these critical flight systems.  Flight measurements aboard the STS will demonstrate the ability of a force-limited vibration test 
technique to simulate payload flight environments with reduced risk of hardware damage.  Also in FY 1995, a testbed will be used to 
simulate on-orbit power system operations as a part of NASA's spacecraft battery investigations.  A joint NASA-Air Force initiative is 
to characterize and validate advanced nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen battery systems for future missions.  In  
FY 1996, a flight set of advanced nickel-hydrogen batteries will be qualified through stress testing. 

Finally, FY 1995 will see the completed evaluation of current NASA software assurance techniques.  This will serve as a baseline for 
assessment of future improvements.  Advanced IV&V methods will be examined on a selective basis.  A stream-lined, cost-effective 
approach to software IV&V for complex programs is to be developed in FY 1995. 

NASA's FY 1996 program will continue to assure adequate oversight of NASA programs; targeted development of key engineering and 
SRM&QA directives, standards and processes; and to support the transition of certain critical technologies from testbed to program 
use.  Independent assessment of NASA's STS and international Space Station programs will continue, ensuring that performance 
goals and schedule milestones are met with acceptable levels of safety.  Fire detection and power system stability and plasma 
studies will be given special emphasis.  "Better, cheaper, faster" mission assurance practices will be evaluated and modified as 
necessary in FY 1996, including continued support for the Small Satellite Technology Initiative.  All NASA space flight programs will 
be reviewed against these newly adopted mission success criteria. 

The OCE will issue systems engineering guidelines for NASA program management in FY 1996, establishing a uniform basis for 
program technical reviews and to improve NASA's program management process.  The budget supports continuation of the program 
for more effective and benign test methods for qualification and acceptance testing of space systems, including two approaches for 
avoiding overtest damage to spacecraft.  Fracture control methods will be adapted for ground system life prediction and for aging 
aircraft assessment.  Standards will be developed for space equipment racks in order to reduce the cost and simplify of payload 
servicing operations; and for application of telecommunications standards to NASA data handling functions.  The first international 
space system standards are expected to be published in FY 1996 for standardization of launch vehicle-spacecraft interfaces, 
pressure vessel design and analysis, and electronic parts control.  Development of metric specifications for space components will 
continue.  Documentation of Ada flight software management procedures for NASA flight programs will be completed. 

The budget supports continued evaluations of reliability-centered maintenance, hypervelocity impacts, embedded software systems, 
debris hazards, and wind tunnel safety.  Studies of rescue breathing devices, composite pressure vessel reliability, predictive time 
lining, preferred maintenance practices, risk analysis methods, orbiter outgassing, and assurance practices for aeronautics facilities 
will continue.  Work on measurement assurance and calibration standards for temperature, mass, acceleration, flight voltage 
resistance, and quantum-Hall resistance will be completed in FY 1996.  An evaluation of NASA's implementation of the international 
quality standard, ISO 9000, will also be performed to determine whether this approach improves quality and reduces program costs.  
The requested funding also supports improvement of databases and selection tools for electronic and mechanical parts, enabling 
NASA programs to select the most reliable parts available.  Qualification of advanced electronics parts and packaging technologies 
and study of NDE techniques for Space Shuttle structures, anomalous ultrasonic signal interpretation, and snake ultrasonic leak 
detection will be conducted. 

Emphasis will continue to be placed on the development and demonstration of improved pyrotechnic systems and components and 
of laser-initiated termination systems.  Simulation of aerospace battery operations for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory 
(CGRO), the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) missions will continue.  
Development of test methods for advanced nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells and improvements in the battery design 
process are anticipated. 

In FY 1996, research and demonstration of software assurance techniques for selected programs will be performed.  These early 
initiatives will explore software criticality assessment, requirement traceability, and verification process methods.  Management of 
NASA's IV&V facility, which hosts several tenant NASA programs, will continue.

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