SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY 


                                 FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES

   
                                    BUDGET SUMMARY


OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE                                                 PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY


                              SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS

  
                                                                                                
                                                   FY 1994           FY 1995         FY 1996      
                                                              (Thousands of Dollars)

 
*  Advanced x-ray astrophysics facility            239,300           234,300         237,600     
** Gravity probe-b                                  42,400            50,000          51,500     
** Offsetting reduction                                 --                --         -51,500 
*  Global geospace science                          27,600            40,000           5,400     
   Payload and instrument development               59,500            53,900          33,100     
   Explorers                                       123,300           120,400         129,200     
   Mission operations and data analysis            405,200           432,400         428,600    
   Research and analysis                            71,100            75,400          90,400     
   Suborbital program                               69,500            67,200         106,700     
   Information systems                              26,500            26,100          25,900     
   Launch services                                  84,600            95,800          74,200     
 

          Total                                  1,149,000         1,195,500       1,131,100 
 

   *    Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

   **   In October 1994, NASA requested that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) assemble a review panel to validate the  
	technical feasibility and scientific merits of Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) relative to other science priorities within the NASA budget.   
	Discussions are currently underway, with final results anticipated in mid-1995.  In the event the panel recommends  
	continuation of GP-B,  equivalent offsets within the NASA budget must be identified. 
 
 
 
 










 
                                   SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                        FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 

                                             BUDGET SUMMARY 
 
OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE                                                          PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 

 
                                    SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS 
 
	

                                                   FY 1994          FY 1995           FY1996 
                                                              (Thousands of Dollars) 
 
Distribution of Program Amount by Installation 
 

Johnson Space Center                                    13               27               -- 
Kennedy Space Center                                   300              800              500 
Marshall Space Flight Center                       314,846          331,763          317,746 
Ames Research Center                                29,473           27,883           65,739 
Langley Research Center                                 40              900              500 
Lewis Research Center                               42,900           25,700               -- 
Goddard Space Flight Center                        641,588          677,673          622,830 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory                           41,468           32,928           57,731 
Headquarters                                        78,372           97,826           66,054 


      Total                                      1,149,000        1,195,500        1,131,100 

















                                  SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 

                                       FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 
OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE                                                       PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 

 
PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Physics and Astronomy program seeks to expand our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe, the 
fundamental laws of physics, and the formation of stars and planets.  The exploration and research activities of this program seek to 
answer more specific questions within the four fundamental areas identified as goals of the Space Science program.  These more 
specific areas are: 
 

        Determine the fundamental laws of physics using the unique environment of space; 
 

        Determine the processes that drive the Sun and govern its effects on Earth's environment and the heliosphere; 
 

        Discover the origin, evolution and fate of the universe, galaxies, stars and planets. 

 
STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Physics and Astronomy program is composed of two major elements: astrophysics and space physics.  The astrophysics 
program is concerned with the origin and evolution of the universe beyond our solar system. Objects studied by the astrophysics 
program include distant galaxies and galactic clusters, as well as stars and other structures in nearby galaxies and the interstellar 
medium in our own galaxy.  Unusual and exotic phenomena -- such as quasars, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes -- are of 
particular interest to the astrophysics program, and are the target of many ground-based and space-based research programs.  
Astronomical observations from space avoids image distortion created by the Earth's atmosphere.  Many wavelengths are obscured 
and some wavelengths cannot be observed from the surface of the Earth at all.   
 

The space physics program is focused upon naturally occurring plasmas, the physical state which comprises 99 percent of all 
matter in the universe.  Relatively cool plasmas in the planetary ionospheres, the hot plasma of the sun, Earth's and other planets' 
magnetospheres, and galactic cosmic-ray plasmas are all the focus of study. Study of Earth's nearby space environment has 
revealed a dynamic and complex system of plasmas interacting with the magnetic fields and electric currents surrounding our 
planet.  This region, comprised of the magnetized solar-wind plasma plus the perturbation in the heliosphere caused by the 
presence of the magnetic Earth, is referred to as geospace. 
 

The goals of the Physics and Astronomy program are achieved through a combination of spacecraft missions, instruments and 
payloads flown on international and U.S.-sponsored satellites and Shuttle/Spacelab flights, and suborbital missions flown aboard 
research aircraft, balloons and sounding rockets.  The entire program rests on a solid basis of supporting research and technology, 
data analysis, and theory programs designed to fully exploit the data obtained and to foster the next generation of space scientists.   
 

With its unprecedented capabilities in energy coverage, spatial resolution, spectral resolution and sensitivity, the AXAF mission will 
provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from nearby stars like our sun to quasars at the edge of the 
observable universe.  The AXAF, initiated in FY 1989, has been significantly restructured, and is scheduled to be launched with an 
upper stage by the Shuttle in September 1998 for a five-year mission.  AXAF will provide high resolution imaging of the x-ray 
spectrum, which is necessary for both the discovery and subsequent investigation of various energetic phenomena associated with 
galaxies, stars, neutron stars, black holes, and interstellar material.   
 

Full scale development of the Gravity Probe-B mission was initiated in FY 1993 after a lengthy period of science definition, 
technology demonstration, and design and test of prototype components..  This is a highly complex, technically challenging mission 
designed to test key elements of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.  The mission will explore the predictions of the theory in two 
areas:  (1) A measurement of the "dragging of space" by rotating matter; and, (2) A measurement of space time curvature known as 
the "geodetic effect".  The mission is baselined for launch in October 2000 aboard a Delta launch vehicle.  In October 1994, NASA 
requested that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) assemble a review panel to validate the technical feasibility and scientific 
merits of  the mission in light of other science priorities within the NASA budget.  Discussions are currently underway, with final 
results anticipated in June 1995.  In the event the panel recommends continuation of the GP-B mission,  equivalent offsets within 
the NASA budget must be identified. 
 

The Global Geospace Science (GGS) program is part of the U.S. contribution to the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) 
program designed to conduct advanced observations and study of the sun and Earth’s geospace.  NASA's two GGS spacecraft, Wind 
and Polar, together with Japan's Geotail (launched in 1992) and other Earth observing and near-Earth satellites, will make the first 
coordinated geospace measurements of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and plasma from the sun, and the 
transfer of mass, energy, and heat to the Earth system.  Wind will study this transfer at the head of the geospace region which lies 
between the Earth and the Sun. Polar will conduct at Earth's poles, and Geotail at a point where the Earth's magnetic region tails 
away.  Wind was successfully launched in November 1994; Polar is scheduled for launch in December 1995. 
 

Physics and Astronomy Payload and Instrument Development supports a number of instruments and payloads to be used on 
international satellites or on Spacelab missions.  The Collaborative Solar-Terrestrial Physics (COSTR) program is the other U.S. 
contribution (with the GGS program) to the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.  The COSTR program is providing 
instruments and subsystems for ISTP missions developed by our international partners, including the European Solar and 
Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and four Cluster spacecraft, with launches scheduled for October and December 1995, 
respectively.  The Japanese Geotail spacecraft was launched successfully in 1992 and is currently in operation.  Payload and 
Instrument Development also includes the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) science program; TSS is a cooperative program with Italy 
that will contribute to our knowledge about geospace.  Launch aboard the Shuttle is scheduled for February 1996. 
 

The Explorer program supports the development of  small to moderate-sized astrophysics and space physics missions.  The types of 
missions selected conduct investigations of an exploratory or survey nature, or have specific objectives that do not require the 
capabilities of a large spacecraft or observatory.  Missions currently under development include the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and 
the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), with planned launches in August 1995 and late 1997, respectively. Each mission will be 
launched aboard a Delta launch vehicle.  The Small Explorer (SMEX) program supports smaller, lower-cost missions with more 
focused science objectives which can be flown aboard a Pegasus launch vehicle.  SMEX missions currently under development are 
the Submillimeter Wave Satellite (SWAS) and the Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST), both planned for launch in mid-1995.  Two new 
missions selected for development beginning in FY 1995 are the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and the Wide-field 
Infrared Explorer (WIRE), with planned launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. 
 

The Mission Operations and Data Analysis program supports satellite operations during the performance of the core missions of 
spacecraft, extended operations of selected spacecraft, and for ongoing analysis of data after the usable life of a spacecraft has 
expired.  Funding is also provided for pre-flight preparations for NASA satellite operations and data analysis activities, and for long-
term data archiving and data base services.  In addition, funds from this category are used to support ongoing servicing support and 
new instrument development for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).  The HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and 
Near Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS) are being developed for flight in 1997, and the Advanced Camera for 
flight in 1999. 
 

The Suborbital program uses aircraft, balloons, and sounding rockets to conduct versatile, relatively low-cost research of the Earth's 
ionosphere and magnetosphere, space plasma physics, stellar astronomy, solar astronomy, and high energy astrophysics.  Activities 
are conducted on both a national and international cooperative basis.  Funds are requested beginning in FY 1996 to initiate 
development of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a cooperative program with Germany that will replace 
the aging Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO).  SOFIA will accomplish infrared studies of the birth and death of stars, formation of 
planetary systems, chemical make-up of star-forming clouds in the Milky Way galaxy, nature of the energy sources in other galaxies, 
and nature of the outer bodies in our own solar system.  Initial operations are scheduled for FY 2000. 
 

The Research and Analysis program provides a solid basis of supporting research and new technology development, research, and 
theory-building.  Research teams at NASA centers and at universities, industrial laboratories, and other government laboratories are 
supported.  The scientific information obtained and the technology developed in this program are made available to the scientific 
communities and the general public for application to the advancement of scientific knowledge, education and technology.  Funds 
are also requested in FY 1996  for planning and technology development activities related to the Space Infrared Telescope Facility 
(SIRTF).  SIRTF is the last of the four Great Observatories and has been the highest priority new mission in astrophysics for many 
years.  SIRTF will perform science that is complementary to SOFIA, and may include a collaboration with the Japanese to achieve a 
portion of its science objectives.  Development is planned to begin in FY 1997, with a planned launch in FY 2002.  
 

The Information Systems program in Physics and Astronomy will provide a state-of-the-art computer and data environment to 
support science research objectives.  This includes high performance networking and computing, with expedient access to data, 
mathematical processing tools, and advanced visualization techniques to convert massive amounts of data to meaningful 
information, leading to improved scientific insight.  Multiple science disciplines will be supported by the projects funded under this 
program. 
 

Beginning in FY 1996, mission unique launch services for all Space Science missions requiring expendable launch vehicles are 
included as part of the OSS budget.  Overall program management rests with NASA’s Launch Vehicles Office (LVO).  Launch 
services funding budgeted within OSS supports Pegasus launch services for the SMEX missions (FAST, SWAS, TRACE, WIRE);  
Medium-lite class launch services for FUSE;  Delta launch services for GGS (Wind, Polar), Explorers (ACE, XTE); Atlas launch 
services for SOHO; and an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) for AXAF. 



















BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                  ADVANCED X-RAY ASTROPHYSICS FACILITY

  
                                                 FY 1994           FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                               (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Advanced x-ray astrophysics facility development*  239,300           234,300           237,600 
 

* Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will observe matter at the extremes of temperature, density and energy content.  
Previous x-ray missions such as the Small Astronomical Satellite-C and the Einstein Observatory have demonstrated that 
observations in the x-ray band provide a powerful probe into the physical conditions of a wide range of astrophysical systems.  With 
its unprecedented capabilities in energy coverage, spatial resolution, spectral resolution and sensitivity, AXAF will provide unique 
and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from nearby stars like our sun to quasars at the edge of the observable 
universe.  AXAF is the third of NASA's Great Observatories, which include the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma 
Ray Observatory, and has been given high priority by the National Academy of Sciences Astronomy Survey Committee. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was assigned responsibility for managing the AXAF Project in 1978 as a successor to the 
High Energy Astrophysics Observatory (HEAO) program.  The scientific payload was selected through an Announcement of 
Opportunity (AO) in 1985 and confirmed for flight readiness in 1989.  TRW was selected as prime spacecraft contractor for the 
mission, with major subcontracts to Hughes Danbury (mirror development), Eastman Kodak (High Resolution Mirror Assembly -- 
HRMA), and Ball Aerospace (Science Instrument Module - SIM).  The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) also has 
significant involvement throughout the program.  AXAF will be launched on the Shuttle with an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) provided 
by Boeing.  International contributions are being made by the Netherlands (an instrument), Germany (an instrument), Italy (detector 
test facilities), and the United Kingdom (microchannel plates and science support). 
 

AXAF was given new start approval in FY 1989, with full scale development contingent upon demonstrating the challenging 
advances in mirror metrology and polishing technology.  The first pair of mirrors were fabricated and tested in a specially designed 
X-ray Calibration Facility at MSFC in 1991, and the x-ray results validated the polishing and metrology.  With the success of this 
Verification Engineering Test Article (VETA) #1 demonstration, the program proceeded fully into design and development (Phase 
C/D). 
 

The AXAF program was restructured in 1992 in response to downward revisions of the future funding projections for NASA 
programs.  The original baseline was an observatory with six mirror pairs that was planned for a 15 year mission in low Earth orbit 
with shuttle servicing.  The restructuring produced AXAF-I, an observatory with four mirror pairs to be launched into a high Earth 
orbit for a five year life time, and AXAF-S, a smaller observatory flying an X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS).  A panel from the National 
Academy of Sciences (NAS) endorsed the restructured AXAF program.  The FY 1994 AXAF budget was reduced by Congress, 
resulting in termination of the AXAF-S mission.  The Committees further directed that residual FY 1994 AXAF-S funds be applied 
towards development of  a similar instrument payload on the Japanese Astro-E mission to mitigate the science impact of losing 
AXAF-S.  This activity is currently underway, and funding for FY 1996 Astro-E activities is being requested within the Physics and 
Astronomy Payload and Instrument Development line. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

HRMA Critical Design Audit (CDA) -      Review determined that HRMA design is sufficiently mature, with adequate number of  
February 1994                           detailed drawings completed and meets all critical performance and interface  
                                        requirements.  All technical problems or design anomalies were resolved without  
                                        compromising system performance, reliability, safety or resource constraints.  
 

Observatory Preliminary Design Review   Review confirmed that overall system design is of sufficient maturity, meets all critical  
(PDR) - December 1994                   technical and performance requirements, established the compatibility of all major  
                                        hardware interfaces and represents an acceptable level of technical, cost and schedule  
                                        risk to the program. 
 

Instrument CDRs - April 1995            Reviews will confirm that instrument designs are sufficiently mature, meet all critical  
                                        performance and interface requirements, and impose acceptable levels of technical,  
                                        cost and schedule risk to the overall program.   
 

AXAF Science Center (ASC)               Review will validate overall maturity of ASC design, ensure that all major hardware  
Critical Design Review (CDR) -          and software components adequately support science requirements, and are  
July 1995                               functionally compatible with all other elements of the ground system. 
 

AXAF Spacecraft Electronic              Review will verify that detailed design of key spacecraft subsystems are sufficiently  
& Structure CDA -                       mature and are physically and functionally compatible with established interfaces 
December 1995                           and performance criteria of overall spacecraft design. 
 

AXAF Observatory CDR -                  Major milestone.  Assess validity and maturity of observatory design as a functionally 
February 1996                           integrated system in terms of subsystem compatibility, interface requirements and 
                                        ability to meet all established performance criteria within acceptable levels of technical, 
                                        cost and schedule risk. 
		 

Science Instrument Module (SIM)         Fabrication of the Science Instrument Module completed at Ball Aerospace.  
completed - April 1996                  The SIM will house the two focal plane science instruments on AXAF, and must be  
                                        completed prior to delivery of flight instruments. 
 

Deliver flight instruments              Flight instruments shipped to Ball Aerospace upon completion of  integration and test 
to Ball - August 1996                   activities for integration into SIM (see above). 
 

X-ray calibration tests at MSFC -       HRMA and SIM hardware shipped to MSFC and integrated into X-Ray Calibration  
January 1997                            Facility (XRCF) in late 1996.  Tests will verify HRMA mirror alignment and compare  
                                        technical performance of mirrors and science instruments against predicted values. 
 

Begin Observatory assembly and test -   Initiate integration of completed spacecraft with telescope/instruments at TRW, 
October 1997                            followed by full-up systems testing (thermal-vac, acoustic, et al). 
 

Deliver Observatory to Kennedy          Observatory integration and systems testing completed at TRW.  Begin integration  
Space Center (KSC) - June 1998          with upper stage, final performance testing, and integration in Shuttle cargo bay. 
 

Launch Observatory - September 1998     Shuttle deployment into low-Earth 	orbit followed by Upper stage delivery to highly  
                                        elliptical operational orbit.  Hardware checkout followed by initiation of science  
                                        observations. 
 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Recent progress has been extremely positive.  Over the past year, AXAF did not lose a day of schedule on the critical path towards 
launch.  Detailed performance predictions based on test and analysis of the mirrors in fabrication and materials and designs of the 
mirror assembly indicate that performance margins have increased dramatically over the past year.  Finally, the upper stage 
selected provides highly elliptical (10,000 x 140,000 kilometer) orbit, which should increase by over twenty percent the number of 
observations AXAF can make in its operational lifetime. 
 

The Observatory PDR was held in December 1994, with no significant problems identified.  Mirror development work at Hughes-
Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) has been completed four months early; all mirrors will be shipped to Optical Coating Laboratories, 
Inc. (OCLI) for coating as soon as required.  The mirrors were delivered earlier than expected and with better than expected 
smoothness, due to technological and process innovations developed at HDOS.   
 

Detailed design activities will continue throughout FY 1995 in support of planned CDRs for instruments and various elements of the 
spacecraft and telescope assembly.  Mirror fabrication at HDOS will be completed by mid-year, and all mirrors delivered to OCLI by 
late 1995.  The first coated mirror is scheduled to be shipped to Kodak to begin integration into the HRMA in June, but  
 
 

efforts are underway to accelerate that date to try to build up additional schedule margin.  The Alignment Tower for the High 
Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) at Eastman-Kodak is operational, and engineering tests using an uncoated flight mirror were 
begun in November.   
 

With the funds requested for FY 1996,  AXAF-I development will be more than 80% complete. The spacecraft Structural Test Article 
will be completed early in FY 1996, and static testing is scheduled to be completed in the middle of the fiscal year. Detailed design 
activities for the spacecraft should be completed early in FY 1996, and fabrication of the flight structure will begin.  The spacecraft 
CDR is scheduled for February 1996.  Development of the HRMA, optical bench, and science instruments will continue in FY 1996, 
with deliveries of these items for testing occurring over the last half of the calendar year. 







BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                  GRAVITY PROBE-B 

 
                                        FY 1994            FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                     (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Gravity probe-b development*             42,400             50,000            51,500 
 

* Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The purpose of the GP-B mission is to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity.  This is the most accepted theory of gravitation 
and of the large scale structure of the Universe.  General relativity is a cornerstone of our understanding of the physical world, and 
consequently our interpretation of observed phenomena.  However, it has only been tested in a limited number of ways.  An 
experiment is needed to more precisely explore the predictions of the theory in two areas:  (1) A measurement of the "dragging of 
space" by rotating matter; and, (2) A measurement of space time curvature known as the "geodetic effect".  The former (1) has never 
been measured and the latter; (2) needs to be measured more precisely.  Whether the experiment confirms or contradicts Einstein's 
theory, its results will be of the highest scientific importance.  The measurements of both the geodetic and frame dragging effects 
will allow Einstein's Theory to be either rejected or given greater credence.  The effect of invalidating Einstein's theory would be 
profound, and would call for major revisions of our concepts of physics and cosmology. 
 

The advanced technologies required for GP-B are also relevant to meeting the goals of the Space Technology Enterprise of the NASA 
strategic plan.  GP-B is contributing to the development of cutting-edge space technologies which are also applicable to future space 
science missions and transportation systems. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

This test of the general theory requires advanced applications in superconductivity, magnetic shielding, precision manufacturing, 
spacecraft control mechanisms, and cryogenics.  The GP-B spacecraft will employ super-precise quartz gyroscopes (small quartz 
spheres machined to an atomic level of smoothness); coated with a super-thin film of superconducting material (needed to be able to 
"read-out" changes in the direction of spin of the gyros); encased in a ultra-low magnetic-shielded, supercooled environment 
(requiring a complex process of lead-shielding, a Dewar containing supercooled helium, and a sophisticated interface among the 
instrument's telescope, the shielded instrument probe, and the Dewar); and maintained with a level of instantaneous pointing 
accuracy of 20 milliarcseconds (requiring precise star-tracking, a "drag free" spacecraft control system, and micro-precision 
thrusters).  The combination of these technologies will enable GP-B to measure:  (1) the distortion caused by the movement of the  
 
 

Earth's gravitational field as the Earth rotates west to east; and, (2) the distortion caused by the movement of the GP-B spacecraft 
through the Earth's gravitational field south to north, to a level of precision of 0.2 milliarcsecond per year, the width of a human 
hair observed from 50 miles. 
 

The expertise to design, build and test GP-B, as well as the detailed understanding of the requirements for the Dewar and 
spacecraft, resides at Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA.  Consequently, MSFC has assigned responsibility for experiment 
management, design, and hardware performance to Stanford.  Science experiment hardware development (probe, gyros, dewar, et al) 
is conducted at Stanford in collaboration with Lockheed/Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL).  Spacecraft development and 
systems integration will be performed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation (LMSC).   Launch is scheduled for October 2000 
aboard a Delta II launch vehicle.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
	 

Probe C PDR - July 1994                   Probe C is flight model of container that interfaces the science instrument with the  
                                          Dewar, carrying plumbing, electronic, and data links, out of the Dewar.  Design review  
                                          verified incorporation of modifications derived from Probe B prototype, verified that  
                                          overall design meets all established interface and performance requirements. 
 

Probe B delivery - August 1994            Completed final integration and test of prototype probe assembly.  Integrated with  
                                          engineering model dewar for performance testing (Ground Test-1A). 
 

Ground Tests - 1A Start - February 1995   Tests the operation of Probe-B protoflight model of the science instrument under   
                                          cryogenic conditions to validate operations procedures and evaluate overall  
                                          systems performance. 
 

Probe C CDR - July 1995                   Confirms that design is of sufficient maturity and detail, and is compatible with  
                                          established interfaces (thermal, structural, etc.).  Freezes design prior to initiation of  
                                          full-scale hardware fabrication. 
 

Spacecraft PDR - November 1995            LMSC-developed spacecraft bus will house the Dewar, Probe, and Science Instrument.   
                                          Review will determine overall maturity of design, assuring that all critical interfaces  
                                          and performance criteria have been met.  Successful completion will initiate detailed  
                                          design activities at the subsystem level. 
 

Science Instrument Assembly (SIA)         SIA is quartz block that houses the quartz gyros, proof mass, electronic pickup  
Preliminary Design Review (PDR) -         sensors, and supporting mechanisms.  Review will assess overall design maturity,  
January 1996                              compatibility with established interfaces, and ability to achieve critical performance  
                                          requirements. 
 

Flight Model Dewar Delivery -             Delivery of the largest Helium Dewar ever made for a science mission.  Ready for  
November 1996                             integration with Probe B prototype for second series of performance tests. 
 

Ground Tests-2 start - June 1997          Conduct second series of performance tests using flight model dewar and Probe B  
                                          prototype. 
 

Probe C delivery  - September 1997        Complete integration and test of flight model.  
 

Spacecraft CDR - October 1997             Verify that detailed design of spacecraft bus meets all critical interface and  
                                          performance requirements, with acceptable levels of technical and programmatic risk.   
                                          Successful completion freezes design and initiates hardware fabrication phase. 
 

Payload/Spacecraft integration -          SIA shipped to LMSC for integration with spacecraft bus.  Initiate system-level testing 
October 1999                              to verify flight performance. 
 

Ship to KSC - June 2000                   Complete flight verification testing.  Begin integration with launch vehicle. 
 

Launch - October 2000                     Development phase complete.  Initiate mission operations phase. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Recent activities continue on or ahead of the baseline schedule to launch Gravity Probe-B by October 2000.  The telescope 
Requirements Review and Hardware Preliminary Design Review (PDR) were completed in May 1994, two months ahead of schedule.  
The Probe-C PDR was completed in July, two months ahead of schedule.  Welding of the flight Dewar was recently performed using 
an automated process; this is the largest spacecraft Dewar ever to be manufactured.   
 

Preparation for the second series of cryogenic ground tests are scheduled to begin in February 1995.  These tests will integrate the 
recently delivered Probe B prototype with the engineering model dewar to simulate operations in a simulated flight environment.  
CDRs are scheduled for the telescope assembly and the Probe C (flight model) in mid-1995, and detailed design activities will 
continue at LMSC in preparation for a spacecraft PDR in November. 
 

In October 1994, NASA requested that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) assemble a review panel to validate the technical 
feasibility and scientific merits of the mission relative to other science priorities within the NASA budget.  Discussions are currently 
underway, with final results anticipated in mid-1995.  In the event the panel recommends continuation of the GP-B mission,  
equivalent offsets within the NASA budget must be identified in order to support the program in FY 1996 and beyond. 
 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                  GLOBAL GEOSPACE SCIENCE 
 

                                            FY 1994           FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                       (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Global geospace science development*         27,600            40,000             5,400 
 

* Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Global Geospace Science (GGS) is part of the United States' contribution to the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) 
program.  This program is an international, multi-spacecraft, collaborative science mission designed to provide the measurements 
necessary for a new and comprehensive understanding of the interaction between the sun and the Earth.  GGS will allow the United 
States to become a full partner in the ISTP program, reinforcing our commitments to international cooperation and maintaining a 
leadership role in solar-terrestrial physics. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

GGS is a complementary science mission to the Collaborative Solar Terrestrial Research (COSTR) program under which NASA 
provides instruments and launch support in exchange for access to science data in a cooperative effort with the European Space 
Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS).  The combined ISTP program will include eight 
spacecraft:  two U.S. spacecraft, Wind and Polar; five ESA spacecraft, including the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and 
four Cluster spacecraft; and one ISAS spacecraft, Geotail.  Launch of this suite of systems began in 1992 with the successful launch 
of Geotail and will be completed by late 1995. 
 

The GGS spacecraft will combine their measurements with the Geotail satellite and other Earth Observing Satellites as the first 
phase of the ISTP program.  The two U.S. spacecraft, Wind and Polar, will use a total of nineteen instruments to make simultaneous 
measures of the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field, both at the head of the field and as the field surrounds 
the Earth.  GGS will provide the first coordinated geospace measurements of these key plasma source and storage regions, perform 
multi-spectral global auroral imaging, and provide multi-point study of the Earth's magnetic response to the solar wind.  The GGS 
mission will enhance understanding of how energy and matter from the sun influences Earth's geospace and atmosphere, 
contributing to assessments of the relationship of the sun to the Earth's climate.  GGS spacecraft contract award was completed in 
FY 1989, as was final confirmation and initiation of instrument development activity.  Wind was successfully launched in November 
1994; Polar launch is scheduled for December 1995. 
 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Polar Integration and Test (I&T)          Halted integration and test activities on Polar, pending successful 
standdown - May 1994                      launch and checkout of Wind to assure spacecraft functionality 
 

Wind launch - November 1994               Development phase complete.  Initial spacecraft checkout followed by initiation of  
                                          mission operations phase.  
 

Polar Thermal - Vacuum Test -             Conduct critical performance testing of fully integrated spacecraft (with instruments)  
March 1995                                with fully operational flight software in a simulated space environment. 
 

Polar Validation & Verification           Comprehensive ground systems test of procedures for launch and early orbit  
(V&V) test -                              sequences, instrument activation, mission operations, and contingency modes  
Part 1 - August 1995                      conducted via the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) while the  
Part 2 - September 1995                   spacecraft is located in the high bay at Martin Marietta.  Part 2 test is similar in scope  
                                          to POCC V +V Test (Part 1) but occurs with the spacecraft close to full flight  
                                          configuration after completion of final environmental tests. 
 

Ship Polar spacecraft to Pad -            Fully integrated and tested Polar spacecraft shipped to Vandenburg Air Force Base  
October 1995                              (VAFB) for integration with Delta II launch vehicle. 
 

Polar launch - December 1995              Development phase complete.  Initial spacecraft checkout followed by initiation of  
                                          mission operations phase.  
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Since April 1994, the Wind Spacecraft experienced an almost flawless integration and test process.  The spacecraft was delivered to 
the launch site at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) ahead of schedule and was processed and launched successfully on November 1, 
1994.  A 30 day report following the launch reflects a spacecraft activation and instrument sequence of events with few or no 
anomalies.  Initial Wind operations have provided excellent science data return, with good indications of nominal performance 
throughout the operational lifetime of the spacecraft. 
 

Following the successful launch of Wind, final integration and test work on Polar work was resumed in December 1994.  A new 
baseline schedule reflects a Polar launch readiness date (LRD) of December 9, 1995.  A recent Program Management Council review 
of the new Polar schedule and remaining funding has certified the schedule and the remaining funds as adequate to complete the 
program.  FY 1995 funds will support extensive system-level testing of the integrated spacecraft.  FY 1996 funds support final 
integration, test and launch operations at Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB) by December 1995. 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                  PAYLOAD AND INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT 
 

                                                   FY 1994          FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                               (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Collaborative solar terrestrial research            32,800           23,200            3,800 
Tethered satellite system                            2,400            3,800            5,700 
Shuttle/international payloads                      24,300           26,900           23,600 
 

        Total                                       59,500           53,900           33,100 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Physics and Astronomy Payload and Instrument Development supports a number of instruments and payloads to be used on 
international satellites or on Spacelab missions.  International collaborative programs offer opportunities to leverage U.S. 
investments, obtaining scientific data at a relatively low cost.  Spacelab missions utilize the unique capabilities of the Shuttle to 
perform scientific experiments that do not require the extended operations provided by free-flying spacecraft.  The Payload and 
Instrument Development program supports investigations in all space physics and astrophysics disciplines. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Collaborative Solar Terrestrial Research (COSTR) program, in conjunction with NASA's development of the GGS spacecraft, 
represents the U.S. contribution to the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.  Whereas GGS supports development 
of U.S. spacecraft, COSTR provides U.S. instruments for flight aboard foreign spacecraft.  These include the Solar and Heliospheric 
Observatory (SOHO), four Cluster spacecraft provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Geotail mission developed by 
Japan.  Geotail was successfully launched in July 1992 and its operation is nominal.  The European SOHO and Cluster missions 
are scheduled for launch in late 1995.  The ISTP ensemble of missions will provide overlapping and simultaneous data in FY 1996 
aimed at deriving the physics of the behavior of the solar terrestrial system. 
 

The Tether Satellite System (TSS) program is an international cooperative project with the Italian government. A U.S.-developed 
tether deployment mechanism carried aboard the Shuttle will deploy the Italian satellite (including U.S. instruments) into the upper 
atmosphere to perform space plasma experiments while also investigating the dynamic forces acting upon a tethered satellite.  The 
mission originally was flown aboard the Shuttle in July 1992, although a technical malfunction in the deployer resulted in failure to 
fully accomplish the mission objectives. A reflight of the TSS is therefore planned for the spring of 1996. 
 

Payloads funding also supports development of several instruments designed for flight on the Space Shuttle, including the Orbiting 
and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) and Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph 
(IMAPS), to be flown on the German-U.S. Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS); Astro-2 (1995), a reflight of the ultraviolet portion of the 
Astro-1 (1990) mission; and the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS, 1995), a joint U.S.-Japanese mission which will be launched on 
an expendable launch vehicle and recovered by the Shuttle.  The ORFEUS/IMAPS, which flew aboard the Shuttle in the 
summer of 1993 and will be reflown on a future Shuttle mission, explores the character of extreme and far ultraviolet sources, 
studies the composition and distribution of matter in the neighborhood of the sun, and performs direct observations of the 
interstellar medium.  Astro-2 will perform far ultraviolet spectroscopy, broad-band ultraviolet imaging and ultraviolet polarization 
studies of galactic and stellar phenomena.  The IRTS mission will survey the sky for cool galactic and intergalactic phenomena 
across a broad range of the infrared spectrum. 
 

The program also supports a number of ongoing international and U.S. development projects.  These include Astro-E, a Japanese x-
ray mission; the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE, 1995), a small satellite for study of gamma-ray burst phenomena in 
multiple wavelengths; ground-based support for Japan's Very Long Baseline Interferometry Space Observatory Program 
(VSOP, 1996) and Russia's RADIOASTRON (1997) program; the Stellar X-ray Polarimeter (SXRP) and Monitoring Experiment (MOXE) 
instruments to be flown on Russia's Spectrum-X-Gamma (SXG, 1995) mission; U.S. cooperation on the Infrared Space Observatory 
(ISO, 1995), a European successor to the U.S.-developed Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS, 1983); and portions of two 
instruments to be flown on Europe's X-ray Mirror Mission (XMM, 1998). 
 

In the FY 1994 appropriation, Congress directed NASA to pursue flight of a GSFC-developed X-ray spectrometer on the Japanese 
Astro-E mission.  NASA will contribute improved foil mirrors and an x-ray calorimeter derived from the spectrometer previously 
planned for the canceled AXAF-S mission.  This new device will measure the energy of an incoming X-ray photon by precisely 
measuring the increase in temperature of the detector as the photon is absorbed.  It will provide high quantum efficiency over a 
large instantaneous bandpass, from 0.3 to 10 keV, at an unprecedented energy resolution of approximately 12 eV.  The 32 element 
calorimeter array will cover approximately 1 arc minute, thus providing approximately 2 arc second resolution.  This capability will 
permit an unprecedented sensitivity study of a wide range of astrophysical sources, answer many outstanding questions in 
astrophysics, and likely pose many new ones. 
 

HETE is a collaborative program with France and Japan that is managed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  As part of 
its innovative management activities, the university team has obtained an inexpensive satellite from industry, reduced management 
overhead, relied exclusively on mature technologies, and used contributions from international partners.  This mission is to provide 
information about the precise location of gamma-ray bursters and spectral analysis of these and other high energy transient 
phenomena. 
 

The Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) program is composed of the Japanese VSOP and Russian Radioastron 
missions.  These two international missions will provide the highest resolution images of radio sources ever obtained.  NASA is 
participating on the science advisory groups and providing ground processing hardware, tracking support, and the construction of 
four ground science stations to support both missions.  With its extremely long baseline, VSOP and Radioastron will explore very 
small radio sources with high angular resolution, thereby achieving higher resolution of active galactic nuclei and compact radio 
sources that can be achieved on the ground.  VSOP and Radioastron each has a design life of 3 years. 
 

The U.S.-provided MOXE and SXRP instruments on the Russian SXG mission will complement other instruments on the spacecraft.  
The Russian SXG mission consists of an x-ray telescope with a complement of focal plane detectors and several auxiliary 
instruments.  The U.S. is providing the SXRP and MOXE instruments to be flown on the SXG and a data archiving system.  The 
SXRP will provide low resolution polarization data across the x-ray spectrum.  The MOXE will provide all sky monitoring of transient 
x-ray events.  SXG has a design life of 3 years. 
 

The ESA XMM satellite will have highly sensitive instruments providing broad-band study of the x-ray spectrum.  This mission will 
combine telescopes with grazing incidence mirrors and a focal length greater than 7.5 meters with three imaging array instruments 
and two Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS).  The U.S. is providing components to the Optical Monitor (OM) and RGS 
instruments.  The XMM has a lifetime goal of 10 years. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

SOHO L-1/Cluster L-2 Readiness            Provided an independent assessment of progress toward, and readiness 
Review - July 1994                        for, mission operations. 
 

SOHO XDL detector deliveries              Successfully completed development of replacement detectors for two major 
Complete - October 1994                   SOHO instruments due to failure of baseline detector design in testing. 
 

Astro-2 launch - March 1995               Complete development phase;  conduct operations aboard Shuttle mission STS 67. 
 

SOHO launch - October 1995                Spacecraft/instrument integration and test completed; launch aboard Atlas IIAS;   
                                          initiate mission operations. 
 

HETE launch - November 1995               Spacecraft/instrument integration and test completed; launch aboard Pegasus;   
                                          initiate mission operations. 
 

Cluster launch - November 1995            Spacecraft/instrument integration and test completed;  launch aboard Ariane V;  
                                          initiate mission operations. 
 

TSS launch - February 1996                Refurbishment/integration/test activities completed;  conduct operations aboard  
                                          Shuttle mission STS 75. 
 

VSOP launch - September 1996              Instrument/spacecraft integration and test completed:  Japanese launch. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In 1994, significant progress has been made towards completion of the development of the COSTR program.  All flight model and 
protoflight model instruments were delivered to the ESA and Japan for integration and test with the SOHO and Cluster spacecraft.  
Critical design and fabrication of the new Cross Delay-line (XDL) detectors for SOHO instruments, the German-built Ultraviolet 
Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) and Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instruments, was completed in 
October.   Failure of the original detectors to survive qualification tests required development of new detectors in only about one 
year's time --- a significant accomplishment.  Additional refurbishment and rework of SOHO and Cluster instruments will be 
completed in FY 1995 in Europe and Japan in support of planned launches in late 1995.   
 

Refurbishment of the TSS satellite and instrument payload will continue throughout FY 1995 in support of the planned Shuttle 
mission in February 1996.   
 

In support of Congressional direction, residual FY 1994 AXAF funds were applied towards definition of U.S. participation in the 
Japanese Astro-E mission.  The scope of U.S. involvement on the Astro-E mission has recently been very well defined.  NASA has 
reached an understanding with the Japanese as to the extent of our participation; this understanding is expected to be formalized 
by an international agreement in the very near future.  Current plans are for the U.S. to develop selected hardware for an X-Ray 
Spectrometer (XRS) similar to the instrument previously planned to fly aboard the AXAF-S mission.  Residual FY 1994 funds from 
AXAF are sufficient to support definition activities throughout FY 1995.  Phase B activities for Astro-E will be completed in  
FY 1995; full-scale development activities will begin in FY 1996 in support of a planned launch in late 1999. 
 

Final integration and test activities are nearing completion for the HETE spacecraft which will launch in mid-late 1995. The SXG 
instruments, SXRP and MOXE, will be shipped to Russia in support of a 1995 launch.  The SVLBI program began compatibility 
testing of Japanese VSOP hardware with U.S. tracking stations in the fall 1994. First Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for 
international competition of observing time is expected to be released in the spring 1995, with initial VSOP operations scheduled to 
begin in September 1996.  XMM Phase B studies started in October 1994.  Structural thermal models of the instruments are to be 
shipped by the fall of 1995.  Engineering qualification models of the instruments are to be shipped by the summer of 1996 in 
support of a launch in 1998







BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                  EXPLORER PROGRAM 
 

                                         FY 1994              FY 1995              FY 1996 
                                                        (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

X-ray timing explorer                     36,500               32,600                   -- 
Advanced composition explorer             33,200               39,600               36,000 
Small explorers                           39,400               33,100               37,900 
Explorer planning                         14,200               15,100               55,300 
 

       *Total                            123,300              120,400              129,200 
 

* Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goal of the Explorer program is to provide frequent, low-cost access to space for Physics and Astronomy investigations which 
can be accommodated with small to mid-sized spacecraft.  The program supports investigations in all space physics and 
astrophysics disciplines.  Investigations selected for Explorer projects are usually of a survey nature, or have specific objectives not 
requiring the capabilities of a major observatory.  The Explorer program continues to seek reductions in the cost of developing 
spacecraft, in order to provide more frequent launch opportunities for space science missions. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Explorer mission development is managed within an essentially level funding profile.  New mission starts are therefore subject to 
availability of sufficient funding in order to stay within the total program budget.  The X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the 
Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) require a Delta launch vehicle.  Small Explorers (SMEX) include the Fast Auroral Snapshot 
(FAST), the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and the Wide-field 
Infrared Explorer (WIRE).  These missions will launch aboard a Pegasus launch vehicle.  To facilitate more frequent flights,  the new 
Medium-class Explorer (MIDEX) program will be initiated with the anticipated new start of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Explorer 
(FUSE) in FY 1996.  MIDEX missions will be larger than SMEXs, but smaller and less expensive than Delta class missions and will 
be launched aboard a new Med-Lite class launch vehicle. 
 

The XTE will use three instruments to conduct timing studies of x-ray sources.  A comprehensive record of the source of x-rays with 
varying intensity over time, characterization of those attributes, and study of compact x-ray emitting objects such as binary stellar 
masses will be performed by XTE.  The XTE spacecraft and one of its instruments are being developed in-house at GSFC, 
 

with two instruments provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of California - San Diego.  The XTE 
was initiated in FY 1990 and is on schedule for launch in August 1995.   
 

The ACE is a space physics mission which will use nine instruments to study the composition of the solar corona, interplanetary 
and interstellar media, and galactic matter across a wide range of plasma phenomena.  The instruments include six high-resolution 
spectrometers, designed to improve the collecting power of previous systems, to study the mass and charge of plasma phenomena.  
Three other instruments will provide measures of the lower energy phenomena related to the solar wind.  Spacecraft development is 
provided by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, with project management by GSFC.  Foreign participation 
includes the University of Bern and the Max Planck Institute, who provide instrument components and a flight data system shared 
by three instruments, respectively.  ACE development was initiated in November 1993;  it is scheduled for launch no later than 
December 1997.   
 

The FAST will provide high resolution data on the Earth's aurora and how electrical and magnetic forces control them.  The flow of 
electrons, protons, and other ions will be studies with greater sensitivity and spatial discrimination and faster sampling than ever 
before, using five small university-provided instruments.  The FAST data will be integrated with the results of other Earth observing 
satellites and ground observations.  The FAST is managed as a GSFC inhouse project.  Major participants include UC-Berkeley, the 
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the University of New Hampshire, and UC-Los Angeles.  FAST development began in FY 
1991.  The launch of FAST was delayed from September 1994 to August of 1995 due to failure of a Pegasus launch vehicle.   
 

The SWAS will provide discrete spectral data for study of the water, molecular oxygen, neutral carbon, and carbon monoxide in 
dense interstellar clouds, the presence of which is related to the formation of stars.  The SWAS is managed as a GSFC inhouse 
project.  Major participants also include the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Millitech Corporation, Ball Aerospace, and 
the University of Cologne, which provides a spectrometer.  The SWAS development started in FY 1991, and is scheduled for launch 
in July of 1995. 
 

The TRACE is a solar science mission that will explore the connections between fine-scale magnetic fields and their associated 
plasma structures.  Observations of solar-surface magnetic fields will be combined with observations showing their effects in the 
photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and corona.  The TRACE is managed as a GSFC inhouse project.  Major participants 
include the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.  The TRACE 
development began in October 1994 and is scheduled for launch in late 1997. 
 

The WIRE will detect starburst galaxies at a redshift of .5, ultraluminous galaxies at a redshift of 2, and luminous protogalaxies to a 
redshift of 5.  WIRE is managed as a GSFC inhouse project.  Major participants include Utah State University, Ball Aerospace, 
Cornell University, CalTech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.  The WIRE development was also initiated in October 1994, and is 
scheduled for launch in late 1998. 
 

The mid-sized Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE, 2000) mission is currently being restructured, with the goal of reducing 
costs and accelerating the launch schedule.  If approved, FUSE will conduct high resolution spectroscopy in the far ultraviolet 
region.  Major participants will include the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Colorado, and 
UC-Berkeley.  Canada will provide telescope baffles and fine error sensor assemblies.  GSFC will provide management oversight of 
this Principal Investigator-managed mission.  NASA will soon be releasing an Announcement of Opportunity for participation in two 
future missions of the new MIDEX class.  MIDEX missions are conceived of as costing under $70 million, expressed in constant FY 
1994 dollars.  NASA plans to launch the first two MIDEX missions in 1999 and 2000, respectively. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

XTE: 
Begin environmental tests -             Following completion of integration, the spacecraft entered its series of electrical,  
October 1994                            magnetic, vibration, thermal/vacuum, and balance tests. 
 

Ship to KSC - June 1995                 Spacecraft system level testing successfully completed.  Move to pad for integration  
                                        with Delta II launch vehicle. 
 

Launch - August 1995                    Development phase completed.  Initial spacecraft checkout followed by start of mission  
                                        operations. 
 

ACE: 
Preliminary Design Review               Review confirmed overall system design is of sufficient maturity, meets all critical 	 
(PDR) - November 1993                   technical and performance requirements, established the compatibility of all major  
                                        hardware interfaces and represents an acceptable level of technical, cost and schedule  
                                        risk to the program.  Successful completion marks beginning of detailed design phase. 
 

Critical Design Review                  Assess validity and maturity of observatory design as a functionally integrated system   
(CDR) - September 1994                  in terms of subsystem compatibility, interface requirements and ability to meet all  
                                        established performance criteria within acceptable levels of technical, cost and  
                                        schedule risk.  Successfully completed; integration/test phase initiated. 
 

Initiate ACE spacecraft                 Assembly of the spacecraft begins, as subsystems are delivered. 
subsystem I&T - September 1995 
 

Begin environmental tests -             Following completion of integration, the spacecraft enters its series of electrical,  
November 1996                           magnetic, vibration, thermal/vacuum, and balance tests. 
 

Ship to KSC - July 1997                 Spacecraft system level testing successfully complete.  Move to KSC for integration with
                                        Delta II launch vehicle. 
 

Launch - August 1997                    Development phase completed.  Initial spacecraft checkout followed by start of mission  
                                        operations. 
 

SWAS: 
Critical Design Review                  Assess validity and maturity of observatory design as a functionally integrated system  
(CDR) - November 1993                   in terms of subsystem compatibility, interface requirements and ability to meet all  
                                        established performance criteria within acceptable technical, cost and schedule risk. 
                                        Successful completion marked beginning of integration/test phase. 
 

Begin environmental tests -             Following completion of integration, the spacecraft entered its series of electrical,  
February 1995                           magnetic, vibration, thermal/vacuum, and balance tests. 
 

Begin launch operations - June 1995     Spacecraft system level testing successfully completed.  Ship to Vandenburg Air Force  
                                        Base for integration with Pegasus launch vehicle.  
 

Launch - July 1995                      Development phase completed.  Spacecraft checkout followed by start of mission  
                                        operations. 
 

FAST: 
Begin environmental tests - March 1994  Following completion of integration, the spacecraft entered its series of electrical,  
                                        magnetic, vibration, thermal/vacuum, and balance tests 
 

Begin launch operations - June 1995     Spacecraft system level testing successfully completed.  Ship to Vandenburg Air Force Base
                                        (VAFB) for integration with Pegasus launch vehicle. 
 

Launch - August 1995                    Development phase completed.  Spacecraft checkout followed by start of mission  
                                        operations. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Progress to date on XTE has been very good.  It appears that XTE will achieve the aggressive goals set for the program over 3 years 
ago, by launching on schedule and under budget.  Environmental testing is currently underway, with vibration and acoustic testing 
beginning in January, and will continue through mid-1995.  Launch remains on schedule for August 1995.   
 

By the end of FY 1995, CDRs for all of the ACE instruments will have been completed.  Spacecraft subsystem development is 
scheduled to advance sufficiently to allow the start of integration and test this summer.  Instruments are scheduled for shipment to 
the spacecraft during the latter part of FY 1996 in support of an August 1997 launch. 
 

The FAST and the SWAS are both scheduled for launch in mid-1995.  The FAST was previously scheduled for launch in late FY 
1994, but is currently on standby due to the recent failure of the Pegasus launch vehicle.  The SWAS spacecraft and instrument 
hardware fabrication and testing activities are nearing completion, and preparations are underway to initiate system-level 
environmental testing in support of a launch in mid-late 1995.  Two new SMEX missions, TRACE and WIRE were selected in 1994 
as new developments beginning in FY 1995.  In keeping with the SMEX philosophy of low-cost missions with short development 
schedules, both TRACE and WIRE will complete design activities in FY 1995, and development of components will be completed in 
FY 1996.  TRACE is scheduled for launch in late 1997, and WIRE launch is scheduled for late 1998. 
 

Funding from the Explorers planning line will support the FUSE mission until the schedule and budget for the restructured mission 
is approved.  Also supported will be advanced planning and studies for the future MIDEX missions.  NASA also plans to fund a 
technology development program within the Explorer program, with the goal of reducing the weight and cost of future small 
spacecraft.  The size and scope of this technology development effort are currently under review. 
 
 










BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT

 
                                  MISSION OPERATIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS

 
 
                                                   FY 1994           FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                               (Thousands of Dollars)


HST operations and servicing                       215,200           236,700           182,700 
HST data analysis                                   38,500            42,700            43,500 
AXAF mission operations and data analysis           11,600            18,900            40,400 
Astrophysics mission operations and data analysis   84,500            84,700            79,600 
Space physics mission operations and data analysis  55,400            49,400            82,400 


       Total                                       405,200           432,400           428,600 


 
PROGRAM GOALS 

 
The Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA) program is fundamental to achievement of the goals of the Office of Space 
Science (OSS) program.  Funding supports satellite operations during the performance of the core missions of astrophysics and 
space physics spacecraft, extended operations of selected spacecraft, and for ongoing analysis of data after the usable life of 
spacecraft has expired.  Funding also supports pre-flight preparations for satellite operations and data analysis activities, and long-
term data archiving and data base services.  Also supported are preparations for future servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope 
(HST), including development of advanced science instruments.  Furthermore, the MO&DA program attempts to dramatically lower 
operations costs while preserving, to the greatest extent possible, science output.  To do so, it will accept prudent risk, explore new 
conceptual approaches, streamline management, and make other changes to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. 
 


STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS

 
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science operations are carried out through an independent HST Science Institute, which operates 
under a long-term contract with NASA.  Satellite operations, including telemetry, flight operations, and initial science data 
transcription, are performed on-site at Goddard Space Flight Center under separate contract.  While NASA retains operational 
responsibility for the observatory, the Science Institute plans, manages, and schedules the scientific operations.  In a single year of 
operations, the activities of over 500 scientists are supported under the HST program, and over 15,000 observations recorded. 
In order to extend its operational life and provide a basis for future enhancements of its scientific capabilities, HST is designed to be 
serviceable.  This requires on-orbit maintenance and changeout of spacecraft subsystems and scientific instruments about every 
three years.  Ongoing modification and upkeep of system ground operations are also performed. 
 
 
Pre-launch operations funding for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) program supports the development of a ground 
control system, AXAF Science Center (ASC) and preparation for flight system operation.  A common ground system located at the 
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will be used to serve the combined requirements for the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and AXAF 
flight operations.  The ASC, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), supports x-ray calibration of the flight 
mirror assembly and instruments using a precursor of the AXAF data system during the pre-launch phase of the program and will 
ultimately serve a key role in the management of science operations.
   
 
Currently, five operational missions in astrophysics and eight operational missions in space physics are supported.  Astrophysics 
missions include the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO, 1991), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE, 1992), the 
International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE, 1978), and U.S. participation in the international Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT, 1990) and 
Japanese Astro-D/ASCA (1993).  Space physics missions include Wind (1994), Geotail (1992), the Japanese cooperative satellite 
Yohkoh (1991), Ulysses (1990), Voyager 1 and 2 (1977), Pioneer 10 and 11 (1972, 1973), SAMPEX (1992), and the Interplanetary 
Monitoring Platform (IMP-8, 1973). 

 
The CGRO measures gamma-rays, providing unique information on phenomena occurring in quasars, active galaxies, black holes, 
neutron stars, supernova, and the nature of the mysterious cosmic gamma-ray bursts.  EUVE is studying the sky at wavelengths 
once believed to be completely absorbed by the thin gas between the stars.  IUE continues to provide valuable data in ultraviolet 
wavelengths for U.S. and European scientists. U.S. observers continue to enjoy 50% of the observing time (shared with Germany 
and the UK) from the highly successful ROSAT X-ray satellite.  The Japanese/U.S. Astro-D/ASCA spacecraft is conducting spatially 
resolved spectroscopic observations of selected cosmic x-ray sources.  Wind studies the solar wind input of mass and energy to the 
Earth. Wind also carries a Russian gamma-ray instrument, the first Russian instrument ever to be flown on a U.S. spacecraft.  
Geotail, a Japanese spacecraft studying the earth’s magnetotail, and the U.S. Wind spacecraft are the first part of the cooperative 
International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.  The Yohkoh spacecraft, a cooperative program with the Japanese, is 
continuing to gather x-ray and spectroscopic data on solar flares and the corona.  Ulysses is currently studying the sun's polar 
regions, measuring the interplanetary medium and solar wind as a function of heliographic latitude.  Voyager 1 and 2 and 
Pioneer 10 and 11 are continuing to probe the outer heliosphere and look for the heliospheric boundary with interstellar space as 
they travel beyond the planets.  SAMPEX is measuring the composition of solar energetic particles, anomalous cosmic rays, and 
galactic cosmic rays. 


 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
AXAF: 
On-Line System Preliminary Design       Validate design/maturity of hardware and software systems which support 
Review (CDR) - July 1994                primary aspects of AXAF operations, including data acquisition and distribution to  
                                        AXAF Science Center (ASC), spacecraft command/telemetry, etc. 

 
Off-Line System Preliminary Design      Validate design/maturity of software system which is used to process spacecraft 
Review (PDR) - December 1994            command loads generated by mission planners and flight operations team. 

 
On-Line System Critical Design          Major design review for hardware and software systems which support 
Review (CDR) - March 1995               primary aspects of AXAF operations, including data acquisition and distribution to  
 
                                       AXAF Science Center (ASC), spacecraft command/telemetry, etc. 
 
Off-Line System Critical Design         Validate design/maturity of software system which is used to process spacecraft 
(CDR) - September 1995                  command loads generated by mission planners and flight operations team. 

 
Off-line Release 1 - January 1996       First major deliveries of ground system hardware and software for integrated 
On-line Release 1 - February 1996       systems testing. 
 

HST: 
1st Servicing Mission - November 1993   Restore HST to full operational status.  Install corrective optics, replace defective  
                                        solar arrays, replace High Speed Photometer (HSP) with Wide Field/Planetary  
                                        Camera -- WF/PC-II.
 
 
NICMOS & STIS Critical Design Reviews   Conduct 2-phased review of HST replacement instruments to be installed during 
(CDRs) - August 1994 - October 1994     second HST servicing mission. August reviews examined hardware subsystem  
                                        designs and interfaces (electrical, thermal, etc.) October reviews examined detailed  
                                        designs for software and operations. 

 
2nd Servicing Mission Critical          Detailed review of overall content and procedure for the 1997 second servicing 
Design Review  (CDR) - July 1995        mission.   

 
Cargo Integration Review for the        Completes coordination of HST flight hardware and carriers destined for 
Second Servicing Mission - March 1996   the space shuttle cargo bay with JSC payload integration. 
 

Delivery of NICMOS and                  Instrument development activities completed.  Shipped to GSFC to begin final  
STIS to GSFC - August 1996              integration and testing. 

 
2nd Servicing Mission - February 1997   Replace Faint Object Spectrometer (FOS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer  
                                        (GHRS) with STIS, add NICMOS instrument, other replacement hardware as required. 
 

ISTP missions:                          Acquire in-situ and remote sensing measurements of Sun-Earth environment from  
Wind Launch - November 1994             different locations in near-Earth space.  Launch dates are important factor  
Polar launch - December 1995            in maintaining operations overlap with other ISTP missions. 
SOHO  launch - October 1995	 
Cluster launch - November 1995 
 
 
Explorers: 
SWAS launch - July 1995                 Acquire discrete spectral data for study of the chemical composition of dense  
                                        interstellar clouds, the presence of which is related to the formation of stars.   

 
XTE launch - August 1995                Conduct timing studies of x-ray sources with varying intensity over time,  
                                        characterization of those attributes, and study of compact x-ray emitting objects such  
                                        as binary stellar masses.   

 
FAST launch - August 1995               Provide high resolution data on the Earth's aurora and how electrical and magnetic  
                                        forces control them.   
 

Ulysses: 
1st Solar Polar pass:                   Explore the heliosphere over the full range of solar latitudes (polar regions previously 
  June-October 1994                     unexplored) and to provide an accurate assessment of the total solar environment. 
2nd Solar Polar pass:                   
  June-September 1995 
 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The first Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission in December 1993 was a tremendous success.  The mission restored the 
faint object and crowded field capabilities of the telescope, which had been unavailable due to spherical aberration of the primary 
mirror.  Also, jitter induced by thermal effects on the observatory’s solar arrays has been corrected by the installation of two 
modified solar arrays provided by the European Space Agency.  Several subsystems, including gyroscopes and a data processing 
system, were installed so as to restore redundancy and to ensure operations until the next servicing mission occurs.  The 
observatory is now fulfilling the promises NASA made for it, generating an ongoing stream of major scientific discoveries.  HST is 
generating great public interest as measured by several major news and television reports over the past twelve months.  HST images 
are also being distributed to school children nationwide through NASA’s national "Teacher Resource Laboratory" system.  Recently, 
a set of detectors under development for the HST has attracted a great deal of attention due to technology spin-offs.  Early 
development of these detectors was done within the astrophysics Advanced Technology Development program.  These detectors have 
been adapted for use in mammography, and significantly reduce the radiation exposure to patients.  This new mammography 
technology is breaking into the health care field, and is expected to rapidly become the standard.  In addition, the same technology 
is under assessment by the utilities industry as a means of detecting discharges from leaking electrical power lines.  Such an 
application holds the potential for saving the nation billions of dollars in utility bills by improving transmission efficiency. 
 

Planning for the second HST servicing mission in 1997 is ongoing.  Critical Design Reviews (CDRs) for the Space Telescope Imaging 
Spectrograph (STIS) and Near Infrared Camera/Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) were completed in 1994.  Integration and test 
activities will continue throughout FY 1995 in support of an August 1996 delivery to Goddard for final integration and testing.  In an 
effort to reduce outyear funding requirements, estimated costs for an Advanced Camera for the third servicing mission in 1999 have 
been reduced by more than a factor of two, with minor impact to science; this has been accomplished through acceptance of higher 
technical and programmatic risk, and a reduced development schedule.  
Detailed design of the AXAF ground system on-line and off-line systems were conducted, and will continue throughout FY 1995.  
Funding in FY 1996 will support the first major deliveries of ground hardware and software for integrated systems testing. 

 
In September 1995, the Ulysses spacecraft passed over the south polar region of the sun providing the first measurements of the 
solar wind emerging from the solar poles.  It found a wind twice as fast and with different composition than in low latitude regions, 
a lower than expected penetration of cosmic rays from outside the solar system, and a magnetic field with large low frequency 
waves.  The outer heliospheric spacecraft (Pioneers and Voyagers) are finding evidence that the they may encounter the heliospheric 
shock (region where the Sun's dominance of space terminates) as early as 1998.  Geotail is finding that conditions in the Earth's 
magnetic tail are more complex than expected.  The Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) is providing the 
first detailed measurements of interstellar material that is brought into the Earth's space environment in the form of energetic 
particles. 

 
In order to accommodate a growing number of operational spacecraft within MO&DA budgets that are significantly lower than 
previously expected, NASA is continuing to pursue cost savings while minimizing science impact.  Cost reduction efforts in many 
projects are showing results.  For missions like CGRO and EUVE, flight operations teams have been reduced from 23 to 19 Full-
Time Equivalents (FTEs); further reductions to the 13-14 FTE range will be possible in 96-97 when the mission operations control 
centers have been converted from dedicated computers to workstation-based generic systems.  The science instrument operations 
team for EUVE is in the middle of a staffing reduction program to convert from three-shift operation to single-shift operation.  On 
the science analysis side, astrophysics has systematically standardized data formats and modularized data analysis software 
packages.  Because of such savings and innovations, funding requested should be sufficient to support all currently operating 
missions, as well as all newly launched missions, through FY 1996.   
 

In FY 1995, the remaining components of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program will be launched (SOHO, Polar, 
and Cluster) to join Geotail and Wind in orbit.  This mission set, along with complementary missions probing the heliosphere 
(Ulysses, Pioneers 10 and 11, Voyagers 1 and 2), the cooperative Japanese Yohkoh spacecraft, and the small Explorer missions 
SAMPEX, will provide an unprecedented opportunity to study solar variability and the effects of this variability on the Earth's space 
environment, and upon the heliosphere at high latitudes and out to distances beyond 60 AU (an AU corresponds to the Earth's 
distance from the Sun).  However, Pioneer 11 operations will probably be terminated during FY 1995 as a result of the decreasing 
power supply on board the spacecraft.  

 
Other missions to be launched include the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE 8/95), the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS 
7/95), Polar (12/95), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO 10/95), Cluster (11/95), and the Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST 
8/95). 
 



BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                  RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS 
 

                                                       FY 1994          FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                                  (Thousands of Dollars)

 
Space physics supporting research and technology        35,700           35,700           35,700 
Astrophysics supporting research and technology         35,400           39,700           39,700 
Space infrared telescope facility definition               ---               --           15,000 


       Total                                            71,100           75,400           90,400 
 



PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The goals of the Research and Analysis (R&A) program in Physics and Astronomy are to:  (1) optimize the design of future missions 
through science definition, development of advanced instruments and concepts, and definition of proposed new missions; (2)  
strengthen the technological base for sensor and instrument development; (3) enhance the value of current space missions by 
carrying out ground-based observations and laboratory experiments; (4) conduct the basic research necessary to understand 
astrophysics phenomena and solar-terrestrial relationships and develop theories to explain observed phenomena and predict new 
ones; and, (5) continue the acquisition, analysis and evaluation of data from laboratories, airborne observatories, balloons, rocket 
and spacecraft activities.    In addition to supporting basic and experimental astrophysics and space physics research for future 
flight missions, the program also develops and promotes United States scientific and technological expertise. 
 


STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The R&A program carries out its objectives by providing grants to universities, nonprofit and industrial research institutions, and 
funds to scientists at NASA Centers and other government agencies.  Several hundred grants are awarded each year to the 
community of scientists.  These grants help train future investigators in space science disciplines -- science and engineering 
graduate and post graduate students who will become the nation’s future scientific leaders. 
 

Funding also supports Advanced Technology Development (ATD) activities which develop new mission concepts and ensure that the 
technology for a mission is mature before development begins in order to minimize cost, schedule, and technical risks.  Mission 
concept and definition studies are also used to identify and define new and usable technologies and optimize their use within an 
affordable development cost.  Increasing emphasis is being made within the Agency to better utilize advanced technologies in future 
missions.   
 

 
 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Technology development of advanced       Significant progress made in FY 1994.  Test program provided improvements in 
x- and gamma ray detectors               spectral resolution, imaging capability and detector efficiency (sensitivity).   
(Ongoing)                                Flight tests aboard sounding rockets and balloon planned for FY 1995.   
                                         Development of solid state gamma-ray detectors which may be operated without  
                                         cryogenic cooling is a goal for FY 1996. 
 

Technology development of advanced       Major new developments in delay-line microchannel plate detector electronics and  
Ultraviolet (U/V) detector systems       anode fabrication achieved in FY 1994.  Technology used to support replacement of  
(Ongoing)                                defective detectors on SOHO mission. 
                                         Completion of 3 year study in planned for FY 1996. Advanced detectors developed here  
                                         will be flown on future U/V missions such as FUSE and HST Advanced Camera.   
 

Theoretical studies of solar physics     Advanced generation numerical codes for analysis of solar x-ray data developed  
(Ongoing)                                FY 1994.  These codes will aid in the development of theoretical models for comparison  
                                         with observed plasma ejections from the Sun, known to be fundamental to solar  
                                         terrestrial relationships. 
 

Theoretical studies of the Heliosphere   Studies planned in FY 1995 to predict the location and physical characteristics of the  
(Ongoing)                                boundary of the heliosphere in anticipation of its encounter by the Pioneer and  
                                         Voyager spacecraft.   
 

Magnetospheric Physics studies           Data from the Geotail mission will be integrated with theoretical models in FY 1995 to  
(Ongoing)                                provide an enhanced understanding of physical and chemical characteristics of the  
                                         Earth's magnetic field.   
 

SOFIA: 
Wind tunnel testing completed -          Phase B Studies complete. Technical feasibility of the aft mount telescope  
August 1994                              configuration confirmed through extensive wind tunnel tests at ARC for the Boeing  
                                         747-200 and 747SP aircraft.  Both versions determined acceptable.  
 

Non-Advocate Review - February 1995      Conduct preliminary review of program to identify key technical challenges, highlight  
                                         cost/schedule concerns and identify other program issues for remedial action to assure 
                                         acceptable level of cost, technical and programmatic risk prior to initiation of program. 
 

Aircraft version selected - March 1995   Final decision on acquisition of Boeing 747-200 or 747SP based on performance,  
                                         modification requirements, purchase price, availability, operations costs, etc. 


Request for Proposal (RFP)               Documentation to support industry proposals for aircraft modification contract 
draft complete - July 1995               ready for release.  Release contingent upon new start in FY 1996. 
 

SIRTF: 
Phase A studies completed -              JPL inhouse studies of alternative mission designs reviewed for relative technical 
September 1996                           merits (complexity, feasibility, etc) cost and schedule requirements.   
 

Complete Spacecraft Request              Documentation to support industry proposals for spacecraft development contract  
for Proposal (RFP) - September 1996      ready for release.  Release contingent upon new start approval in FY 1997. 
 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The R&A program continued to provide exciting scientific discoveries in 1994.  In space physics, bright blue and red upper 
atmospheric flashes extending upward as high as 60 miles were captured on film for the first time.  Some of these flashes, which 
last only a few hundredths or thousandths of a second, reach through the ozone layer to the ionosphere.  These flashes link weather 
in Earth’s lower atmosphere to events in the upper layers of the atmosphere, through a process that is not yet well understood.  In 
astrophysics, amino acids were discovered around the galactic center.  The distant presence of Glycine, one of the building blocks of 
life, could be an important clue to the distribution of organic matter in the universe.  Significant progress has been made in the 
development and testing of innovative new x- and gamma-ray detectors; improvements were in the important areas of enhanced 
spectral resolution, finer imaging capability, and detector efficiency (sensitivity).  A major development in detector technology was 
achieved by Dr. Oswald Siegmund, in delay-line microchannel plate detector electronics and anode fabrication.  Siegmund’s work 
enabled rapid development of last minute replacement detectors for the SOHO mission. 
 

Also during FY 1994, the space physics program has investigated uses and techniques for tethered spacecraft to directly sample 
atmospheric regions (mesosphere and lower thermosphere) otherwise inaccessible by orbiting spacecraft.  Study of the Earth's inner 
magnetosphere has received renewed emphasis owing to the recognized importance of electrical coupling between ionospheric and 
magnetospheric processes, the time evolution of such processes, and the exchanges of particles that take place following large space 
weather events.  Advanced generation numerical codes for analysis of solar x-ray data have been developed; these codes have 
breakthrough abilities to model the observed plasma ejections from the Sun, known to be fundamental to solar terrestrial 
relationships. 

 
In the FY 1995 astrophysics program, several flight tests of innovative x- and gamma-ray detectors aboard balloons and sounding 
rockets will be performed with the prospect of providing critical new information on several topics of very high interest, including the 
nature of the enigmatic source of matter/antimatter radiation from the direction of the center of our Milky Way Galaxy and the 
origin of the isotropic, diffuse cosmic x-ray background.  Observations are planned of the brightest extreme ultraviolet radiation 
source, epsilon Cma, and our closest galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using newly developed payload instruments such as 
a high resolution spectrometer.  The development of suborbital payloads continues, including post-COBE follow-up investigations on 
anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation at improved sensitivity and angular resolution - experiments likely to 
function as pathfinders for a future orbiting mission. 


Also during FY 1995, the space physics program is seeking to perform radioactive dating of the cosmic radiation and to predict the 
nature, location, shape and thickness of the heliosphere's boundary in anticipation of its encounter by the Pioneer and Voyager 
spacecraft.  Energy storage, plasma energization and flow rate, and the morphology of the magnetic field will be studied using new 
data from the Geotail missions and powerful new computer codes and theory.  The program will also provide final reports that define 
a multi-faceted effort to study the detailed interaction of solar magnetic fields and the associated flow of plasmas that lead to the 
variability of the Sun. 

 
The astrophysics ATD program will continue to support definition studies for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 
(SOFIA) through FY 1995 in support of an FY 1996 new start.  Phase B studies for SOFIA were successfully completed in FY 1994.  
The technical feasibility of the aft mount telescope configuration was confirmed through extensive wind tunnel tests at ARC for both 
the Boeing 747-200 and 747SP aircraft. 

 
During FY 1996, the astrophysics program anticipates significant progress in two new promising detector technologies which will 
greatly enhance our capability to simultaneously image and spectrally resolve cosmic x- and gamma-ray sources with 
unprecedented resolution and sensitivity.  These include the development of solid state gamma-ray detectors which may be operated 
effectively without the need for cooling to cryogenic temperatures and x-ray sensors with the fine spectral capability of calorimeters, 
but which may be arrayed in a fashion akin to Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs).  In addition, a vigorous laboratory program in 
ultraviolet astrophysics is planned, including the development of synthetic extreme ultraviolet spectra and the measurement of 
ultraviolet transition probabilities and atomic oscillator strengths.  This program will aid in the interpretation of data from the HST, 
EUVE, ORFEUS, and Astro-2 missions.

 
Additional FY 1996 funding is included for  mission definition activities related to the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), in 
anticipation of entering development soon thereafter.  SIRTF is the last of the four Great Observatories and has been the highest 
priority new mission (as ranked by the National Academy of Sciences) in astrophysics for many years, especially because of the 
breakthroughs in infrared detector technology in the U.S.  SIRTF’s exquisite sensitivity will complement SOFIA’s high spatial and 
spectral resolution.  Through a series of restructuring efforts over the past three years, the anticipated lifecycle costs have been 
reduced by approximately a factor of five.  SIRTF may also include a collaboration with the Japanese to achieve a portion of its 
science objectives.  JPL is responsible for program management. 

 
Also during FY 1996, the space physics program will seek to understand the composition and dynamic physical processes of the 
solar, interplanetary and galactic regimes which create cosmic rays, and the galaxy and solar system through which they travel; to 
place limits on the existence of antimatter galaxies and forms of dark matter in the universe; to understand the dominant physical 
processes that characterize the transition between the Earth's uppermost atmospheres and space and the transfer of energy 
through this boundary region owing to variations in solar emissions; to optimize high energy observing technologies and research 
concepts for the study of solar flares from space during the next epoch of maximum solar activity; to refine revolutionary gamma-ray 
and hard x-ray imaging spectroscopy techniques in order to define small missions for the advanced study of solar flares; and to 
determine the plasma populations in the Earth's space environment and their variations over large spatial regimes using novel 
remote sensing, imaging techniques.  Advances in technology and modeling capability will lead to the development of new 
instrumentation to image otherwise invisible plasma distributions in the Earth's space environment. 






BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                           SUBORBITAL PROGRAM 
 

                                                   FY 1994            FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                                (Thousands of Dollars) 
Airborne program 
  Kuiper airborne observatory                       13,600             13,200              3,400* 
  Stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy      --                 --             48,700 
Balloon program                                     16,400             16,000             16,000 
Sounding rockets                                    39,500             38,000             38,600 
 

       Total                                        69,500             67,200            106,700 

 
* Assumes $9.7 million offset due to planned termination of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) operations and initiation of SOFIA. 
 



PROGRAM GOALS 

 
The principal goal of the Suborbital program is to provide frequent, low-cost flight opportunities for space science payloads to 
conduct research of the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, space plasma physics, stellar astronomy, solar astronomy, and high 
energy astrophysics.  The program also serves as a technology testbed for instruments which may ultimately fly aboard orbital 
spacecraft, thus reducing cost and technical risks associated with the development of future space science missions. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 

 
The Suborbital program provides the science community with a variety of options for the acquisition of in-situ or remote sensing 
data.  Aircraft, balloons and sounding rockets provide access to the upper limits of the Earth's atmosphere.  The Spartan program 
provides access to space by supporting deployable payloads for flight aboard the Shuttle.  Activities are conducted on both a 
national and international cooperative basis. 

 
Astronomical research with instrumented jet aircraft has been an integral part of the NASA Physics and Astronomy program since 
1965.  For relatively low cost, NASA has been able to provide to the science community very quick, global response to astronomical 
"targets of opportunity."  The Airborne program has provided support for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) since 1974.  This 
facility has consisted of a specially modified C-141 aircraft platform that carries a 0.91 m infrared telescope to altitudes above 
41,000 ft for 5 + hour scientific research flights.  Operations at these altitudes enable routine access to most of the infrared 
spectrum from one micrometer to a few millimeters.  With the exception of a few very narrow spectral "windows", this region is not 
accessible from the ground due to absorption by the water vapor at lower altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere.  The program is 
managed by the Ames Research Center (ARC), with all science payloads selected via an annual peer review held at ARC.   
 

The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a new airborne observatory designed to replace the aging KAO, 
and consists of a 2.5 m telescope provided by the German Space Agency (DARA) integrated into a used Boeing 747 aircraft.  With 
spatial resolution and sensitivity far superior to the KAO, SOFIA will facilitate significant advances in the study of a wide variety of 
astronomical objects, including regions of star and planet formation in the Milky Way, activity in the nucleus of the Milky Way, and 
planets, moons, asteroids and comets in our Solar System.  The program will build upon a very successful program of flying 
teachers on the KAO by reaching out to K-12 teachers as well as science museums and planetaria around the country.  Initial 
development of SOFIA is planned for FY 1996, with initial operations by the end of 2000.  KAO is scheduled to terminate operations 
beginning in FY 1996 if initial development of SOFIA is approved.  The savings from cessation of KAO operations are an integral 
element of the funding plan for SOFIA.   

 
The Balloon program provides a cost-effective means to test flight instrumentation in the space radiation environment and to make 
observations at altitudes that are above most of the water vapor in the atmosphere. In many instances it is necessary to fly primary 
scientific experiments on balloons, because of size, weight, or cost considerations or lack of other opportunities.  Balloon  
experimentation is particularly useful when studying infrared, gamma-ray, and cosmic-ray astronomy.  In addition to the level-of-
effort science observations program, the program has successfully developed balloons capable of lifting payloads greater than 5000 
pounds.  In addition, the balloon program is now capable of conducting a limited number of missions lasting nine to fourteen days; 
successful long-duration flights have been conducted in the Antarctic, and more are planned.  The Balloon program is managed by 
the NASA/GSFC Wallops Flight Facility (WFF).  Flight operations are conducted by the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF), a 
government-owned, contractor-operated facility in Palestine, Texas.  

 
Sounding rockets are uniquely suited for performing low altitude measurements (between balloon and spacecraft altitude) and for 
measuring vertical variations of many atmospheric parameters.  Special areas of study supported by the sounding rocket program 
include the nature, characteristics, and composition of the magnetosphere and near space; the effects of incoming energetic 
particles and solar radiation on the magnetosphere, including the production of aurora and the coupling of energy into the 
atmosphere; and the nature, characteristics, and spectra of radiation of the sun, stars and other celestial objects.  In addition, the 
sounding rocket program provides several science disciplines with the means for flight testing of instruments and experiments being 
developed for future flight missions.  The program also provides a means for calibrating flight instruments and obtaining vertical 
atmospheric profiles to complement data obtained from orbiting spacecraft.  The program is managed by GSFC/WFF, and launch 
operations are conducted from facilities in White Sands, New Mexico and Poker Flats, Alaska.

 
The Spartan program provides small, reusable spacecraft which can be flown aboard the Shuttle.  These units can be adapted to 
support a variety of science payloads and deployed from the Shuttle cargo bay to conduct experiments for a short time (i.e. several 
hours or days).  Payloads are later retrieved, reinstalled into the cargo bay and returned to Earth.  The science payload is returned 
to the mission scientists for data retrieval and possible refurbishment for a future flight opportunity.  The Spartan carrier is also 
refurbished and modified as needed to accommodate the next science payload.  
 
 


 
 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
KAO operations:	 
FY 1994                               74 flights achieved, including 7 flights to observe comet Shoemaker-Levy 9  
                                      collision with Jupiter in July.  Flights provided educational flight opportunity for 20  
                                      teachers. 
 

FY 1995                               40 flights planned.  Reduced flight rate due to aircraft to be taken out of  
                                      service from September through March for major maintenance. 
 

FY 1996                               Anticipated termination of KAO operations beginning in FY 1996. Contingent upon  
                                      FY 1996 new start approval for SOFIA. 
 

Balloon Program:	 
FY 1994                               22 flights achieved, including 2 Antarctica flights designed to detect the  
                                      origin of cosmic rays from galactic sources.  
 

FY 1995                               20-25 flights expected.  Antarctica campaign (2 flights) will serve as engineering test 
                                      flights for new instruments designed to increase statistical data on origin, energy  
                                      and composition of cosmic rays derived from 1994 campaign. Australian campaign (5  
                                      flights) will measure gamma ray emissions from the Galactic center and study selected  
                                      celestial objects that can only be observed in the Southern Hemisphere. 
 

FY 1996                               20-25 flights planned, including 2 long-duration missions over Arctic  
                                      regions which will re-fly new instruments flown over Antarctica in FY 1995 campaign. 
 

Sounding Rockets: 
FY 1994                               33 flights achieved, including 1 flight to obtain ultraviolet imagery of comet  
                                      Shoemaker/Levy impact with Jupiter.  Complemented observations from Galileo, HST,  
                                      KAO and ground observatories. 
 

FY 1995                               30-35 flights expected.  Poker Flats campaign (9 flights) will study a variety of auroral  
                                      acceleration processes and their effects on the 	Earth's upper atmosphere. 
 

FY 1996                               Approximately 35 flights planned. International Australia campaign (5 flights) will  
                                      conduct astrophysics observations unachievable from the northern hemisphere. 
 
 

 
Spartan: 
Spartan 201                           Space Physics missions observe and measure the solar source of the solar wind. 
September 1994 - July 1995            Conduct investigations of solar wind as correlative data	 measurements to Ulysses 
 

Spartan 204 - February 1995           Perform Shuttle glow experiments and uses the Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph 
                                      to view diffuse sources of light from distant galaxies. 
 

Spartan 206 - November 1995           Payload developed by Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) which carries  
                                      instruments to measure noble gases, contamination and erosion potential of space  
                                      environment. 
 

Spartan 207 - April 1996              Inflatable Antenna Experiment developed by Office of Space Access and Technology  
                                      (OSAT). 
 

SOFIA: 
Initiate aircraft procurement -       Acquisition of a suitable Boeing 747 aircraft is a critical path item as it is the principal 
January 1996                          driver of the aircraft modification design. 
 

Initiate SOFIA aircraft               This activity is the largest single procurement in the SOFIA program. Its schedule is 
modifications - June 1996             driven by the early acquisition of the aircraft and a streamlined procurement activity. 
 

In-house Systems Preliminary          Initial detailed review of key program elements of program which will be designed at  
Design Review (PDR) - September 1996  the ARC.  These include the aircraft's shear layer control system, cavity door, consoles  
                                      and electronics systems. 
 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In 1994, the KAO flew 74 research flights that involved 32 Principal Investigators and logged more than 560 hours of observation 
time.  In addition, 20 teachers from grades K-12 were given the opportunity to fly aboard the KAO.  In FY 1995, the KAO is expected 
to fly more than 40 research flights.  This included a highly successful deployment to Australia for observations of the comet 
Shoemaker-Levy 9 as it impacted the planet Jupiter in July.  KAO is scheduled to terminate operations beginning in  
FY 1996 if initial development of SOFIA is approved.  The savings from cessation of KAO operations are an integral element of the 
funding plan for SOFIA.  FY 1996 funds support the purchase of a used Boeing 747 aircraft, aircraft refurbishment, and initial 
design activities by a prime contractor selected to modify the aircraft into a flying observatory.  In addition, a Memorandum Of 
Understanding (MOU) with DARA would also be signed.  Initial operations for SOFIA would begin in late 2000.  
 

In FY 1994, 33 sounding rockets and 22 balloons were flown.  Of particular interest were the observations of comet Shoemaker-Levy 
9 impact with Jupiter in July, and the highly successful sounding rocket campaign in Brazil in which thirteen rockets were flown to 
study the ionosphere at the Earth’s magnetic equator.  Recent developments in long-duration ballooning capabilities are now 
available to accommodate 1-2 ton payloads for periods of up to 2 weeks. This capability provides an alternative to Spacelab missions 
for some investigators, and are now being used in polar campaigns to fly cosmic ray experiments where the event rate is especially 
low.  Funding in FY 1995-FY 1996 will support an anticipated 20-25 balloon flights and 30-35 sounding rocket flights. 
 

Spartan 201 consists of a 17-inch diameter solar telescope with an ultraviolet coronagraph and a white light coronagraph to observe 
and measure the solar source of the solar wind.  Spartan 201 had highly successful flights in 1993 and 1994, and another reflight is 
planned for 1995 to provide correlative data for the Ulysses mission during its passage over the northern solar pole.  Spartan 
missions are also planned for FY 1995 and FY 1996 which support an astrophysics payload and two experiments developed by the 
Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT). 
 

 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                     INFORMATION SYSTEMS 
 

                                                 FY 1994             FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                               (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Information systems                               26,500              26,100             25,900 
 



PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Information Systems program is fundamental to the attainment of the overall technical and scientific goals of the Office of Space 
Science (OSS).  The program provides state-of-the-art data management, networking, and computing capabilities which support 
research activities in all disciplines and provide the means for optimal exploitation of all science data acquired. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Information Systems program will provide access to high performance networking, computing and data management, and an 
interactive analysis environment with efficient access to data, mathematical processes tools, and advanced visualization techniques.  
Multiple science disciplines will be supported by the projects funded under this program. 
 

NASA’s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center archives and distributes data acquired in 
space flight programs.  A master directory service for distribution of science data to a wide range of users is also maintained.  In 
addition, support is provided for development of search techniques to access data from multiple databases and to assimilate data 
from multiple data sets into single applications. 
 

The NASA Science Internet (NSI), managed by the Ames Research Center, is a computer networking service used to provide access to 
flight program databases, data processing systems, and to other applications for scientific collaboration available through the 
Internet.  Researchers and organizations participating in the NASA-funded flight programs and in joint international missions are 
supported through this network service. This service is closely coordinated with other U.S. computer networking facilities. 
 

Funds provided for information system research and technology are used to improve science data management capabilities, to 
improve scientist’s productivity by developing enhanced analysis and visualization techniques and to facilitate the transfer of new 
information technologies into the private sector.  Principal Investigators at universities and research centers throughout the U.S. 
and Canada are selected through peer-reviewed NASA Research Announcements to participate in this portion of the program. 
 
 

 
 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
Shuttle Radar Imaging Mission -         Visualization and animation techniques developed for Magellan radar data adapted to  
April 1994                              acquire real-time, multispectral data. fused into a single image. 
 

Establish Mars Global Database -        Interactive science data visualization enabled by higher performance parallel  
July 1994                               computing adapted for use with Mars global map.  Allows Mars "flyover" guided by  

                                        workstation mouse over Martian terrain. 
 
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts          Worldwide distributed science event, with broad participation by general 
with Jupiter - July 1994                public.  Over 2.5 million accesses to images made available on World 
                                        Wide Web servers. 
 

Establish industry partnerships -       Cooperative agreement with two companies to transfer high performance computing  
October 1994                            and visualization capabilities for broadened commercial applications. 


Internet connections to South           Strengthened collaboration with joint projects and science colleagues. 
America and Argentina - FY 1995 
 

Master Directory and other              One-stop shopping available to both science community and general public for all  
Services fully operational              science data assets archived in widely distributed locations.  Also linked to World Wide  
at NSSDC - FY 1995                      Web Home Page browse capability. 
 

Global mosaics of Jupiter and Mars -    Data from various sources adapted to produce global images of Jupiter and Mars.  Data  
April 1996                              will also be incorporated into comprehensive database which allows user to  
                                        interactively peruse the solar system. 
 

Develop enhanced mission simulation     Develop integrated capability to test and evaluate full suite of computing and related  
techniques - FY 1996                    technologies for data compression, autonomous spacecraft operations, flight/ground  
                                        system trade-offs, etc. 
 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Advanced networking has enhanced the research environment, and also has accelerated the access and utilization of the science 
data by the general public, making them more broadly available to traditionally unserved communities.  For example, in July 1994, 
the week in which the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiter, the NSSDC’s World Wide Web system experienced nearly 
500,000 accesses. The World Wide Web systems at the HST Science Institute and Jet Propulsion Laboratory experienced 500,000 
and 1,500,000 accesses, respectively.  In FY 1994, the NSSDC On-Line Data and Information Services (NODIS) system was accessed 
almost 40,000 times by the user community.  The NSSDC Data Archive and Distribution Services (NDADS) system received 
approximately 20,000 requests for data during the same timeframe.   
 

Based on historical trends, it is anticipated that demands for NSSDC and NSI services in FY 1995 and FY 1996 will be even greater.  
However, the combination of increasing user demands and the constrained budget environment will require tradeoffs between 
investments in advanced technologies, such as visualization tools and technology testbeds, and support of current NSSDC and NSI 
services. 
 

 










BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                     LAUNCH SERVICES 
 

                                             FY 1994           FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                         (Thousands of Dollars) 

 
Ultra-lite                                        --            15,000              9,000 
Small                                         10,400             4,000             10,800 
Med-lite                                          --                --              5,100 
Medium                                        24,300            35,600             31,000 
Intermediate                                  43,000            26,000                 -- 
Upper stages                                   6,900            15,200             18,300 

 
       Total                                  84,600            95,800             74,200 




PROGRAM GOALS 

 
Launch Services are a vital element in the achievement of the overall goals of the Space Science program.  Expendable Launch 
Vehicles (ELVs) provide space science missions with safe, reliable, cost-effective access to low Earth orbit, and possess the unique 
capability of delivering spacecraft beyond Earth orbit to other points in the solar system and beyond. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS


Payloads may be launched aboard a number of vehicles, each of which supports a discrete performance class.  Small payloads are 
launched aboard the Pegasus XL, which is developed by the Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and requires in-flight deployment 
from a Lockheed L1011 aircraft.  The Pegasus XL is capable of delivering payloads up to approximately 1,000 pounds to low Earth 
orbit. The Ultra-lite launch services budget supports the Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI) which is managed by 
the United States Research Association (USRA) in cooperation with NASA.  Funding supports the development of two small 
university-developed spacecraft and the procurement of launch services.  A contract for Ultra-lite launch services was signed with 
OSC in December 1994 to support the STEDI program.  This new class of ELV will provide approximately one half the lift capacity of 
a Pegasus.   
 

Medium class payloads require launch services capable of delivering up to 11,000 pounds to low Earth orbit.  These missions are 
launched aboard the Delta launch vehicle, which is developed by McDonnell-Douglas (MDAC).  These vehicles may be launched 
either from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) or, if a polar orbit is required, from the Vandenberg Air Force Base 
(VAFB).  The Med-lite is a new class of launch services which will provide approximately one half the lift capacity of a Delta.  
Contractor selection for the new Med-lite is targeted for summer of 1995.   
 

Intermediate class payloads require launch services capable of delivering spacecraft up to 20,000 pounds to low Earth orbit.  These 
missions are launched aboard the Atlas launch vehicle, which are provided by the Martin-Marietta Corporation and, like the Delta, 
may be launched either from the east coast (KSC) or west coast (VAFB).  Payloads launched aboard the Shuttle may be delivered to a 
higher orbit via the use of an upper stage. The AXAF mission will be launched aboard the Shuttle, and will use an Inertial Upper 
Stage (IUS) developed by Boeing to deliver the spacecraft to a highly elliptical orbit. 
 

Funding for mission-unique launch services is now included under the budget request for the benefiting program.  Funding support 
for management oversight of the entire Launch Services program rests with the Launch Vehicles Office (LVO),  which is now part of 
the newly-formed Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).  The LVO aggregates NASA, the NOAA, and the international 
cooperative ELV mission requirements, establishes appropriate acquisition strategies for purchasing firm, fixed priced launch 
services from the U.S. industry, and imposes the scope and level of technical oversight of the commercial ELV operators' delivery of 
service that reflects the criticality of the mission and the level of government resources at risk.  The administration, procurement, 
and technical oversight of launch services in the small and medium performance classes is managed by the Goddard Space Flight 
Center (Pegasus XL, Med-lite and Delta II).  Intermediate (Atlas I/IIAS) launch services are managed by the Lewis Research Center 
(LeRC).  Upper stages, including the AXAF IUS, are managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).  The KSC is delegated 
responsibility for technical oversight of vehicle assembly and testing at the launch site by GSFC and LeRC and is responsible for 
spacecraft processing at the launch site.   
 


MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 

 
Wind launch - November 1994                   Launch delayed from mid-1994 due to technical problems with spacecraft. 
                                              Launched successfully aboard Delta II on November 1, 1994.   
 

SWAS launch - July 1995                       Launch from KSC aboard the Pegasus XL/L1011 launch vehicle. Exact date of this  
                                              launch is dependent upon successful return to flight of the redesigned Pegasus XL  
                                              launch vehicle.  Targeted for July 1, 1995 in summer launch window. 
 

FAST launch - August 1995                     Launch from VAFB aboard the Pegasus XL/L1011 launch vehicle. Launch delayed from  
                                              mid-1994 due to technical problems with new Pegasus XL.  Exact date of this launch is  
                                              dependent upon successful return to flight of the redesigned Pegasus XL launch  
                                              vehicle.  Launch currently targeted for 1995 launch window (August 1-20). 
 

SAC-B/HETE launch                             Dual payload launch from WFF aboard Pegasus XL/L1011 launch vehicle.  Exact date  
mid-late 1995                                 of this launch is dependent upon successful return to flight of the redesigned Pegasus  
                                              XL launch vehicle. 

 
XTE launch - August 1995                      Launch aboard a Delta II. 
 
 

SOHO launch - October 1995                    Atlas IIAS launch delayed from July 1995 to October due to spacecraft readiness and  
                                              Atlas launch manifest conflicts. 
 

Polar launch - December 1995                  Launch aboard a Delta II from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) delayed from mid- 
                                              1994 due to technical problems with spacecraft.  New launch date still maintains  
                                              operational overlap with other GGS mission (Wind). 
 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 

 
Planned launches for missions using the Pegasus launch vehicle are currently under review.  In June 1994, the first flight of the 
new Pegasus XL was aborted due to mechanical malfunctions,  and future launches have been delayed until the implementation of 
required redesigns are completed.  This has deferred the planned launches of FAST, SWAS and SAC-B/HETE by several months.  
Redesign activity by the launch vehicle developer and operator, the Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), is nearing completion.   The 
next Pegasus flight will carry an OSC-developed commercial payload in March 1995.  First launch of the fully redesigned vehicle is 
planned for April, and will carry the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) mission developed by the Mission To Planet Earth 
(MTPE) program.  FY 1996 funds also support initial launch services procurements for the new SMEX missions, TRACE and WIRE, 
with planned launches in FY 1997 and FY 1998, respectively. 
 

Ultra-lite launch services funding  supports the STEDI program.  Initial payload development and launch vehicle procurement 
begins in FY 1995.  USRA is currently reviewing proposals for science payloads, and will select the final two mission candidates in 
late January.  A contract for Ultra-lite launch services was awarded in December 1994 to OSC in support of planned launches in 
early 1997. 
 

Med-lite funding supports the initial procurement of launch services for the FUSE mission in October 1998.  This program was 
previously baselined for a Delta II launch in late 2000, but is currently being rescoped to reduce total cost, schedule and launch 
services requirements.  After numerous delays due to technical problems experienced during integration and test, the Wind 
spacecraft was successfully launched in November.  These delays have also resulted in the delay of Polar to November 1995.  Other 
missions supported include the Explorer missions, XTE (August 1995) and ACE (August 1997). 
 

The SOHO mission launch aboard an Atlas IIAS has been deferred by several months due to spacecraft readiness concerns and a 
crowded Atlas launch manifest, but is still scheduled for launch in 1995.  NASA has selected Boeing to provide an Inertial Upper 
Stage (IUS) for the AXAF mission, and activities have begun in support of a Shuttle launch in September 1998.  
  
 


                                                                                                 
 

SAT 1.1