SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 
 
                                    FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 
 
  
                                        BUDGET SUMMARY 
 

OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE                                             PLANETARY EXPLORATION 
 

                                 SUMMARY OF RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS

                                                                                        
                                      FY 1994           FY 1995            FY 1996     
                                                   (Thousands of Dollars)
 

*Cassini                              266,600           255,000            191,500    
 Mars instruments                       4,400             2,100              1,400    
*Discovery                            127,400           129,700            103,800    
*Mars surveyor 		               14,600            59,400            108,500     
*New millennium spacecraft                 --            10,500             30,000    
 Mission operations and data analysis 130,700           117,200            127,800    
 Research and analysis                107,600           108,400            109,100    
 Launch services                      120,600           134,800            155,700    
 

    Total                             771,900           817,100            827,800 
 

Distribution of Program Amount by Installation
 

Johnson Space Center                    4,591             4,505              4,329 
Kennedy Space Flight Center                20               525              2,811 
Marshall Space Flight Center               30                --                 -- 
Ames Research Center                   10,939             9,956              9,680 
Langley Research Center                    25                --                 -- 
Lewis Research Center                  86,480            78,190             97,457 
Goddard Space Flight Center            54,895            77,330             72,868 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory             428,086           480,892            465,980 
Headquarters                          186,834           165,702            174,675 
 

	Total                         771,900           817,100            827,800 
 

*Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section. 





                                SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND TECHNOLOGY 
 
                                     FISCAL YEAR 1996 ESTIMATES 

 

OFFICE OF SPACE SCIENCE                                                   PLANETARY EXPLORATION 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Planetary Exploration program encompasses the scientific exploration of the solar system including the planets and their 
satellites, comets and asteroids.  Within the broad goals outlined for the Space Science program, the goals of the Planetary 
Exploration program are: 
 

      o To understand the nature of planets, comets, and asteroids as a means for understanding the origin and evolution of the 
        solar system; 
 

      o To understand the origin and evolution of the solar system by exploring, surveying, and sampling the planets and moons 
        with robotic spacecraft; and,  
 

      o To understand if planets, including terrestrial-like planets, exist around other stars. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The strategy of the Planetary Exploration program has placed a balanced emphasis on the Earth-like inner planets, the gaseous 
giant outer planets, and the smaller bodies, including comets and asteroids.  Missions to previously unexplored solar system bodies 
typically are at the reconnaissance level to achieve a fundamental characterization of the target of observation.  Subsequent 
missions to the same bodies are then enabled to conduct more detailed studies.  With the Magellan mapping of the Venusian 
terrain, the reconnaissance phase of inner planetary exploration, with the exception of Mercury, is virtually complete.   
 

Mars has been a primary program focus due to its potential for previous biological activity and for comparative studies with Earth.  
The Mars Surveyor program was initiated in FY 1994 to obtain data lost from the Mars Observer mission and to resume the surface 
exploration of Mars.  This series of small spacecraft is a level-of-effort activity that includes two launches of orbiters and landers at 
each flight opportunity.  The first mission, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) will fly a small science payload, comprised of space Mars 
Observer instruments aboard a small, industry-developed spacecraft.  Launch is planned for November 1996 aboard a Delta II 
launch vehicle. 
 

The Cassini will conduct extensive investigations of Saturn, its rings and satellites, building upon the discoveries made through the 
Pioneer and Voyager missions. Like AXAF, Cassini was also restructured in 1992. Significant reductions in peak funding 
requirements and total mission life-cycle costs were achieved by simplifying the spacecraft design, streamlining mission operations, 
and trimming science requirements.  Along with spacecraft observations, the European Space Agency (ESA)-provided Huygens Probe 
will conduct in-situ atmospheric measurements of Saturnís moon, Titan.  Cassini is scheduled for an October 1997 launch aboard a 
Titan IV launch vehicle, and will fly by Earth, Venus, and Jupiter en route to a June 2004 rendezvous with Saturn where 
investigations will be conducted for four years. 
 

Funding was also provided in FY 1994 for the start of the first two Discovery missions, the Mars Pathfinder and the Near Earth 
Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR).  These small, low-cost planetary missions are designed to be built and flown by the science community 
in three years or less from new start to launch.  The program stimulates innovative teaming and management arrangements 
between industry, university, and government partners.   The Mars Pathfinder will test innovative entry, descent and landing 
systems, and will deliver a modest science payload to the Martian surface, including a microrover provided by the Office of Space 
Access and Technology (OSAT).  Launch is scheduled for December 1996 aboard a Delta II launch vehicle.  The NEAR mission 
promises to answer fundamental questions about the nature and origin of ďprimitive bodiesĒ in its one year orbit around asteroid 
433 EROS.  It too is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta II launch vehicle in February of 1996. 
 

The New Millennium Spacecraft program is an aggressive technology demonstration effort, structured so as to precipitate a 
revolution in the design, development and implementation of science spacecraft and instruments for the new millennium.  With  
objectives of increasing the capability of NASAís spacecraft and instruments while simultaneously reducing total life cycle costs of 
future science missions and increasing flight rates, this program represents a logical next step for NASA to take in achieving its 
scientific and technological goals.  NASA anticipates that the first technology results could occur as early as FY 1997, with 
subsequent missions occurring at a rate of one or more at 12-24 month intervals. 
 

The Mission Operations Support Office (MOSO) is maintained at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).  This program provides ground 
system hardware, software development and mission support for all planetary programs.  At present, MOSO supports ongoing 
mission operations for Voyager, Ulysses and Galileo as well as final mission close out activities for the Magellan mission. 
The program also supports the development of generic ground system upgrades such as the Advanced Multimission Operations 
System (AMMOS).   
 

The Research and Analysis (R&A) program defines the scientific priorities for future missions as well as maximizing the exploitation 
of existing data sets.  The R&A program consists of three elements designed to: (1) assure that data from flight missions is fully 
exploited; (2) undertake complementary observational, laboratory and theoretical efforts; and (3) define scientific and technical 
requirements and develop technologies for future planetary missions. 
 

Beginning in FY 1996, mission unique launch services for all Space Science missions requiring expendable launch vehicles are 
included as part of the OSS budget.  Overall program management rests with NASAís Launch Vehicles Office (LVO).  Launch 
services funding budgeted within Planetary Exploration include Medium-lite class launch services for future Discovery and Mars 
Surveyor missions;  Delta launch services for Discovery (Mars Pathfinder, NEAR); and a Titan IV/Centaur for Cassini. 
 
 
 


 
BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                      CASSINI DEVELOPMENT 
 

                                           FY 1994          FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                     (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Cassini development*                       266,600          255,000           191,500 
 

*Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Building on the discoveries made by the Pioneer and Voyager missions, the Cassini Program will provide unprecedented information 
on the origin and evolution of our solar system, and will help determine how the necessary building blocks for the chemical 
evolution of life are formed elsewhere in the universe.  The Cassini mission will conduct a detailed exploration of the Saturnian 
system including: 1) the study of Saturnís atmosphere, rings and magnetosphere; 2) remote and in situ study of Titan; 3) the study 
of Saturnís icy moons; and 4) a Jupiter flyby to expand our knowledge of the Jovian System.  In conjunction with Galileoís study of 
the Jovian system, Cassini should also provide much insight as to how and why the large, gaseous outer planets have evolved much 
differently than the inner solar system bodies. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Cassini is scheduled for launch in October 1997 aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle.  An extensive cruise period is required to reach 
Saturn, during which the spacecraft will fly by Venus, Earth, and Jupiter to gain sufficient velocity to reach its destination.  Upon 
arrival in June 2004, the spacecraft will begin a four year study of the Saturnian system that will provide intensive, long-term 
observations of Saturnís atmosphere, rings, magnetic field, and moons.  In conjunction with the observations conducted by the 
spacecraft, the European Space Agency (ESA) - provided Huygens Probe will be injected into the atmosphere of Saturnís moon Titan.  
The probe will conduct in-situ physical and chemical analyses of Titanís methane-rich, nitrogen atmosphere that is a possible model 
for the pre-biotic stage of the Earthís atmosphere.  The Cassini radar will map of most of Titanís surface.   
 

The program was restructured in 1992 in response to downward revisions of the future funding projections for NASA programs.  
Significant changes were made to the spacecraft design to reduce program costs and improve mass and schedule margins, although 
the science payload remains essentially intact.  The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is responsible for overall management of the 
program, and the majority of the spacecraft and ground system are being developed inhouse.  The Titan IV/Centaur launch vehicle 
is being purchased by NASA from the Department of Defense (DOD) as part of an existing contract between the Air Force and 
Martin-Marietta; the Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are being procured by 
NASA from the Department of Energy; the European Space Agency (ESA) is providing the Huygens probe; and the Italian Space 
Agency (ASI) is contributing the High Gain/Low Gain Antenna for the spacecraft.  There are twelve science instruments on the 
orbiter and six on the probe from international Principal Investigators (PIs).  
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
	 

Spacecraft subsystem Critical            Detailed review of Propulsion Module Subsystem (PMS) and Command & Data  
Design Reviews (CDR) -                   Handling (C&DH) subsystem designs to assess maturity, compatibility with established  
May 1994                                 interfaces (structural, thermal, etc.) established during System level CDR.   
 

Ground System Critical Design Review     Review determines ground system hardware/software for maturity, compatibility with  
(CDR) - February 1995                    external interfaces (spacecraft, tracking, PIs, etc.) and ability to meet mission objectives  
 

Complete Instrument Final                Provide approval to finalize design and begin full scale hardware development 
Interface Requirements and Design 
Reviews (FIRDR) - March 1995 
 

Development Test Model Static and        Simulates and tests spacecraft launch environment to assure its survivability from  
Modal Tests - April thru November 1995   acoustic and dynamic stresses. 
 

Huygens Probe Critical Design            Confirms that the detailed design of ESA-provided hardware is compatible with 
Review (CDR) - September 1995            all established spacecraft interfaces (structural, electrical, thermal, etc.) and is of  
                                         sufficient detail and maturity to achieve planned delivery date. 
 

Engineering Model Probe                  Engineering model delivery to JPL is critical requirement for interface testing with 
delivery from ESA - February 1996        the spacecraft. 
 

Start System Level Tests - May 1996      Integration, test and checkout of flight hardware and instruments. 
 

Deliver Flight Model Science             Delivery of flight model instruments to JPL for integration with the spacecraft 
Instruments - July 1996 
 

Start Spacecraft Environmental           Tests entire spacecraft performance in a simulated mission  
Tests - October 1996                     environment to assure proper operation in space. 
 

Ship spacecraft to KSC -                 Complete system level integration and test activities.  Begin integration with Titan  
April 1997                               IV/Centaur launch vehicle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). 
 

Spacecraft launch - October 1997         Development phase complete.  Initiate spacecraft checkout and cruise operations. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994, Cassini transitioned from the design phase to fabrication and test.  Instrument Critical Design Reviews (CDRs) were 
completed, and fabrication of engineering model hardware is underway.  Engineering models for the two U.S.-developed Huygens 
Probe instruments were completed and delivered in June. The majority of the spacecraft subsystem CDRs were completed, and 
fabrication of breadboard and engineering model hardware began.  The High Gain Antenna (HGA) CDR, and the Huygens Probe 
Hardware Design Review (by ESA) were also completed.  In addition, fabrication of flight subsystems and cabling was started. 
 

All remaining CDRs for the Cassini spacecraft subsystems will be completed in FY 1995.  Spacecraft subsystem integration will 
continue through the first half of FY 1995, and will be conducted in parallel with initial spacecraft systems testing such as static 
loads, vibration, acoustic and pyro shock testing.  Integration and test of the science instruments for both the orbiter and probe will 
also continue in FY 1995.  Delivery of the probe instrument flight units is scheduled for mid FY 1995 to allow ESA sufficient time to 
conduct their own system level testing of the Huygens Probe prior to final delivery to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in  
FY 1997.  Ground System hardware deliveries will continue in conjunction with the development and test of flight software for the 
launch and cruise phase of the prime mission.   
 

In FY 1996, Cassini subsystem hardware fabrication and testing will be completed.  The Huygens Probe engineering model will be 
delivered to the JPL in February.  Spacecraft subsystems and instrument flight models will be delivered to the spacecraft assembly 
facility in the last quarter of FY 1996 in support of system level testing which will continue into FY 1997


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                           MARS INSTRUMENTS 
 

 
                                              FY 1994             FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                            (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Mars instruments                                 4,400               2,100            1,400 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The study of Mars is of major interest to NASA and the international science community due to its potential for previous biological 
activity and for comparative studies with the Earth.  Therefore, NASA is developing a portion of the science payload to fly aboard a 
Russian spacecraft and lander mission which will obtain descent and surface imagery, in-situ seismology, soil composition and 
meteorology measurements.  Instruments developed by NASA will determine the presence of atmospheric and/or soil oxidants which 
theoretically caused the rapid destruction of the organic material tested on the Viking mission.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Mars Ď94 is a Russian mission comprised of an orbiter, two surface penetrators, and two hard landers to be deployed on the Martian 
surface.  Each lander will carry a variety of science instruments provided by several international partners including Germany, 
Finland, France and the U.S.  The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will provide two Mars Oxidation (MOx) experiments, one for flight 
aboard each of the two original landers.  To conserve mass, power and space, these experiments will share common electronics 
subsystems with German and Russian instruments.   U.S. scientists are also involved in many of the other science instruments 
provided by our foreign partners.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Deliver flight model MOx                  Completed development of two MOx experiments.  Shipped to Russia for 
instruments - May 1994                    final integration and test in support of planned launch in October 1994. 
                                          Hardware subsequently returned for refurbishment due to launch delay. 
 

Deliver MOx Instruments -                 Complete refurbishment of MOx instruments with upgraded electronics. Ship to Russia  
April 1995                                for final integration with rest of science payload in support of October 1996 launch. 
 

Deliver MOx Sensor Heads -                Provide two refurbished MOx sensor heads to Russia for spacecraft integration. 
May 1996	 
 

Spacecraft launch - October 1996          Development phase complete.  Initiate mission operations. 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

During FY 1994, final integration and testing of the two U.S. science instruments was nearing completion, and shipment of the 
flight units to Russia was scheduled for May 1994 for integration with the rest of the science payload.  However, technical problems 
encountered by the Russians delayed project completion beyond the October 1994 launch opportunity.  This has required a two year 
launch delay to October 1996. This has necessitated refurbishment of the MOx instruments and replanning the delivery to Russia 
for final integration with the rest of the science payload.  FY 1995 funding provides ongoing support for the U.S. science 
investigators associated with all aspects of the science payload.  The MOx instruments will be refurbished with upgraded electronics 
and shipped to Russia in May 1995 for spacecraft integration.  The MOx sensor heads will also be refurbished and shipped to 
Russia for spacecraft integration in May 1996 for an October 1996 launch.  The one year prime mission will begin upon arrival at 
Mars in September 1997.  JPL has been designated to handle data processing and dissemination of MOx data from the Mars Ď94 
mission.  The FY 1996 funding is provided to establish science data formatting, archival and dissemination requirements prior to 
initiation of the prime mission in September 1997. 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 
                                        DISCOVERY PROGRAM  
 

                                             FY 1994           FY 1995         FY 1996 
                                                       (Thousands of Dollars)
 
 
Mars pathfinder                               60,800            77,500          35,900 
Near earth asteroid rendezvous                66,600            52,200          31,300 
Future missions                                  ---               ---          36,600 
 

       *Total                                127,400           129,700         103,800 
 

* Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Discovery program reflects the agency's commitment to ensure a continuous stream of new planetary science data and more 
frequent access to space, both of which are critical requirements for a robust planetary science program in the future.  Missions will 
perform high-quality scientific investigations of solar system bodies, including inner solar system planets (i.e. Mercury, Venus and 
Mars), comets and asteroids.  The program is intended to accomplish these investigations while enhancing the U.S. return on its 
investment by aiding in the transfer of new technologies to the private sector.   The program also seeks to enhance public awareness 
of, and appreciation for, space exploration and to provide educational program opportunities.  It seeks to further reduce total 
mission/life cycle costs and improve mission performance through the use of new technology and through control of design, 
development, launch and operations costs.  
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Discovery missions are designed with focused science objectives that can be met with limited resources.  Total development costs 
are not to exceed $150 million in constant FY 1992 dollars, and development schedules are limited to three years or less.  Total 
mission costs are further constrained by limiting launch services requirements to a Delta II or Med-Lite launch vehicle.  The current 
Discovery missions, Mars Pathfinder and Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), are consistent with these criteria.   
 

The Mars Pathfinder mission was approved as a new start in FY 1994 and is being conducted as an in-house effort at the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).  The mission is designed to demonstrate the cruise, entry, descent, and landing system approach that 
will be used in future missions to place a network of small science landers on the Martian surface.  Pathfinder will carry three 
science instruments and a technology development microrover separately funded by the Space Access and Technology program.  The 
multispectral stereo Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) will characterize the Martian surface morphology and geology at a one-meter 
resolution.  An Alpha-Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) will obtain information on the elemental composition of Martian rocks and 
soil.  This instrument will be carried aboard the microrover.  An Atmospheric Structure Instrument and Meteorology package (ASI-
Met) will obtain information on the structure of the Martian atmosphere from measurements during entry and descent, and will 
obtain in-situ meteorology information while deployed on the Martian surface.  The lander will also deploy and operate the 
microrover flight experiment to evaluate the effects of the Martian surface conditions on the rover design and its ability to deploy 
and operate science instruments.  Portions of the science instruments are being provided by Germany and Denmark.  Launch is 
scheduled for December 1996 aboard a Delta II launch vehicle.  Communications will be via the Deep Space Network (DSN) and 
mission operations supported by JPL's Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO).   
 

NEAR was also approved as a new start in FY 1994, and is being conducted as an in-house development at the Applied Physics 
Laboratory (APL) with many subcontracted subsystems.  Tracking and navigation support will be provided by JPL.  This spacecraft 
will conduct a comprehensive study of the near Earth asteroid 433 EROS, including its physical and geological properties and its 
chemical and mineralogical composition.  The spacecraft carries five scientific instruments.  The Multispectral Imager (MSI) will 
provide global imaging coverage as well as detailed views of the asteroid at resolutions as high as one to two meters to reveal details 
of the geologic processes that have affected its evolution; the X-Ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) will provide a chemical 
analysis by measuring several dozen key elements; the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIS) will determine the mineral composition of 
the asteroidís surface; and the Magnetometer, together with radio science, will help characterize its internal structure.  The Laser 
Altimeter (LIDAR) will help provide an asteroid shape, distinguish albedo from topographic variations, and measure surface 
morphology.  Launch will be on a Delta II launch vehicle in February 1996.  The EROS launch opportunity requires an accelerated 
development schedule for NEAR of only 27 months.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Mars Pathfinder: 
Delta Design Review (DDR) - July 1994       Emphasis on spacecraft Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) subsystem designs which  
                                            were revised to accommodate new entry trajectory for lander. 
 

System level Critical Design Review         Confirms that the project system, subsystem, and component designs are of 
(CDR) - September 1994                      sufficient detail to allow for orderly hardware and software manufacturing, integration 
                                            and testing, and represents acceptable risk.  Successful completion freezes  
                                            the design prior to initiation of fabrication, integration and test. 
 

Flight System Assembly and Test             Review ensures that flight system hardware is ready to proceed into assembly and test  
Review - April 1995                         phase 
 

Complete Instrument Deliveries -            Last instruments delivered to JPL for integration with spacecraft hardware   
September 1995
 

Flight qualification tests -                Performance testing of major elements of Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) subsystem  
December 1995                               (Airbag, aeroshell, chute, etc.) to assure survivability of payload during Mars landing

   
Flight hardware deliveries -                Flight model spacecraft subsystems (aeroshell, chute, bags, microrover, etc.)  
January 1996                                fabrication and testing completed.  Initiate system level integration. 
	 

Pre-ship Review (PSR) - August 1996         Ensure spacecraft is ready for shipment to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration 
                                            with Delta II launch vehicle.  Shipment to KSC planned for September. 
 

Launch - December 1996                      Development complete.  Initiate spacecraft checkout and mission operations. 
 

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous: 
Technical and Cost Review -                 Detailed review determined readiness to proceed with mission design and development 
December 1993	 
 

Preliminary Design Review                   Review confirmed that proposed project baseline meets all program-level performance  
(PDR) - April 1994                          requirements and represents acceptable level of cost and technical risk. 
 

Selection of Science Teams -                Science teams selected to perform experiments and observations with facility  
September 1994                              instruments. 
	 

Critical Design Review                      Confirmed that the project system, subsystem and component designs are of sufficient  
(CDR) - November 1994                       detail and maturity, are compatible with established interfaces (structural, thermal,  
                                            etc.) and ready for initiation of fabrication, integration and testing. 
 

Flight hardware deliveries -                Flight model spacecraft subsystems and instruments completed.  Begin system level  
June-August 1995                            integration and test phase.  
 

Pre-ship Review  (PSR) - January 1996       Ensure spacecraft is ready for shipment to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration 
                                            with the Delta II launch vehicle 
 

Launch - February 1996                      Development phase complete. Initiate spacecraft checkout/cruise operations. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Mars Pathfinder development activities are proceeding well.  A Delta Design Review (DDR) of the spacecraft was completed in July 
1994, and instrument CDRs are currently underway.  Flight hardware and software development is proceeding within cost and on 
schedule for a December 1996 launch.  All major flight system design issues are resolved, and planned tests have been successfully 
accomplished.  Mars Pathfinder flight model spacecraft subsystems, instruments and microrover are scheduled for delivery by mid-
late 1995 to initiate system level integration and testing at the JPL.  Ground system developments such as flight software and 
mission sequences will also be supported in FY 1995.  Mars Pathfinder will complete integration and test activities in preparation for 
a December 1996 launch.  Completion of microrover tests in a Mars simulated environment will be conducted, and flight 
qualification tests will be completed in December 1995.  Flight Aeroshell, parachute, and airbags, will be delivered in the first half of 
FY 1996.  A Pre-Ship Review (PSR) is scheduled for August 1996 prior to shipment to KSC in September and a December 1996 
launch aboard a Delta II. 
 

The NEAR mission successfully completed its system PDR in April 1994, followed by a CDR in November.  Fabrication of spacecraft 
and instrument subsystems is currently underway and will continue through June or July 1995.  Flight instrument and spacecraft 
subsystem deliveries are scheduled for completion by late FY 1995 to support system-level integration and test activities in FY 1996.  
System-level integration begins in June 1995, followed by environmental testing in December.  All activities remain on schedule in 
support of the February 1996 launch aboard a Delta II.   
 

Additional resources are requested in FY 1996 and beyond to initiate development of future Discovery missions.  An Announcement 
of Opportunity (AO) was released in August 1994 for candidate missions.  Proposals were received in October, with selections 
targeted for late January.  Missions will be selected on the basis of overall scientific merit, with emphasis on providing increased 
opportunities for participation by industry and universities.  Funding supports a planned launch rate of one per year beginning in 
FY 1999 aboard Delta II or Med-Lite launch vehicles.   

 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 



                                  MARS SURVEYOR PROGRAM 
 

                                      FY 1994          FY 1995            FY 1996 
                                                 (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Mars global surveyor                   14,600           58,000             58,200 
Future missions                           ---            1,400             50,300 
 

       *Total                          14,600           59,400            108,500 
 

*Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Mars has long been a primary focus of the Planetary Exploration program due to its potential for previous biological activity and for 
comparative studies with the Earth.   The Mars Surveyor program is a series of small missions designed to resume the detailed 
exploration of Mars.  The goals of the mission are to extend and complement the data acquired by the Mariner and Viking missions 
by mapping the global surface composition, atmospheric structure and circulation topography, gravity and magnetic fields of Mars.   
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

This program began in FY 1994 with the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission, which will obtain a majority of the expected science 
return from the lost Mars Observer mission.  The orbiter will fly a science payload comprised of spare Mars Observer instruments 
aboard a small, industry-developed spacecraft.  Launch is planned for November 1996 aboard a Delta II launch vehicle.  This 
mission is to be succeeded by a series of small communications orbiters and landers which will make in-situ measurements of the 
Martian climate and soil composition.  The first of these missions is scheduled for launch in December 1998.  Technology 
developments from the Discovery mission, Mars Pathfinder,  will be optimized to reduce mission costs and technical risk associated 
with development of the Mars Surveyor landers.  Design concepts for these missions are currently being worked in conjunction with 
the International Mars Exploration Working Group.  Current planning assumes two launches in December 1998 and two launches 
in February 2001.  All four launches are baselined to use Med-Lite launch vehicles, which provide approximately one half the lift 
capacity of a Delta II.




 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Instrument Review Panel -                  Proposed subset of Mars Observer instruments selected for incorporation into Mars  
February 1994                              Global Surveyor (MGS).  Refurbishment/retest activities initiated. 
	 

MGS spacecraft contractor selection -      Martin Marietta selected as MGS spacecraft contractor and systems integrator.  
July 1994	 
 

Mission Operations System                  Review of ground system hardware/software designs was conducted to confirm that  
Preliminary Design Review                  proposed operations baseline meets all mission objectives, is compatible with  
(PDR) - September 1994                     established interfaces, and represents an acceptable level of cost, schedule and  
                                           technical risk. 
	 

Program Confirmation Review -              Confirms that overall budget/schedule baseline is adequate to proceed with mission 
February 1995                              development. 
 

Spacecraft System                          Confirms that spacecraft system, subsystem and component designs are sufficiently  
Critical Design Review (CDR) -             mature, compatible with established interfaces (structural, thermal, electrical, etc.), 
May 1995                                   and represent appropriate levels of cost, schedule and technical risk.  
 

System Test Readiness Review               To assure the flight system and required test capabilities are in place and ready for  
(STRR) - October 1995                      pre-flight testing. 
 

Instrument Calibration and Test -          Instrument integration completed.  Instruments operated under simulated flight  
December 1995                              conditions to validate/characterize performance against design specifications. 
 

Instrument deliveries - February 1996      Instruments begin delivery to Martin-Marietta for integration with spacecraft prior to 
                                           initiation of system level testing. 
 

System Acceptance Review -                 Assure that flight hardware integration is complete and ready for final acceptance  
August 1996                                tests.	 
 

Pre-Ship Review (PSR) -                    Formal review approving test results and recommending mission launch.   
October 1996	 
 

Launch - November 1996                     Development phase completed.  Initiate spacecraft checkout and cruise operations. 
 
 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

In FY 1994,  $14.6 million was reallocated via an operating plan adjustment to initiate development of the Mars Global Surveyor 
(MGS).  The science payload, a subset of the original Mars Observer instruments, was selected in February and initial refurbishment 
activities began in mid-1994.  Martin-Marietta was selected as the spacecraft contractor in July, and detailed design activities were 
begun in preparation for the October Preliminary Design Review (PDR).  In FY 1995, MGS will continue refurbishment of residual 
Mars Observer instrument spares.  Detailed design activities will continue in support of the spacecraft Critical Design Review (CDR) 
in May.  Hardware fabrication and assembly will be conducted throughout FY 1995 to prepare for systems testing to begin in early 
FY 1996.  Instrument testing and calibration activities will be completed in December 1995.  Instruments will be integrated onto the 
spacecraft in February 1996.  System level integration and testing will be conducted throughout the year, and a Pre-Ship Review 
(PSR) will take place in October in preparation for a November 1996 launch.   
 

Funding is also provided to initiate development of payloads planned for launch in the December 1998 opportunity.  These 
tentatively include a communications orbiter and a Mars lander, both launched aboard Med-Lite launch vehicles.  There will be a 
Request for Proposals (RFP) released in January 1995 requesting design proposals for the orbiter and lander segments of the 1998 
mission.  The Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for flight instrument proposals will follow shortly thereafter. 
 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT


 
                                   NEW MILLENNIUM SPACECRAFT

 
                                          FY 1994            FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                       (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

New millennium spacecraft development*         ---             10,500            30,000 
 

*Total Cost information is provided in the Special Issues section 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

New Millennium Spacecraft is an aggressive technology development and demonstration program designed to precipitate a 
revolution in the design, development and implementation of science spacecraft and instruments.  Shrinking budgets require lower 
mass, affordable spacecraft and instruments to reduce development, launch services and mission operations costs.  Continuing 
business as usual in a constrained budget environment will ultimately lead to reduced science capability and degraded science 
return, fewer missions and shrinking frontiers.  Enhancing the launch rate of new space missions requires the infusion of 
innovative new technologies, new mission concepts and new ways of doing business.   
 

Primary objectives of the program are to increase the performance capabilities of spacecraft and instruments while simultaneously 
reducing toal costs of future science missions, thereby increasing the science mission flight rate.  Key areas to be addressed include 
reducing the (launch) volume and weight of the spacecraft and instruments -- to enable missions to be launched on smaller, less-
costly launch vehicles -- and increasing overall spacecraft autonomy and performance, which will reduce operations cost and 
increase science return.  Aggressive, systems-level flight demonstration of key technologies will promote rapid infusion of these 
technologies into future scientific missions, while simultaneously mitigating the risk traditionally associated with using new 
technologies in these missions.  The program is expected to benefit both future space exploration and Earth sciences programs. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The program will be implemented as a partnership between the Office of Space Science (OSS) and the Office of Space Access and 
Technology (OSAT), working closely with the science community to highlight key scientific challenges to be addressed in the new 
millennium, and with the broad technology community (NASA, other government agencies, industry and academia) to identify key 
technology areas to address these challenges.  The program will encompass spacecraft components and subsystems, science 
instruments and streamlined design, development and qualification methodologies.  Exploitation of key technologies will be 
optimized by combining the efforts of the New Millennium Spacecraft program with ongoing technology focused activities being 
conducted by OSAT. 
 

New Millennium spacecraft utilizes a systems approach which tightly integrates several focused technologies at once.  Technologies 
which contribute most significantly to overall program goals will be selected for further development and adpatation to science 
mission requirements and will be validated by a series of flight technology demonstration missions occurring at a rate of one or more 
per year, with initial flights planned for the 1997-98 timeframe.  Although the primary purpose of these missions will be to validate 
the high priority technologies needed to enable future science missions, the demonstration flights will also, to the maximum extent 
practical, incorporate a modest science payload to exploit scientific targets of opportunity.  In implementing the strategy, NASA will 
place a strong emphasis on innovative management approaches which will assure synergistic teaming with industry, academia, and 
other government agencies.  The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will manage program implementation. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Science Working Group Established -          Identification of New Millennium vision: Scientific challenges to be addressed in the  
August 1994                                  2000-2010 timeframe 
	 

Implementation Plan Drafted -                Proposed implementation process identified (preliminary)  
December 1994 
 

Technology Workshop - February 1995          Review proposed implementation process with industry, academia, other  
                                             government agencies;  Broad identification of emerging technologies of interest 
 

Implementation Plan (Final) -                Implementation process finalized and approved 
February 1995 
 

Preliminary Mission Set Provided,            Candidate sets of demonstration missions identified, each set addressing key  
Evaluated, Downselected -                    technologies of interest, as well as possible scientific targets of opportunity; 
April 1995                                   Downselect from approximately 12 to 4 mission sets 
 

Refined Mission Set Provided,                Approximately four mission sets evaluated in detail;  Downselect to one or 
Evaluated, Downselected -                    two high priority mission sets 
mid-1995 
 

Select Partners - mid-1995                   Identify partners from industry, academia, other government agencies to form  
                                             Integrated Product Development (IPD) teams 
 

Technology Demonstration flights -           Specific Dates TBD;  Will depend on results of process to identify high priority 
1997, 1998, 1999                             technologies and integrate them into specific demonstration missions 
 
 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Emphasis to date has been on drafting an implementation plan outlining the overall process for accomplishing the program within 
proposed cost and schedule guidelines.  In FY 1995, the Implementation Plan will be finalized, and key technologies will be selected 
and integrated with science opportunities into an initial set of mission candidates.  These mission candidates will be reviewed for 
technological and scientific merit, and will ultimately be downselected to two finalists.  NASA will work with industry, other 
government agencies, and universities to form Integrated Product Development (IPD) teams for development of technologies that 
have broad application for New Millennium missions.  Project IPD teams will also be established which will be responsible for 
development and implemention of the selected missions.     
 

In FY 1996, each of the missions selected will initiate detailed design and development activities in support of planned technology 
demonstration flights in the FY 1997-98 timeframe.  Concurrent with the development of these specific missions,  funding will also 
support other IPD teams which will initiate focused technology activities for incorporation into future technology demonstration 
missions. 
 
 
 
 
 
     


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                           MISSION OPERATIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS 

 
                                             FY 1994           FY 1995          FY 1996 
                                                        (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Galileo operations                            59,400            70,700           75,100 
Magellan operations                           11,800                --               -- 
Voyager neptune data analysis                  4,300                --               -- 
Near earth asteroid operations                    --                --            3,300 
Planetary flight support                      55,200            46,500           49,400 
 

         Total                               130,700           117,200          127,800 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA) program is a key element to the achievement of the overall goals of the Office of 
Space Science (OSS).  Funding supports spacecraft operations as well as the acquisition, processing, analysis and dissemination of 
science data while maximizing overall program efficiency and minimizing costs. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

The Planetary Flight Support line maintains the Mission Operations Support Office (MOSO) at JPL.  This program provides ground 
system hardware, software development and mission support for all planetary programs.  The planetary flight support activities are 
those associated with the design and development of planetary ground operation systems for multiple missions, and other activities 
that support the mission control, tracking, telemetry, and command functions through the Deep Space Network (DSN) for all 
planetary spacecraft.  At present, MOSO supports ongoing mission operations for Voyager, Ulysses and Galileo as well as final 
closeout activities for the Magellan mission.  The program also supports the development of generic ground system upgrades such 
as the Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS).  This new capability is designed to improve our ability to monitor 
spacecraft systems, thereby reducing workforce levels and increasing operations efficiencies for Cassini and other future planetary 
missions.  New missions such as the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Surveyor program will work closely with the Planetary Flight 
Support Office to ensure the most efficient use of current ground system capabilities, to minimize both ground systems development 
and operational requirements and to reduce overall mission operations costs. 


 
 
 
 
 
MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Galileo 
Asteroid Ida Data Retrieved -         Transmit to Earth all Ida science data and imagery including the first  
June 1994                             ever discovery of an asteroid satellite (Dactyl). 
 

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9                Acquisition/processing/analysis of imagery showing the actual impacts of  
Observations - July 1994              Shoemaker-Levy 9 into Jupiter. 
 

Galileo probe release and orbit       Separate the Galileo orbiter and probe and maneuver the orbiter to a deflection 
maneuver - July 1995                  parallel trajectory to relay probe data at Jupiter entry. 
	 

Galileo insertion into Jupiter        Maneuver the orbiter into orbit around Jupiter.  Initiation of prime mission operations. 
Orbit - December 1995 
 

Return Probe Data - March 1996        All probe data sent to and stored on the orbiter transmitted to Earth. 
                                      Critical element of overall mission objectives. 
 
Return Io and Jupiter Encounter       Transmit to Earth, science data and imagery from encounters with Jupiter 
Data - July 1996                      and its moon Io. 
 

Ganymede Encounter - September 1996   Transmit all science data and imagery from the Ganymede and  
Ganymede Encounter - November 1996    Callisto encounters in 1996 to Earth. 
Callisto Encounter - December 1996 
 

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous 
Launch - February 1996                To rendezvous with the asteroid EROS, NEAR must launch in February 1996.  Another  
                                      launch opportunity occurs 11 months later to a different near Earth asteroid. 

Planetary Flight Support 
 

Galileo Phase 1 Development           Complete upgrade of multi-mission software to support orbit insertion 
Completed - September 1994            and probe release. 
 

First Cassini ITL Build -             Hardware and telemetry and command software build to support start of Cassini 
April 1995                            spacecraft Integration and Test Laboratory (ITL) activities. 
 

Modify Multi-Mission Ground           Complete development and testing of modification to the multi-mission ground system 
System for Mars Pathfinder -          to support Mars Pathfinder mission. 
September 1995


Galileo Phase II Development -        Complete development and testing of modifications to software to support 
November 1995                         probe data return, Jovian orbit operations and data processing. 
 

Cassini Assembly, Test and            Complete critical hardware/software components of Cassini ground system  
Launch Operations (ATLO)              required to support start of Cassini spacecraft ATLO and to update ITL build. 
hardware/software development -	 
January 1996 
 

Begin Cassini Pre-Launch Operations   Initiate pre-launch software development for telemetry, command mission control,   
Support - August 1996                 data management, and multi-mission spacecraft analysis system in support of 
                                      flight operations. 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Galileo was launched in October 1989 and is nearing completion of its six-year journey to Jupiter.  In October 1991, the spacecraft 
returned the first detailed images ever obtained of an asteroid -- Gaspra. Galileo encountered a second asteroid, Ida, in August 
1993.  This encounter also provided the unexpected discovery of the first ever lunar body of an asteroid, Idaís moon Dactyl.  Galileo 
also participated in the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Jupiter impact observations in July 1994.  As the only observing platform with a direct 
line of sight to the impact area, Galileo provided valuable scientific data for the event.  Downlink of observations obtained will be 
completed by February 1995.  Failure to deploy the High Gain Antenna (HGA) required a rebaselining of the mission for use of the 
Low Gain Antenna (LGA) only.  Development is continuing on the changes in mission design and DSN coverage required to support 
the new mission requirements.  New flight and ground software are being developed to achieve the majority of Galileoís objectives 
using only its Low Gain Antenna.  This is being achieved at a cost lower than originally estimated.  Galileo will release the 
atmospheric probe in July 1995 and initiate the Jovian tour the following December. The Orbiter will begin its 23 month study of 
the Jovian system, orbiting the giant planet 11 times.  During 1996, Galileo will return the probe data as well as new science and 
images from Jupiter and encounters with the four Galillean satellites, Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. 
 

The Magellan spacecraft was launched in May 1989.  Since its arrival at Venus in August 1990, the spacecraftís radar mapped 
approximately 98% of the planetís surface to a ground resolution of about 150 meters.  The spacecraft successfully completed an 
aerobraking experiment to circularize the orbit in the summer of 1993.  The FY 94 funding covered the completion of operations of 
the spacecraft and the Venus Data analysis program.  After a final windmill experiment into the lower Venusian atmosphere in 
October 1994, communications with the spacecraft were terminated as planned.  
 

The Voyager-2 flyby of Neptune in August 1989 provided our first detailed images of this distant planet as well as previously 
unknown moons and geyser-like surface eruptions on Triton.  Support for analysis of this data has continued since FY 1990.  Due 
to budget constraints in FY 1995, the data analysis program is unfunded beyond FY 1994.  Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 
operations are now supported as part of the space physics MO&DA program, and continue to acquire data on the interplanetary 
medium as they exit the solar system and move toward the heliopause. 
 

The NEAR mission began the development phase in December 1993 with a preliminary design review in April 1994.  NEAR 
completed critical design review in November 1994.  Testing and integration begins June 1995.  The NEAR spacecraft will launch 
from Cape Kennedy on a Delta II in February 1996.  It will orbit the sun to two astronomical units and fire its bipropellant system at 
aphelion in March 1997.  In January 1998 it swings by the Earth to achieve the proper inclination to the elliptic plane to rendezvous 
with EROS.  In January 1999, NEAR comes within 1000 km of EROS and fires its thrusters several times to orbit the asteroid.  For 
the next year it will take measurements of EROS at various orbit altitudes.  Spacecraft operations will be completed in January 
2000. 
 

Planetary Flight Support funding supports the development of ground system capabilities required for Galileo prime mission 
operations.  Additional ground system development will continue in preparation for the Cassini launch in October 1997.  
Development of the Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS) ground system upgrade will also continue with further 
software development and testing activities leading to operational capability in time for Cassini and subsequent planetary missions.  
Work will also proceed with the Discovery and Surveyor development teams to ensure support for these missions. 
 
 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 

 
                                   RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS 
 

                                           FY 1994           FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                      (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Supporting research and technology          82,300            83,300            83,000 
Advanced technology development             25,300            25,100            26,100 
 

         Total                             107,600           108,400           109,100 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

The Research and Analysis (R&A) program defines the scientific priorities for future missions as well as maximizing the exploitation 
of existing data sets.  The R&A program consists of three elements designed to:  (1) assure optimal access to and utilization of 
planetary science data;  (2) undertake complementary observational, laboratory and theoretical efforts; and (3) define scientific and 
technical requirements and develop technologies for future planetary missions. 
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) funds support basic and applied research across a wide variety of planetary science 
disciplines.  These include planetary astronomy, planetary geology/geophysics, planetary materials/geochemistry, planetary 
atmospheres, exobiology and interdisciplinary studies.  Planetary astronomy supports observations from ground-based telescopes of 
solar system bodies, with emphasis on outer planets, comets, and asteroids.  Funding also supports continued operation of the 
Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea, Hawaii.  Planetary atmospheres research studies the properties of other planetary 
atmospheres (e.g. Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) which can aid us in better understanding our own weather and 
climate.  Planetary geology/geophysics studies surface processes, structure, and history of solar system bodies.  Planetary 
materials/geochemistry studies the chemistry, composition, age and physical properties of solid material in the solar system 
through the study of returned lunar cosmic dust, samples, and meteorites.  The operation of the Lunar Curatorial Facility is also 
supported by this activity.  Exobiology uses space and ground-based opportunities to study the cosmic evolution of biogenic 
compounds, prebiotic evolution, and the evolution of primitive and advanced life forms.  The program examines these processes in 
the environments in which they occurred, including Earth, the planets of our solar system and elsewhere in the universe.  Ongoing 
development of the Planetary Data  System (PDS), which archives all mission data products in a manner promoting and facilitating 
their use by the scientific community is also supported. 
 

Interdisciplinary studies such as the Origins of Solar Systems program examine the interrelationship between all types of planetary 
science and astrophysical data.  These studies lead to the development and test of new theories regarding the origin and evolution of 
our solar system.  Advanced techniques and technologies for light collection, adaptive optics and light detection are supported using 
the twin 10-meter telescopes of the Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii.  A major goal is to enable the detection of planets 
around other stars. 
 

Advanced Technology Development (ATD) supports the definition of future planetary missions to ensure technical and scientific 
viability as well as consistency with the overall strategic planning and scientific objectives of the Solar System Exploration program.  
Funds are also provided for early definition of new science instruments to reduce the cost, mass and volume as well as to provide 
enhanced capabilities of future science payloads. 
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

Investigate the loss of volatiles      Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and other constituents are critical 
from the atmosphere of Mars over       in the process of evolution of the Martian atmosphere and climate.  This 
geologic time, in the light of         study is directly related to the question of whether the early 
new atomic and molecular data and      atmosphere of Mars was denser, warmer and wetter, and therefore 
a new understanding of loss            whether Mars could have been the abode of primitive life 
processes (Ongoing) 
 

Investigate the production of          A continued investigation of hydrocarbon ion chemistry in the 
hydrocarbon ions in the auroral        ionosphere of Jupiter.  The work is important because hydrocarbon ion 
region of Jupiter by impact of         chemistry, driven by auroral particle impact, is probably a significant 
charged particles, in the light        process in the production of the heavier hydrocarbon molecules that form 
of a new atomic and molecular data     Jupiter's polar haze 
(Ongoing) 
 

Determination of the likelihood        Research will focus on the necessary atmospheric ingredients for a 
that a planet would be habitable       liquid water world, how evolution of the planet's sun alters the 
(Ongoing)                              circumstellar "habitable distance" in which liquid water is maintained, 
                                       and the probability of planets occurring the proper distance from the sun 
 

Continue long-term astrometric         Long-term observational programs are in place to monitor several hundred 
searches for evolved planetary         nearby stars for the slight change in relative velocity or in position caused by 
systems  (Ongoing)                     the orbital motions of planets in orbit about the target star.  Extremely high 
                                       precision measurements are required to conduct these sensitive searches which 
                                       are presently the only means of detecting planetary systems such as ours even 
                                       around nearby stars

  
Begin observations with the Keck       ASEPS activities are to detect extra-solar planetary systems, to 
Observatory for the Astronomical       understand their formation and evolution and to characterize individual 
Studies of Extrasolar Planetary        planets.  Other Keck activities will be the discovery and 
Systems (ASEPS) and general            characterization of faint, small bodies in our solar system 
planetary astronomy programs - 
September 1996 
 

Complete a two year data analysis      This study will advance our scientific understanding in the areas of: 
program of the data sets acquired      the structural and chemical composition of impacting bodies; the 
of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9          chemical, physical, and thermal structure of the Jovian atmosphere and  
collision with Jupiter -               interior; the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with cometary dust 
September 1996                         and grains; and the physics of the entry phenomena 
 

Developing a self replicating          Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) catalytic capabilities can now be evolved in a test tube with 
system, a model for Earth's            manipulation.  Work is directed to develop an RNA capable of self-replication 
earliest life - September 1996         and mutation, which would be the first demonstration of life based solely on 
                                       RNA 
 

The synthesis of biologically          High pressure-temperature vessel are being built to test theories of abiotic 
important compounds from abiotic       synthesis of important biological compounds.  Finding organic compounds 
chemical processes operating in        would support the theory that hydrothermal vents are where life evolved on 
hydrothermal vents - September 1996    Earth 
 

Phase A/B Studies: 
 

Mars Surveyor Landers:                 September 1994 - phase B1 (early definition phase) study complete 
                                       April 1995 - phase B2 (definition phase) study complete 
 

Pluto Flyby:                           Phase A study in progress (conceptual design) 
                                       FY 1997 - planned phase B (definition study) 
 

Rosetta:                               Pre-phase A study in progress (program formulation/ mission needs) 
                                       FY 1996 - planned phase A (conceptual design study) 
                                       FY 1997 - planned phase B (definition study) 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

The world's astronomical observatories had a unique opportunity to observe Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 enter into Jupiter's 
atmosphere during July 1994.  Significant advances were made in our scientific understanding of the structure and chemical 
composition of the impacting bodies.  Another discovery in 1994 included the first detection of a planetary system around a star 
other than the Sun.  Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) has been evolved in a test tube, performing both catalytic and genetic function, lending 
credence to the RNA hypothesis for early life.  In addition, data from the Magellan mission has shown that the distribution of impact 
craters indicates the Venusian surface is young -- around 300-500 million years old. 
 

The Planetary Data System published Welcome to the Planets, an interactive CD-ROM featuring a collection of color images of all the 
major planets and their satellites, along with descriptive narratives (text and voice) and physical data for these bodies.  The images 
were selected from among the best returned by NASA planetary spacecraft.  The collection is aimed at K-12 level students, 
educators, and the interested public. 
 

The framework for participation in European Space Agency's (ESA) Rosetta mission was established in FY 1994, including the 
development of a joint NASA/CNES design for a comet nucleus lander; an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for lander 
instruments is planned for March, 1995.  Other mission and technology studies supported in FY 1994 include:  ASEPS 
(Astronomical Study of Extrasolar Planetary Systems); NSTAR ( a solar electric propulsion validation and flight test activity); 
microspacecraft advanced technology development; an outer solar system power study; mission studies of low cost concepts for 
Mars sample return, asteroid sample return, outer planet probes, and Venus balloon missions. 
 

Preliminary mission studies for the Mars Surveyor Landers were completed, and Phase B activities begun, leading to a flight system 
Request For Proposals (RFP) and instrument AO in FY 1995.  Significant progress was made in defining a low cost Pluto Flyby 
mission, including the completion of a two year advanced technology insertion program, and the development of options for 
international cooperation. 
 

With the completion of the Department of Defense's Clementine mission to the Moon and the collection of nearly two million lunar 
multispectral images, NASA plans support analysis of this rich data set for scientific purposes.  In addition, funding will be provided 
for the scientific analysis of the data set from the Galileo mission encounter with two asteroids as it passed through the asteroid 
main belt.  Approximately 40-50 investigations will be supported at a variety of institutions.  Funding will also be provided for the 
production of multispectral image cube data sets that will support the most sophisticated types of scientific analysis in the future. 
 

Although the annual probability of the Earth being struck by a large asteroid or comet is extremely small, the consequences of such 
a collision could be catastrophic.  Consequently, it appears prudent to asses the nature of the threat and to prepare to deal with it.  
NASA formed the Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Survey Committee to assist it in developing a plan to detect near Earth objects.  The 
objectives of the NEO Survey are to detect, characterize, and catalogue all comets and asteroids greater than one kilometer in 
diameter that cross the orbit of the Earth and determine their orbits around the Sun.  Efforts will be coordinated with the 
Department of Defense and space agencies from other countries. 
 

A cooperatively administered NASA and National Science Foundation data analysis and interpretation program will begin with the 
selection of the investigators to undertake the synergistic inter-comparison of data sets of the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9/Jupiter 
collision to advance our scientific understanding in the areas of:  the structure and composition of the impacting  bodies; the 
chemical, physical, and thermal structure of the Jovian atmosphere and the interior; the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere 
with cometary dust and grains; and the physics of entry phenomena. 
 

In order to have a coherent and coordinated program of transferring the exciting and scientifically important new discoveries from 
solar system exploration, one million dollars is being provided to support scientists to transfer their latest scientific discoveries and 
vast knowledge to the education community.  This program encourages partnership with educational organizations and individuals 
as well as industry, academia and government to develop products and approaches to transferring information and knowledge 
obtained through the exploration of the planets to teachers and students at the K-12 level. 
 
 
 


BASIS OF FY 1996 FUNDING REQUIREMENT 
 

                                   LAUNCH SERVICES 
 

                                        FY 1994          FY 1995           FY 1996 
                                                  (Thousands of Dollars) 
 

Med-lite                                    ---              ---           13,300 
Medium                                   34,200           56,700           43,500 
Large                                    86,400           78,100           98,900 
 

	Total                           120,600          134,800          155,700 
 

PROGRAM GOALS 
 

Launch Services are a vital element in the achievement of the overall goals of the Space Science program.  Expendable Launch 
Vehicles (ELVs) provide safe, reliable, timely and cost-effective launch services for planetary missions, and possess the unique 
capability of delivering spacecraft beyond Earth orbit to other points in the solar system and beyond.  
 

STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS 
 

Payloads may be launched aboard a number of vehicles, each of which supports a discrete performance class.  Medium class 
payloads require launch services capable of delivering up to 11,000 pounds to low Earth orbit.  These missions are launched aboard 
the Delta launch vehicle, which is developed by McDonnell-Douglas (MDAC).  These vehicles may be launched either from the Cape 
Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) or, if a polar orbit is required, from the Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB).  The Med-Lite is a 
new class of vehicle which will provide approximately one half the lift capacity of the Delta.  Contractor selection for the new Med-
Lite is currently underway.  Large class payloads requiring the delivery of up to 39,000 pounds to low Earth orbit are launched 
aboard the Titan IV/Centaur launch vehicle, developed by the Martin-Marietta Corporation (MMC).  NASA is procuring the Titan 
IV/Centaur launch vehicle for Cassini via an existing contract between the United States Air Force (USAF) and MMC.  A separate 
contract for mission unique integration activities is established directly between NASA and MMC. 
 

Funding for mission-unique launch services is now included under the budget request for the benefiting program.  Funding support 
for management oversight of the entire Launch Services program rests with the Launch Vehicles Office (LVO),  which is now part of 
the newly-formed Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).  The LVO aggregates NASA, NOAA, and international cooperative 
ELV mission requirements, establishes appropriate acquisition strategies for purchasing firm, fixed priced launch services from the 
U.S. industry, and imposes the scope and level of technical oversight of the commercial ELV operators' delivery of service that 
reflects the criticality of the mission and the level of government resources at risk.  The administration, procurement, and technical 
oversight of launch services in the small and medium performance classes is managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (Pegasus 
XL, Med-Lite and Delta II)  Large class (Titan IV/Centaur) launch services are managed by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC).  KSC 
is delegated responsibility for technical oversight of vehicle assembly and testing at the launch site by GSFC and LeRC and is 
responsible for spacecraft processing at the launch site.   
 

MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE 
 

NEAR launch - February 1996       Launch aboard a Delta II launch vehicle. 
 

Mars Global Surveyor launch -     Launch aboard a Delta II launch vehicle 
November 1996	 
 

Mars Pathfinder launch -          Launch aboard a Delta II launch vehicle 
December 1996	 
 

Cassini launch - October 1997     Launch aboard a Titan IV/Centaur launch vehicle 
 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS 
 

Medium class launch services funding provides ongoing support for Delta II launch vehicles for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, 
Mars Pathfinder, and the Mars Global Surveyor missions currently scheduled for launch during 1996.   
 

Med-Lite launch services provided in FY 1996 supports initial procurement of two Med-Lite launch vehicles for the Mars Surveyor 
program in support of the December 1998 launch opportunity.  Initial funding is also provided to procure a Med-Lite launch vehicle 
for the next Discovery mission.  Although the mission is not yet selected,  launch services funding supports a planned launch in late 
1998.   
 

Funds are also provided for a Titan IV/Centaur launch vehicle for Cassini in support of a planned launch in October 1997.  The 
majority of these funds in FY 1994-96 are required for launch vehicle hardware from Martin-Marietta which is being procured for 
NASA by the United States Air Force (USAF).  Funds also support mission integration activities at Martin-Marietta which are funded 
under a contract directly between NASA and Martin.




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