Appendix F

Worldwide Tracking Network

Network Functions

Network Equipment Systems

Remote Station Consoles

Mission Control Center (MCC) Functions

Mission Control Center Equipment Systems

Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR)

Network Responsibility

Gemini Tracking Stations

Information from William R. Corliss, "The Evolution of the Manned Space Flight Network through Gemini," comment draft, 1 Dec. 1967; "The Manned Space Flight Tracking Network," GSFC, 1965; James M. Satterfield, JSC, 10-11 Sept. 1973; [Ivan D. Ertel], "MCC: Mission Control Center," MSC brochure, ca. 1966.

Network Functions:

Network Equipment Systems:

Remote Station Consoles:

Mission Control Center (MCC) Functions:

Mission Control Center Equipment Systems:

Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR):

Fig. F-1 shows the location of the key personnel in the MOCR.


Figure F-1. Mission Operations Control Room

1. Mission Director
has overall mission responsibility and control of test operations, including scrubbing and rescheduling missions and making real time decisions on alternates when problems arise.
2. Department of Defense representatives
have overall control of DOD support forces, including deployment of recovery forces, operation of recovery communications network, and search, location, and retrieval of crew.
3. Public Affairs Officer
provides mission status information to the public.
4. Flight Director
handles detailed control of mission from liftoff through splashdown, takes over for Mission Director in his absence.
5. Assistant Flight Director
assists Flight Director and handles Flight Director's duties during his absence.
6. Network Controller
has detailed operational control of Ground Operational Support System (GOSS) network.
7. Operations and Procedures Officer
handles detailed implementation of MCC/GOSS mission control procedures.
8. Vehicle Systems Engineers
monitor and evaluate performance of all electrical, mechanical, and life support equipment aboard spacecraft and, during rendezvous missions, Agena.
9. Flight Surgeon
directs all operational medical activities and monitors crew status.
10. Spacecraft Communicator
handles voice communications with crew, exchanging information on the progress of the mission.
11. Flight Dynamics Officer
monitors and evaluates flight parameters required to achieve successful orbital flight; gives Go or No/Go recommendations to Flight Director.
12. Retrofire Officer
monitors impact prediction displays and determines retrofire times.
13. Guidance Officer
detects Stage I and Stage II booster slowrate deviations and other programmed events, verifies proper performance of Gemini Inertial Guidance System, and recommends action to Flight Director.
14. Booster Systems Engineer
monitors propellant tank pressurization systems and advises flight crew and Flight Director of systems abnormalities.
Experiments Officer
after booster spacecraft separation replaces booster systems engineer and monitors and updates experiments until reentry.
15. Assistant Flight Dynamics Officer
monitors and evaluates Gemini launch vehicle systems and reports any abnormalities to Flight Director.
16. Maintenance and Operations Supervisor
monitors performance of MCC equipment and its ability to support mission in progress, sees that any problems are cleared up expeditiously.
Fig. F-2 shows the location of the Staff Support Rooms, where technical specialists analyze data and long-term performance-trends, compare trends with baseline data, and relay information and recommendations to MOCR personnel:

MCC 1st floor

MCC 2nd floor

MCC 3rd floor

Figure F-2. Location of Staff Support Rooms

Flight Dynamics
monitor and evaluate all aspects of powered flight that concern crew safety and orbital insertion, evaluate and recommend modification of trajectories to meet mission objectives, and investigate and study potential maneuver requirements and actual or potential contingency situations.
Vehicle Systems
monitor detailed status of trends of flight systems and components of spacecraft and attempt to avoid, correct, or circumvent failure of equipment onboard spacecraft.
Life Systems
monitor and evaluate physiological and environmental data telemetered from spacecraft.
Flight Crew
coordinate non-medical flight crew activities that involve effective control of spacecraft, as well as any scientific experiments attempted during flight.
schedule, monitor, and direct network activities and readiness checks, verify remote site prepass equipment checks, and direct all network handover operations.
Operations and Procedures
provide detailed technical and administrative support, including mission plans and procedures, mission control communications plans and procedures, and generate documentation change notices to networks and MCC flight controllers.

Network Responsibility:

Manned Spacecraft Center
overall management of Gemini; direction and mission control of network immediately preceding and during mission simulation of actual mission.
Goddard Space Flight Center
planning, implementation, and technical operation of manned space flight tracking and data acquisition (technical operation is defined as operation, maintenance, modification, and augmentation of tracking and data acquisition facilities to function as an instrumentation network in response to mission requirements).
Weapons Research Establishment (WRE)
Department of Supply, Commonwealth of Australia, maintenance and operation of network stations in Australia.
Department of Defense
maintenance and operational control of DOD assets and facilities required to support Gemini, including stations at Eastern Test Range (ETR), Western Test Range, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), and Air Proving Ground Center.

Gemini Tracking Stations

Gemini Tracking Stations

Figure F-3. Gemini Tracking Stations

call signal, ANT; DOD range station in the British West Indies; secondary*
call signal, ASC; DOD range station on a British island in the South Atlantic; secondary
call signal, BDA; confirmed orbits and recommended go no go decision; British owned; primary*
Canton Island
call signal, CTN; small coral atoll about halfway between Australia and Hawaii; co-dominion status under U.S. and British commissioners; secondary
Cape Kennedy Launch Control Center
call signal, CNV; controlled all launches; primary
call signal, CRO; in northwestern Australia; operated by WRE personnel; primary
Coastal Sentry Quebec
call signal, CSQ; originally a C1-M-AVI class freighter, considerably modified as tracking ship; primary
Corpus Christi
call signal, TEX; located at Rodd Field, Tex.; primary
call signal, EGL; 76 km (47 mi) northwest of Panama City, Fla.; on the Air Force Eglin Gulf Test Range; secondary
call signal, GSFC; NASA center located at Greenbelt, Md.; secondary
Grand Bahama
call signal, GBI; one of the Bahama Islands, British owned; almost due east from West Palm Beach, Fla.; secondary
Grand Canary
call signal, CYI; 193 km (120 mi) off the coast of Africa and 45 km (28 mi) north of the equator; Spanish owned; essential for tracking if an abort was commanded by Bermuda; primary
Grand Turk
call signal, GTK; one of the Turks and Caicos Islands in the British West Indies; radar coverage during final phase of reentry; secondary
call signal, GYM; in Mexico on the Gulf of California; primary
call signal, KNO; in northern Nigeria, about 845 km (525 mi) from the major seaport, Lagos, on the Gulf of Guinea; secondary
call signal, HAW; the farthest north of the major islands that make up the state of Hawaii; primary
Mission Control Center
call signal, HOU; at MSC, in Houston, Tex., complete mission control responsibility; primary
call signal, MUC**; in western Australia; operated by WRE personnel; secondary
Point Arguello
call signal, CAL; about 64 km (40 mi) north of Santa Barbara; part of Navy-operated Pacific Missile Range; primary
call signal, PRE; north of Johannesburg, South Africa; secondary
Range Tracker
call signal, RTK; usually located in Pacific, west of Midway; operated by AF Western Test Range; secondary
Rose Knot Victor
call signal, RKV; operated by AF Eastern Test Range; primary
call signal, TAN; in the Malagasy Republic; secondary
Wallops Island
call signal, WLP; off the coast of Virginia; secondary
White Sands
call signal, WHS; located north of El Paso, Tex., on Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico; secondary
call signal, WOM; in south Australia at a rocket test facility; operated by WRE personnel; secondary
*Primary stations are those that can give direct commands to spacecraft systems; secondary stations are those used mostly for radar and telemetry information.

**Early in the program, station equipment was late in arriving, so the Mercury station at Muchea was used; when Perth was activated, the same call signal was retained.

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