Source Notes

Chapter 11: Ground Plans or Outer-Space Ventures

1. In this section the authors relied extensively on research by William Lockyer, Jr., and James Covington.

2. Col. J. V. Sollohub to Debus, 15 Oct. 1962.

3. "To Design for the Moon Age, Four Firms Work as One Team," Engineering News-Record 172 (6 Feb. 1964): 46-48.

4. Alexander interview; Anton Tedesko to Urbahn, Knecht, and Rutledge, 10 Aug. 1962.

5. URSAM, "VAB-LC39: Report of a Meeting with Representatives of LOC, Corps of Engineers and Component Contractors," Cape Canaveral, FL, 28 Aug. 1962.

6. Ibid., pp. 2-6.

7. Wesley Allen, Brown Engineering Co., memo for record, "Meeting with Facilities and MSC," 17 Sept. 1962.

8. Bidgood to Poppel, 26 Sept. 1962.

9. Col. Wm. Alexander, "Report on VAB," undated, p. 5; J. Bing to R. P. Dodd, 7 Nov. 1962; Theodor A. Poppel to Bidgood, 21 Nov. 1962; and Gerstenzang and Carraway to Dodd, 23 Nov. 1962.

10. William D. Alexander, "Vertical Assembly Building - Project Description, Organization, and Procedures," Civil Engineering 35 (Jan. 1965): 42-44.

11. Ibid., p. 44.

12. Gerald C. Frewer, "Kennedy Space Center - Assembly Line on a Gigantic Scale," The Engineering Designer, May 1967, p. 7.

13. Anton Tedesko, "Base for USA Manned Space Rockets (Structures for Assembly and Launching)," International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Publications 26 (May 1971): 535; Tedesko, "Design of the Vertical Assembly Building," Civil Engineering 35 (Jan. 1965): 45-49.

14. Anton Tedesko, "Space Truss Braces Huge Building for Moon Rocket," Engineering News-Record 172 (6 Feb. 1964): 24-27.

15. James H. Deese, "The Problem of Low Level Wind Distribution," paper presented at the Structural Engineers Councils of Florida, First Annual Conference, Tampa, 9 Nov. 1964.

16. Kurt Debus, "Some Design Problems Encountered in Construction of Launch Complex 39," paper given in Darmstadt, Germany, 25 June 1964; R. P. Dodd, "HVAC Temperature Control System for VAB and LCC," with attachment, "VAB HVAC Temperature Control System," 14 July 1963; G. J. Burrus, LCC and Sup. Fac. Sec., memo for record, "LCC Air Conditioning Unit Reliability," 28 July 1965.

17. Debus, "Some Design Problems Encountered," p. 35. Apollo Launch Complex 39 Facilities Handbook, issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, South Atlantic Div., p. 14, gives different numbers: height of each door opening, 140 meters; lower door opening 46.32 meters wide and 34.74 meters high; upper door opening 23.16 meters wide and 104.24 meters high.

18. Alexander, "Report on VAB," p. 13; Tedesko, "Design of the Vertical Assembly Building," pp. 48-49; Dodd interview.

19. Philip C. Rutledge, "Vertical Assembly Building - Design of Foundations," Civil Engineering 35 (Jan. 1965): 50-52.

20. Alexander, "Vertical Assembly Building - Project Description," pp. 43-44.

21. Stein interview; Bidgood to Clearman, "Design of the Vertical Assembly Building, Advanced Saturn Launch Complex 39," 6 Mar. 1963.

22. Bidgood to Mr. Lenezewski, CE Canaveral Dist., "LC-39 Transfer Aisles," 7 July 1963; Andrew Pickett to Dodd, "Platform Access to S-IC Inter-Tank Area VAB," 27 June 1963; Dodd to Bertram, "LC-39 VAB and LCC," 3 July 1963.

23. "Launch Complex 39," brochure issued by Corps of Engineers for contractors' conference, Oct. 1963, p. 4.

24. R. P. Young, NASA Exec. Off., to Webb, 13 June 1963.

25. M. Menghini, Field Rep., URSAM, memo for record, "Telephone calls to and from Col. Alexander," 31 Oct. 1962; Anton Tedesko, "Assembly and Launch Facilities for the Apollo Program, Merritt Island, Florida: Design of the Structure of the Vertical Assembly Building," paper presented at the ADCE Structural Engineering Conference and Annual Meeting, 19-21 Oct. 1964, p. 10.

26. Stein interview.

27. Brown interview. The NASA-Corps of Engineers movie The Big Challenge confirms Brown's testimony.

28. D. T. Brewster to W. W. Kavanaugh, "Minutes of Meeting between M-ASTRA and M-LVOD, 13 Sept. 1962," 31 Oct. 1962; MSFC, "Saturn V Electrical Ground Support Equipment for Launch Complex 39," pp. 1-11.

29. C. Q. Stewart, Mechanical Engineering, memo for record, 1 Aug. 1962.

30. "Minutes of Crawlerway Design Conference," NASA-LOC, Cape Canaveral, 21 Feb. 1963.

31. "Minutes of Crawler Transporter Crawlerway Meeting," LOC E & L Building, 27 Mar. 1963.

32. J. B. Bing, memo for record, 9 July 1963; Bing, memo for record, "Trip Report," 16 Aug. 1963. In line with the complaint of Mr. Bing, the authors found no reference on the part of URSAM people to Giffels and Rossetti in any of the many articles that appeared on URSAM's work on the VAB. In an article in Engineering News-Record for 6 Feb. 1964, p. 28, for instance, one of the URSAM principals mentions the companies that constructed the first launch pad and the crawlerway, but not the firm that designed both of them.

33. A. H. Bagnulo to U.5. Army Engineer Dist., Canaveral, 7 Oct. 1963; Lt. Col. Leo J. Miller, Corps of Engineers, Asst. Dist. Engineer, "Construction Coordination Group for NASA-LOC Complex 39," 14 Oct. 1963; Ernst interview.

34. Launch Support Equipment Engineering Div. Monthly Progress Reports, 10 Oct. 1962, 13 Mar. 1964.

35. J. H. Deese, Chief, Facilities Engineering Sec., memo for record, "Engineering Analysis of Launch Pad Diaphragm Construction, Launch Pad 39B," 11 Mar. 1963.

36. "Theoretical Analysis of Surface Temperatures, Flame Trench, Complex 39 A/B, KSC," technical memo 2-62, Mar. 1967, U.S. Army Engineer, Ohio River Div. Laboratories, Cincinnati.

37. Giffels and Rossetti, "Structural Design of Pad Terminal Connection Room and Environmental Control System Buildings," 11 Apr. 1963, sheet 85; Launch Support Equipment Engineering Div., "Preliminary Release Levels for Ground Support Equipment, Launch Complex 39," 19 Dec. 1963.

38. Poppel to Petrone, "Policy Statement and Design Concept for C-5 Propellant Loading Systems," 1 June 1962. A Complex 39 Foundation Prestudy Conference was held on 29 May 1962 at Jacksonville: C. Q. Stewart, memo for record, "Foundation Design Prestudy Conference, Jacksonville DE, 29 May 1962," 31 May 1962.

39. NASA Merritt Island Launch Area Master Plan, vol. 3, pt. 1, Industrial Area, sec. 1, "General Site Plan," 22 Mar. 1963. Cf. John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Master Plan, pt. 2, Industrial Area Plans, sec. 1, "General Site Plan," 25 Oct. 1965.

40. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Master Planning of NASA Installations, House report 167, 89th Cong., 1st sess., 15 Mar. 1965, p. 24.

41. MSC Florida Ops., Merritt Island Facilities, undated pamphlet describing facilities funded through FY 1963, 1964, and 1965.

42. Dir., Information Systems, KSC, "Project Development Plan for Launch Instrumentatation," 6 June 1966, p. 2-1.

43. Bruns interview, 22 Aug. 1969.

44. Bidgood to CE Jacksonville, "Central Instrumentation Facility, MILA," 10 May 1963; B. Baker, memo for record, "Siting of the CIF," 22 Aug. 1963.

45. LOC Staff Study, Concepts for Support Service at the Merritt Island Launch Area, 6 May 1963.

46. Ibid.; Albert F. Siepert, memo for record, 20 Oct. 1966.

47 "Interim Agreement Implementing the 17 Jan. 1963 Agreement between the Department of Defense and NASA Regarding Management of the Atlantic Missile Range of DOD and the Merritt Island Launch Area of NASA, Part III, Logistic and Administrative Functions," signed 10 May 1963 by Maj. Gen. L. I. Davis, USAF, and Debus; NASA release 63-111, 23 May 1963.

48. C. C. Parker, LOC Asst. Dir. for Admin., to Debus, 23 May, 5, 19 June, 13 Aug., 9 Oct., 14 Nov. 1963, 8 Jan. 1964; LOC release 74-63, 4 Oct. 1963.

49. Parker to Debus, 18 Sept., 17 Oct., 7, 27 Nov. 1963, 2, 16 Jan. 1964; KSC release 56-64, 24 Apr. 1964.