Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science

[x] The photograph of the Veil nebula in Cygnus reproduced in the endpapers is copyright by the California Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Institute of Washington (1959) and reproduced by permission from the Hale Observatories.
Photos in the text are NASA photos.
1. Upper atmosphere as visualized in mid-1940s.
2. Chapman layer.
3. Earth's magnetic field.
4. Geomagnetic effect on cosmic rays.
5. Radio wave reflections from the ionosphere.
6. Solar spectrum.
[xi] 7. Ionospheric charge densities.
8. Cosmic ray flux.
9. Upper atmosphere as visualized in 1958.
10-14 Evolution of the national launch vehicle stable, 1959-1976.
15. Explorer-class satellites.
16. Orbiting Solar Observatory.
17. Orbiting Geophysical Observatory.
18. Orbiting Astronomical Observatory.
19-22. Manned Spacecraft.
23. Pioneer.
24-28. Lunar and planetary probes.
29. Apollo lunar module on the moon.
30. NASA launch success rate.
31. Chapman-Ferraro cavity.
32. Radiation belts.
33. Magnetosphere as visual early in 1962.
34. Magnetospheric bow shock.
35. Magnetosphere as visualized in mid-1960s.
36. Eratosthenes' method for measuring the circumference of the earth.
37. Triangulation.
38. Geoid for a homogeneous, plastic, nonrotating earth.
39. Geoid for a homogeneous, plastic, rotating earth.
40. Geoid for a nonhomogeneous, nonrotating earth.
41. The actual geoid.
42. The geoid as revealed by satellite measurements.
43. Determining the geoid from ground-based measurements.
44. Step funding.
45. Funding NASA's university program.
46. Sector structure of the solar magnetic field.
47. Ranger photo of the moon.
48. Surveyor photos of the moon.
49. Thin section of Apollo lunar sample.
50-51. Photomosaics of Mercury by Mariner 10.
52. Cloud structure on Venus.
53. Craters on Mars.
54-55. Volcano on Mars.
56. Rifting on Mars.
57. Flow channel on Mars.
58. Evidence of water flow on Mars.
59. Sand dunes on Mars.
60. Mars ice cap.
61. The moon.
62. Structure of the moon.
63. Crustal evolution in silicate planets.
64. Origin of solar system planets.
65. Binary x-ray star.
66. Idealized structure of the sun.
67. Structure of the sun's corona.
68. United States space budget.