History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics
1. Homer E. Newell, Jr., High Altitude Rocket Research (New York, 1953). pp. 30-33, offers a table of V-2 firings with a brief notation of the experiments carried in each case. To be sure, this table must not be taken literally when it attributes particular tests to Air Research and Development Command long before the command was created.
2. Concrete examples of Holloman-White Sands cooperation in general support and administrative functions are discussed in other publications of the Air Force Missile Development Center's Historical Branch. See especially Integration of the Holloman-White Sands Ranges, 1947-1952 (2nd edition, 1957), and History of Flight Support, Holloman Air Development Center, 1946-1957 (July 1957).
3. L. W. Fraser and E. H. Siegler, High Altitude Research Using the V-2 Rocket, March 1946-April 1947 (Johns Hopkins University, Bumblebee Series Report No. 8, July 1948), p. 90.
4. Kenneth W. Gatland, Development of the Guided Missile (London and New York, 1952), p. 188.
5. Capt. David G. Simons, Use of V-2 Rocket to Convey Primate to Upper Atmosphere (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, AF Technical Report 5821, May 1949), p. 1.
6. Cf. Scope Weekly, 3 October 1956, p. 7.
7. A popular account of the Aero Medical Laboratory's V-2 experiments is offered by Lloyd Mallan, Men, Rockets, and Space Rats (New York, 1955), pp. 84-93. This should be read in conjunction with the technical paper by Captain Simons, cited in the above footnote, and the article by Dr. James P. Henry, et al, "Animal Studies of the Subgravity State during Rocket Flight," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 23, pp. 421-432 (October, 1952).
8. Interview, Maj. David G. Simons, Chief, Space Biology Branch, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. David Bushnell, AFMDC Historian, 6 September 1957.
9. Simons, Use of V-2 Rocket, p. 22; interview, Maj. Simons by Dr. Bushnell, 13 December 1957.
10. Henry, et al., "Animal Studies of the Subgravity State," loc. cit., p. 428.
11. Ibid., p. 425.
12. Ibid., pp. 423, 424, 429-431; Final Test Report, USAF Aerobee No. 19, 19 February 1952; "Historical Report, Holloman Air Force Base... 1 September 1951-31 October 1951," pp. 104-107; Maj. David G. Simons, "Review of Biological Effects of Subgravity and Weightlessness," Jet Propulsion, May 1955, p. 211.
13. Henry, et al., "Animal Studies of the Subgravity State," loc. cit., p. 429.
14. Ibid., pp. 425, 429; Florence Clason, typed summary of Aeroboee flights in Historical Branch files; Alamogordo Daily News, 1 December 1957; Maj. Simons, "Biological Effects of Subgravity," Jet Propulsion, May 1955, p. 211.
15. Lt. Col. (later Colonel) John P. Stapp, Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, HADC, noted in September 1955 that an "indignant letter from a mouse-loving lady in England" arrived three years after the first publicity on the Aerobee flights (ltr., Lt. Col. Stapp to Otto C. Winzen, 21 September 1955). A typical human volunteer letter come from Ernesto S. Veloso, Cebu City, Philippine Republic, 21 January 1956, addressed to "U. S. Air Force Laboratory, Alamogordo, N.M." The letter was answered by Maj. Simons on 17 February 1956, respectfully declining this "very patriotic" offer on technical grounds. The offer from Washington State Penitentiary was addressed by an inmate on 27 November 1956 to Dr. Hubertus Strughold of the School of Aviation Medicine; Dr. Strughold referred it to Holloman, where it was duly answered by Maj. Simons on 10 January 1957.
16. "Historical Report, Holloman Air Force Base... 1 September 1951-31 October 1951," p. 106; Maj. David G. Simons, Stratosphere Balloon Techniques for Exposing Living Specimens to Primary Cosmic Bay Particles (HADC Technical Report 54-16, November 1954), p. 11.
17. Simons, Stratosphere Balloon Techniques, p. 6 and passim; Winzen Research, Inc., "Rebirth of the Balloon" (Minneapolis, n.d.); interviews, Mr. Bernard D. Gildenberg, Chief, Technical Support Section, AFMDC Balloon Branch, by Dr. Bushnell, 18 and 30 September 1957.
18. The first research balloon flight of any sort at Holloman had been slightly earlier, 5 June 1947; this involved a cluster of rubber-type balloons (interview, Mr. Gildenberg by Dr. Bushnell, 18 September 1957).
19. The principal source of data on early balloon operations is the monthly section on "Electronic and Atmospheric Projects" In Progress Summary Report on U.S.A.F. Guided Missile Test Activities, which was published at Holloman on a monthly basis from 1 November 1947 to 1 July 1950 (and then continued for a while as a quarterly). Other data have been obtained from the interviews with Mr. Gildenberg already cited.
20. Simons, Stratosphere Balloon Techniques, pp. 11-12.
21. Ibid., pp. 12-19.
22. Ibid, pp. 1, 4-10, 51-59.
23. Ibid., pp. 7,18-19; "Historical Report, Holloman Air Force Base... 1 September-31 October 1951," pp. 88-90; "Historical Report, Holloman Air Force Base... 1 November-31 December 1951," pp. 82-86; interview, Mr. Gildenberg by Dr. Bushnell, 18 September 1957. The diameters cited refer, of course, to a balloon filled by expansion of the gas to its full capacity, as at ceiling altitude.
24. See Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Progress Report on Research and Development In the Field of High Altitude Plastic Balloons, published in various installments.
25. Simons, Stratosphere Balloon Techniques, pp. 1, 5-6, 10, 56-57.
26. Ibid., pp. 1-2.
27. Rocketeer (HAFB), 29 September 1950; Capt. Vincent Mazza, "High Altitude Bailouts," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 22, pp. 403-407 (October 1951); Memorandum Report, High Altitude Bailouts, WADC, 1950.
28. Holloman AFB Reference Book, June 1952, p. 7; building data card on Building 1201, in Real Estate Section, Installations Division; interview, Maj. Simons by Dr. Bushnell, 13 December 1957; Stratosphere Balloon Techniques, p. 4. The Laboratory also had a second building, which was a wartime "temporary" structure converted to use as housing for animals (building data card on Building 1203).
29. Comptroller, HAFB, Organization and Functions, April 1952, p. 82; interview, Maj. Simons by Dr. Bushnell, 17 December 1957.