History of Research in Space Biology
- - SOURCE NOTES FOR PART I
- 1. Homer E. Newell, Jr.,
High Altitude Rocket
Research (New York, 1953). pp.
30-33, offers a table of V-2 firings with a brief notation of the
experiments carried in each case. To be sure, this table must not
be taken literally when it attributes particular tests to Air
Research and Development Command long before the command was
- 2. Concrete examples of
Holloman-White Sands cooperation in general support and
administrative functions are discussed in other publications of
the Air Force Missile Development Center's Historical Branch. See
especially Integration of the
Holloman-White Sands Ranges, 1947-1952 (2nd edition, 1957), and History of Flight
Support, Holloman Air Development
Center, 1946-1957 (July
- 3. L. W. Fraser and E.
H. Siegler, High Altitude Research
Using the V-2 Rocket,
1947 (Johns Hopkins University,
Bumblebee Series Report No. 8, July 1948), p. 90.
- 4. Kenneth W. Gatland,
Development of the Guided
Missile (London and New York,
1952), p. 188.
- 5. Capt. David G.
Simons, Use of V-2 Rocket to Convey
Primate to Upper Atmosphere
(Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, AF Technical Report 5821, May
1949), p. 1.
- 6. Cf. Scope Weekly, 3
October 1956, p. 7.
- 7. A popular account of
the Aero Medical Laboratory's V-2 experiments is offered by Lloyd
Mallan, Men, Rockets, and Space
Rats (New York, 1955), pp. 84-93.
This should be read in conjunction with the technical paper by
Captain Simons, cited in the above footnote, and the article by
Dr. James P. Henry, et
al, "Animal Studies of the
Subgravity State during Rocket Flight," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 23, pp. 421-432 (October, 1952).
- 8. Interview, Maj. David
G. Simons, Chief, Space Biology Branch, Aeromedical Field
Laboratory, by Dr. David Bushnell, AFMDC Historian, 6 September
- 9. Simons,
Use of V-2 Rocket, p. 22; interview, Maj. Simons by Dr. Bushnell, 13
- 10. Henry,
et al., "Animal Studies of the Subgravity State,"
loc. cit., p. 428.
- 11. Ibid., p. 425.
- 12. Ibid., pp. 423, 424,
429-431; Final Test Report, USAF
Aerobee No. 19, 19 February 1952;
"Historical Report, Holloman Air Force Base... 1 September 1951-31
October 1951," pp. 104-107; Maj. David G. Simons, "Review of
Biological Effects of Subgravity and Weightlessness,"
Jet Propulsion, May 1955, p. 211.
- 13. Henry,
et al., "Animal Studies of the Subgravity State,"
loc. cit., p. 429.
- 14. Ibid., pp. 425, 429;
Florence Clason, typed summary of
Aeroboee flights in Historical
Branch files; Alamogordo Daily
News, 1 December 1957; Maj. Simons,
"Biological Effects of Subgravity," Jet Propulsion, May
1955, p. 211.
- 15. Lt. Col. (later
Colonel) John P. Stapp, Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, HADC,
noted in September 1955 that an "indignant letter from a
mouse-loving lady in England" arrived three years after the first
publicity on the Aerobee flights (ltr., Lt. Col. Stapp to Otto C.
Winzen, 21 September 1955). A typical human volunteer letter come
from Ernesto S. Veloso, Cebu City, Philippine Republic, 21 January
1956, addressed to "U. S. Air Force Laboratory, Alamogordo, N.M."
The letter was answered by Maj. Simons on 17 February 1956,
respectfully declining this "very patriotic" offer on technical
grounds. The offer from Washington State Penitentiary was
addressed by an inmate on 27 November 1956 to Dr. Hubertus
Strughold of the School of Aviation Medicine; Dr. Strughold
referred it to Holloman, where it was duly answered by Maj. Simons
on 10 January 1957.
- 16. "Historical Report,
Holloman Air Force Base... 1 September 1951-31 October 1951," p.
106; Maj. David G. Simons, Stratosphere Balloon Techniques for Exposing Living
Specimens to Primary Cosmic Bay Particles (HADC Technical Report 54-16, November 1954), p.
- 17. Simons,
Techniques, p. 6 and
passim; Winzen Research, Inc., "Rebirth of the Balloon"
(Minneapolis, n.d.); interviews, Mr. Bernard D. Gildenberg, Chief,
Technical Support Section, AFMDC Balloon Branch, by Dr. Bushnell,
18 and 30 September 1957.
- 18. The first research
balloon flight of any sort at Holloman had been slightly earlier,
5 June 1947; this involved a cluster of rubber-type balloons
(interview, Mr. Gildenberg by Dr. Bushnell, 18 September
- 19. The principal
source of data on early balloon operations is the monthly section
on "Electronic and Atmospheric Projects" In Progress Summary Report on U.S.A.F. Guided Missile
Test Activities, which was
published at Holloman on a monthly basis from 1 November 1947 to 1
July 1950 (and then continued for a while as a quarterly). Other
data have been obtained from the interviews with Mr. Gildenberg
- 20. Simons,
Stratosphere Balloon Techniques,
- 21. Ibid., pp.
- 22. Ibid, pp. 1, 4-10,
- 23. Ibid., pp. 7,18-19;
"Historical Report, Holloman Air Force Base... 1 September-31
October 1951," pp. 88-90; "Historical Report, Holloman Air Force
Base... 1 November-31 December 1951," pp. 82-86; interview, Mr.
Gildenberg by Dr. Bushnell, 18 September 1957. The diameters cited
refer, of course, to a balloon filled by expansion of the gas to
its full capacity, as at ceiling altitude.
- 24. See Department of
Physics, University of Minnesota, Progress Report on Research and Development In the
Field of High Altitude Plastic Balloons, published in various installments.
- 25. Simons,
Techniques, pp. 1, 5-6, 10,
- 26. Ibid., pp.
- 27. Rocketeer (HAFB),
29 September 1950; Capt. Vincent Mazza, "High Altitude Bailouts,"
Journal of Aviation
Medicine, Vol. 22, pp. 403-407
(October 1951); Memorandum Report, High Altitude Bailouts, WADC, 1950.
- 28. Holloman AFB Reference Book, June 1952, p. 7; building data card on Building
1201, in Real Estate Section, Installations Division; interview,
Maj. Simons by Dr. Bushnell, 13 December 1957; Stratosphere Balloon Techniques, p. 4. The Laboratory also had a second building,
which was a wartime "temporary" structure converted to use as
housing for animals (building data card on Building 1203).
- 29. Comptroller, HAFB,
Organization and Functions, April 1952, p. 82; interview, Maj.
Simons by Dr. Bushnell, 17 December 1957.