History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics
 
 
- SOURCE NOTES FOR PART IV -
 
 
 
1. The Beginning of Research In Space Biology at the Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1946-1952, Major Achievements In Space Biology at the Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1953-1957; History of Research in Subgravity and Zero-g at the Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1948-1958.
 
2. "Research Program, Escape From High Performance Aircraft." Report prepared in Aeromedical Field Laboratory, ca. November-1954.
 
3. Cf. Col. John P. Stapp, "Reorganization of Administration of Applied Research and Development in Human Factors in Aircraft," study submitted to Col. C. H. Roadman, summer 1957.
 
4. Cf. ARDC Test Directive 5200-H2, Biophysics of Abrupt Deceleration, 25 October 1954.
 
5. Address delivered to National Safety Forum, fall 1955.
 
6. Major John P. Stapp, Human Exposures to Linear Deceleration. Part 1. Preliminary Survey of the Aft-Facing Seated Position (AF Technical Report 5915, Part 1, WADC, 1949), p. iii; Stapp, Human Exposures to Linear Deceleration. Part II. The Forward Facing Position and the Development of a Crash Harness (AF Technical Report 5915, Part 11, WADC, 1951), pp. iii, 16-20; Stapp, Human and Chimpanzee Tolerance to Linear Deceleration Forces (n.d.), p. 9; address by Col. Stapp at Texas Technological College, Lubbock, 3 October 1955.
 
7. Address by Col. Stapp at Texas Technological College, 3 October 1955.
 
8. Lt. Charles E. Wilson, Jr., "The Holloman High Speed Track" (1956); The Holloman Track (AFMDC Technical Report 57-1, September 1957).
 
9. Ltr., Lt. Col. John Paul Stapp, Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, to Col. A. P. Gagge, Chief, Human Factors Division, Directorate of R & D, Hq., USAF, subj.: [Holloman Sled Experiments), 12 March 1954; interview, M/Sgt. James F. Ferguson, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. David Bushnell, AFMDC Historian, 19 November 1957.
 
10. History of Holloman Air Development Center, 1 January to 30 June 1954, p. 88.
 
11. Lt. Col. John P. Stapp, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues I. Abrupt Deceleration and Windblast," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 26, pp. 273 (August 1955).
 
12. Ibid., p. 274.
 
13. Ibid., p. 275.
 
14. Stapp, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues I," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 26, p. 277; History of Holloman Air Development Center, 1 January to 30 June 1954, pp. 88-89; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Monthly Historical Report," August 1954.
 
15. "Project 91 - MX - 981 - Aero Med Sled Run Data--Holloman Track," Issue 111, 1 May 1957; Project Abrupt Deceleration, Weekly Test Status Report, 14 September 1954.
 
16. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "HADC Semi-Annual Progress Report [on Abrupt Deceleration]," July-December 1954; Lt. Col. John P. Stapp, "Human Tolerance to Deceleration," American Journal of Surgery, Vol. 93, p. 739 (April 1957); Stapp, "Human Tolerance Factors in Supersonic Escape," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, p. 79 (February 1957); History of Holloman Air Development Center, 1 July to 31 December 1954, p. 98.
 
17. Project Abrupt Deceleration, Weekly Test Status Report, 16 September and 26 October 1954, 8 February 1955.
 
18. Ibid., 26 October 1954.
 
19. Ibid., 23 November 1954.
 
20. Stapp, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues I," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 26, pp. 277, 278; Alamogordo Daily News, 28 December 1954. The brick-wall comparison is quoted from a speech by Lt. Gen. Samuel E. Anderson, Cmdr., ARDC (at a meeting of the American Rocket Society, Dallas, Texas, 19 March 1958).
 
21. Stapp, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues I," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 26, p. 280.
 
22. Ibid., p. 281.
 
23. Project Abrupt Deceleration, Weekly Test Status Report, 14 December 1954.
 
24. Stapp, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues I," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. .& 26, p. 286.
 
25. Project Abrupt Deceleration, Weekly Test Status Report, 14 December 1954.
 
26. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "HADC Semi-Annual Progress Report [Abrupt Deceleration]," July-December 1954.
 
27. Stapp, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues I," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 26, pp. 280, 284, 285.
 
28. Various ltrs., referring to the event, in Col. Stapp's correspondence file, Aeromedical Field Laboratory.
 
29. Time, 12 September 1955; Alamogordo Daily News, 9 March 1956.
 
30. Test Report (Interim Status) on "The Threshold of Space," No. 1, 24 October 1955; Alamogordo Daily News, 4 March 1956.
 
31. Alamogordo Daily News, 26 August and 25 November 1955, 1 June 1956; Holloman Rocketeer, 8 November 1957. The description of the Cheney Award is quoted from The United States Air Force Dictionary (Air University Press, 1956), p. 112.
 
32. 1st ind., Brig. Gen. Marvin C. Demler, Dep. Cmdr./R & D, ARDC, to basic ltr:, Hq., USAF, subj.: "Meeting of Joint Committee on Aviation Pathology," 27 August 1956.
 
33. Ltr., Col. Stapp to Maj. Rufus R Hessberg, Jr., Chief, Biophysics Branch, Aero Medical Laboratory, WADC, subj.: [Windblast tests], 2 January 1957.
 
34. Alamogordo Daily News, 29 December 1954, 4 January 1955.
 
35. Alamogordo Daily News, 17 June 1956.
 
36. Ltr., Col. Stapp to Col. John M. Talbot, Chief, Human Factors Division, Hq., ARDC, subj.: [Human Sled Runs], 25 June 1956.
 
37. Project Abrupt Deceleration and Project 7850, Weekly Test Status Report, 21 December 1954, 8, 15, and 22 February 1955, 8 and 22 March 1955; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "HADC Semi-Annual Progress Report [Abrupt Deceleration]," July-December 1954.
 
38. Research Accomplishments In Blodynamics: Deceleration and Impact, at the Air Force Missile Development Center ... 1955-1958 (to be published 15 July 1958).
 
39. "Project 91 Performance Data," 5 July 1957, chart in library of Aeromedical Meld Laboratory; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Semi-annual Progress Report ... Project 7850," 1 January-30 June 1955; Test Facilities Division, HADC, "Historical Report," 1 January-31 March 1956; photostats of test data, high-speed track runs of January-March 1957, in files of Biodynarnics Branch; "Chimpanzees Pass Space Speed Test," New York Times, 31 January 1958.
 
This track extension to 5,000 feet was intended not only to permit higher sled performance but also to enhance the safety of track operations. On some earlier tests the rockets were still burning when the sled entered the water brakes, which was hard on the sled itself and dangerous to the test subject Mr., Col. Clarence L. Elder, DCS/0, HADC, to Cmdr., ARDC, subj.: "Holloman Air Development Center Annual Progress Report," 31 July 1954).
 
40. Interview, Col. John P. Stapp by Dr. David Bushnell, AFMDC Historian, 31 March 1958.
 
41. "Project 91 Performance Data," 5 July 1957.
 
42. Lt. Col. John P. Stapp and Capt. C. D. Hughes, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues II. Supersonic Deceleration and Windblast," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 27, pp. 407408 (October, 1956); RDB Project Card, Biodynamics of Human Factors in Aviation, 23 April 1954.
 
43. "Project 91 Performance Data," 5 July 1957; Stapp and Hughes, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissues II," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 27, p. 413; ltr., Col. Stapp to Maj. Rufus R. Hessberg, Jr., Chief, Biophysics Branch, Aero Medical Laboratory, WADC, subj.: [Windblast Experiments), 2 January 1957; Stapp, Escape from Aircraft (n.d.), p. 3.
 
44. Stapp and Hughes, "Effects of Mechanical Force II," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 27, pp. 411-413; ltr., Col. Stapp to Maj. Hessberg, subj.: [Windblast Experiments], 2 January 1957; Test Facilities Division, HADC, "Historical Data 1 January thru 31 March 1956."
 
45. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data 1 April-30 June 1957," p. 6; interview, Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, July 1957.
 
46. Sources cited In footnote above; notes by Dr. Bushnell, taken at China Lake 27 June 1957; Center staff briefing by Col. Stapp, 25 July 1957.
 
47. Cf. Lt. Col. John P. Stapp, "Human Tolerance Factors In Supersonic Escape," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, pp. 77-82 (February 1957); interview, Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, July 1957; interviews, Capt. John D. Mosely, Chief, Biodynamics Branch, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. Bushnell, 19 March and 9 April 1958.
 
48. Notes at China Lake, 27 June 1957; interview, Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, 7 March 1958.
 
49. R & D Project Card (DD Form 613), Blodynarnics of Space Flight, 19 March 1958, pp. 6, 7; Interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 9 April 1958.
 
50. Center staff briefing by Capt. Eli L, Beeding, Task Scientist, Tolerance to Impact Forces, 29 October 1957; interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 2 December 1957; Aeromedical Meld Laboratory, "Historical Data. . . 1 January through 31 March 1958," p. 12.
 
51. Interview, Mr. Bernard D. Gildenberg, Chief, Technical Support Section, Balloon Branch, AFMDC, by Dr. Bushnell, 23 January 1958; ltr., Col. Stapp to Mr. C. W. Alston, Flight Test Engineer, Convair Division of General Dynamics Corporation, Edwards, California, subj.: [Balloon Flights at White Sands National Monument], 18 April 1957.
 
52. Aero Medical Laboratory, WADC, "History 1 July 1952 to 1 January 1953;" ARDC Test Directive 5182-H1, Manned Balloon Flights, n.d.
 
53. Interview. Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, 6 September 1957; R & D Project Card (DD Form 613) Biophysics of Escape, 14 May 1957, pp. 8-9, Lt. Romaln C. Fruge, Jr., Chief, Balloon Sonde Unit. HADC, "Test Report on 'Manned Balloon Flights'" May (?) 1953: Mr. Bernard D. Gildenberg, Techniques Developed for Heavy Load Non-Extensible Balloon Flights (HADC Technical Note 54-3), p. 10; Balloon Branch, HADC, Test Report on The Manned Balloon Flight (7218), No. 1, 6 January 1956; Test Report (Interim Status) on "The Threshold of Space," No. 1, 24 October 1955; interview, Capt. Joseph W. Kittinger, Jr., Escape Section, Biophysics Branch, Aero Medical Laboratory, WADC, by Dr. Bushnell, 9 June 1958; Major Achievements In Space Biology at the Air Force Missile Development Center. . .1953-1957, pp. 24-44.
 
Certain parachute tests from C-97 aircraft were also staged at Holloman, In 1954, In support of the Wright Field manned-balloon program (ARDC Test Directive 5182-H4, subj.: "Manned Balloon Flights," 3 February 1954; interview, M/Sgt. Henry V. Carson, Chief, Parachute Engineering Section, Recovery Systems Branch, Directorate of Aircraft Missile Test, AFMDC, by Dr. Bushnell, 10 September 1957).
 
54. Test Report on Project Whoosh, Nos. 1 and 2 (combined) HADC, 1955.
 
55. Trip reports, Col. Stapp to Cmdr., 6580th Test Group, 25 May and 16 June 1954; interview, Project 7218 personnel, at WADC, by Dr. Bushnell, 6 November 1957.
 
56. Henry W. Wiant, The Effects of Simultaneous Deceleration, Tumbling, and Windblast Encountered In Escape from Supersonic Aircraft (WADC Technical Note 54-18, published March 1956), pp. iii, 4, 8, 27, 102, 107; Management Report (ARDC Form 111), Biophysics of Escape, 4 May 1956; ltr., Col. Stapp to Mr. Otto C. Winzen, subj.: [Project Whoosh], 13 January 1956; memo by Col. Stapp, subj.: [Coordination for Whoosh], March 1956; Stapp, "Human Tolerance to Deceleration," American Journal of Surgery, Vol. 93, p. 739 (in which Whoosh is discussed though not mentioned by name).
 
57. R & D Project Card, Biophysics of Escape, 14 May 1957, p. 12. For general data on the Hurricane Mesa Track, see "Telescoping Booms Stabilize Supersonic Ejection Seat," ARDC News review, October 1957, p. 4.
 
58. John P. Stapp, Human Requirements for Escape for High Performance Aircraft (n.d.), p. 10; Missile Test Track Division, HADC, "Historical Data ... 1 April-30 June 1957," p. 4; interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 13 November 1957.
 
59. "Telescoping Booms Stabilize Supersonic Ejection Seat," ARDC Newsreview, October 1957, p. 4; interview, Capt. Beeding by Dr. Bushnell, 23 January 1958; Convair Division of General Dynamics Corporation, Industry (ICESC) Supersonic Upward Ejection Pilot's Escape System. Part 1. Development Phase Sled Tests (Report 57-100F-1, San Diego, 1958).
 
60. Ltr., Col. Stapp to Col. Harry G. Mosely, Chief, Aero Medical Safety Division, Directorate of Flight Safety Research, Norton AFB, California, subj.: (Escape System Developments), 8 August 1957.
 
61. "Problems of Escape from High Performance Aircraft: A Symposium," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, pp. 57-100 (February 1957); interview, Maj. Vincent Mazza, Aero Medical Division, Directorate of Human Factors, Hq., ARDC, by Dr. Bushnell, 7 January 1958.
 
62. J. Allen Neal, The Development of Methods for Escape from High Speed Aircraft (Historical Branch, WADC, March 1958).
 
63. Memo, Maj. Mazza to record, subj.: "Emergency Escape Briefing for General Power," 17 May 1956; interview, Mr. Robert Perry, Chief, Historical, Branch, WADC, by Dr. Bushnell, 6 November 1957; ltrs., Maj. Downhill to Lt. Gen. Donald L. Putt, DCS/Development, Hq., USAF, and to various aircraft companies, subj.: (Revised Escape System Standards], 3 July 1956.
 
64. Interview, Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, July 1957.
 
65. Lt. Col. John P. Stapp, "Human Tolerance Factors in Supersonic Escape," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, p. 81 (February 1957). This article is Col. Stapp's contribution to the "Symposium" cited in footnote 61 and gives a general discussion of the relative merits of both capsules and ejection seats.
 
66. Aviation Week, 1 and 8 October 1956.
 
67. Lt. Col. John P. Stapp, Escape from Aircraft (n.d.), p. 3.
 
68. R & D Project Card (DD Form 613), Supersonic Ejection Seat (Project 2195), pp. 14; Neal, Development of Methods for Escape; Aviation Week, 7 April 1958. It should be emphasized that Lockheed and Convair are not in exclusive control of the industry-sponsored seat development but rather are "managers" of two distinct programs in which other companies participate.
 

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