History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics
 
 
- SOURCE NOTES FOR PART V -
 
 
 
1. Major Achievements in Biodynamics: Escape Physiology at the Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1953-1958 (Holloman AFB: AFMDC Historical Office, June 1958).
 
2. RDB Project Card, Biodynamics of Human Factors in Aviation, 23 April 1954; R & D Project Card (DD Form 613), Biodynamics of Space Flight, 19 March 1958.
 
3. Center briefing, by Lt. Col. Rufus R. Hessberg, Jr., Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, 8 September 1958; interview, Col. John P. Stapp, Chief, Aero Medical Laboratory, WADC, by Dr. James S. Hanrahan, Center Historian, AFMDC, 9 September 1958.
 
4. "Project 91 - MX-981 - Aero Med Sled Run Data - Holloman Track," Issue 111, 1 May 1957.
 
5. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, Test Report on Escape from Aircraft at High Speed and Altitude, No. 2, 21 June 1955.
 
6. Ibid.; Project MX-981, Weekly Test Status Report, 26 April, 3 and 24 May, 21 June 1955; R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Human Factors For [sic] Aviation, 8 February 1957, p. 7.
 
7. Lt. Sidney T. Lewis and Col. John P. Stapp, A Crash-Restraint Demonstrator (HADC Technical Note 57-9, June 1957); "Abstracts of Scientific Papers . . .... Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 27, p. 173 (April 1956); Aviation Week, 13 May 1957.
 
8. RDB Project Card, Biodynamics of Human Factors in Aviation, 23 April 1954; ltr., Mr. Alan C. Morgan, Director, Customer Relations, Northrop Aircraft, Incorporated, Hawthorne, Calif., to Hq., HADC, subj.: "Aircraft Crash Force Program," 20 July 1954; R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Space Flight, 19 March 1958, p. 1.
 
9. Major Achievements in Biodynamics: Escape Physiology, passim.
 
10. "Project 91, Performance Data," 5 July 1957, chart in library of Aeromedical Field Laboratory; ltr., Lt. Col. John P. Stapp, Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, to Maj. Rufus R. Hessberg, Jr., Chief, Biophysics Branch, Aeromedical Laboratory, WADC, subj.: [Windblast Tests], 2 January 1957; interviews, Capt. John D. Mosely, Chief, Biodynamics Branch, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. David Bushnell, AFMDC Historian, 13 November 1957 and 7 February 1958; interview, Col. John P. Stapp, Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. Bushnell, 11 February 1958; "Chimpanzees Pass Space Speed Test," New York Times, 31 January 1958.
 
11. New York Times, 31 January 1958.
 
12. Capt. Stuart Bondurant, et al., Human Tolerance to Some of the Accelerations Anticipated in Space Flight (WADC Technical Report 58-156, April 1958) discusses relevant centrifuge experiments. The most conclusive animal experiment is, of course, the achievement of Russian scientists in accelerating a dog into orbit with Sputnik II.
 
13. Ltr., Col. Philip H. Mitchell, Chief, Human Factors Division, Hq., ARDC, to Commanding Officer, Naval Air Station, Johnsville, Pennsylvania, subj.: "Request for Air Force Participation In project ADC-TED-1407," November (?) 1957; ltr., Col. Mitchell, Director of Human Factors, Hq., ARDC, to Cmdr., HADC, subj.: [Johnsville Centrifuge Tests], 29 May 1957, and 1st ind. from Hq., HADC, 10 June 1957; interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 13 November 1957; AMAL-NADC, Some Physiological and Pathological Effects In Chimpanzees Exposed to 40 Transverse G for 15 and for 60 Seconds; letter report concerning (30 August 1957) and Effect of Positioning in Exposure of Chimpanzee to 40 Transverse G for 60 Seconds; letter report concerning (20 November 1957); interview, Alice M. Stoll, AMAL-NADC, by Dr. Bushnell, 6 June 1958; Stoll and Mosely, "Physiologic and Pathologic Effects in Chimpanzees during Prolonged Exposures to 40 Transverse G," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 29, pp. 575-586 (August 1958).
 
14. R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Space Flight, 19 March 1958, p. 6.
 
15. Interview, Lt. Albert Zaborowski, Task Scientist, Patterns of Deceleration in Space Flight, by Dr. Bushnell, 28 May 1958.
 
16. Cf. Aviation Week, 12 May 1958, p. 33.
 
17. Armstrong, Harry G., Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine (Baltimore 1952), pp. 378, 379; interview, Capt. Neville P. Clarke, Acceleration Unit, Biophysics Branch, Aero Medical Laboratory, WADC, by Dr. Bushnell, 9 June 1958.
 
18. AMAL-NADC, Human Tolerance to High Acceleration Stress; letter report concerning (2 May 1958); Bondurant et al., Human Tolerance to Some of the Accelerations Anticipated in Space Flight; Aviation Week, 12 May 1958; interview, Dr. C. Clark, AMAL-NADC, by Dr. Bushnell, 6 June 1958.
 
19. Interview, Lt. Zaborowski by Dr. Bushnell, 28 May 1958; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data ... 1 January through 31 March 1958," p. 14.
 
20. R & D Project Card, Human Factors of Space Flight, 12 October 1954 and 19 September 1957.
 
21. Interview, Capt. Druey P. Parks, Task Scientist, Descent and Recovery (Re-entry), by Dr. Bushnell, February 1958; Management Report (ARDC Form 111), Human Factors of Space Flight, 24 January 1956; Aeromedical Meld Laboratory, "Historical Data ... 1 April through 30 June 1957," p. 10; Reinhard Krause and W. F. Haldeman, Vertical Descent Trajectories Including Re-entry into the Atmosphere (AFMDC Technical Report 58-4, March 1958).
 
22. Major Achievements In Space Biology at the Air Force Missile Development Center, Holleman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1953-1957 (Holloman AFB: AFMDC Historical Office, March 1958), p. 59, note 55.
 
23. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data 1 October through 31 December 1957," P. 14 and "Historical Data...;1 January through 31 March 1958," p 11; Integrated Range Mission, Data Reduction Report Balloon 7851, Ejection Seat Drop No. 2, Test Data: 29 January 1958 (report number DRDN-2258), p. 6; memo, Capt. Parks to unidentified addressee, subj.: [Project 7851 Plans], 8 October 1957.
 
24. Interview, Lt. Col. David G. Simons, Chief, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. Bushnell, 24 May 1958.
 
25. AFMDC History of Research In Subgravity and Zero-g at the Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1948-1958 (Holloman AFB: AFMDC Historical Office, May 1958).
 
26. Harald J. A. von Beckh, "Multi-directional G Protection in Space Flight and during Escape. A Theoretical Approach," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 29, pp. 335-341 (May 1958); Von Beckh and Grover J. D. Schock, Centrifuge Experiments on High-G Leads In Mice and Their Possible Alleviation by Multidirectional Anti-G Devices (AFMDC Technical Note 58-10, August 1958).
 
27. Von Beckh and Schock, Centrifuge Experiments; Von Beckh, Physiology of Launching and Re-Entry Stress in Rodents (AFMDC Technical Note 58-11, August 1958).
 
28. Ibid.
 
29. Von Beckh and Schock, Centrifuge Experiments, p. 3.
 
30. Interviews, Dr. von Beckh, Task Scientist, Subgravity Studies by Dr. Bushnell, 18 June and 15 October 1958; interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 13 October 1958.
 
31. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Semi-Annual Progress Report. . . Project 78W", January-June 1955.
 
32. Capt. Ell L. Beeding, Jr., Daisy Track and Supporting Systems (HADC Technical Note 57-8, June 1957; Col. John P. Stapp and Lt. Wilbur C. Blount, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissue 111. A Compressed Air Catapult for High Impact Forces," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, pp. 281-290 (June 1957); interview, Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, 31 March 1958; R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Space Flight, 19 March 1957, p, 2; interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 10 October 1958,
 
33. Stapp and Blount, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissue III", Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, pp. 281, 282, 289; Holleman Rocketeer, 27 September 1957; Stapp and Mosely, report, subj.: "Effect of Funds, Limited Funds, and No Funds on Project 7850," 8 October 1957; interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 10 October 1958.
 
34. Stapp and Blount, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissue III," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, p. 288; Test Report on Aero Medical Field Laboratory Short Track Facility, Nos. 1-3, 3 November 1955, and No. 15, 22 June 1956.
 
35. DF, Lt. Col. Donald H. Vleek, Chief, Missile Test Track Division, to Director of Ballistic Missile Test, subj.: "Human Tests on the Daisy Track," 1 February 1957; interviews, Capt. Ell L. Beeding, Jr., Task Scientist, Tolerance to Impact Forces, by Dr. Bushnell, 2 December 1957 and 14 October 1958; Holloman Rocketeer, 27 September 1957.
 
36. Test Report on Aero Medical Field Laboratory Short Track Facility, No. 16, 31 May 1956; Daisy Track Tests, Test Report Nr. 6, 10 September 1957, p. 4.
 
37. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data. . , I January through 31 March 1958," p. 12; interview, Dr. von Beckh by Dr. Bushnell, 20 June 1958.
 
38. Stapp and Blount, "Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissue III," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 28, p. 285; Daisy Track Tests, Test Report Nr. 6, 10 September 1957, pp. 3-5; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data... I July-30 September 1957," p. 3;.interview, Capt. Beeding by Dr. Bushnell, 8 March 1958.
 
39. Holloman Rocketeer, 23 May 1958; interview, Dr. von Beckh by Dr. Bushnell, 20 June 108.
 
40. Aeromedical Meld Laboratory, "Historical Data...; 1 January through 31 March 1958," p. 12; R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Space Flight, 19 March 1958, p. 2.
 
41. Major Achievements in Biodynamics: Escape Physiology, pp. 27-29.
 
42. Lt. Sidney T. Lewis and Col. John P. Stapp, Experiments Conducted on a Swing Device for Determining Human Tolerance to Lap Belt Type Decelerations (AFMDC Technical Note 57-1, December 1957); interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 13 November 1957. The most obvious limitations of the swing seat are the range of possible test durations (too brief for most purposes) and the fact that it exposes subjects to three-directional g-forces to an undesirable extent (interview, Lt. Daniel L. Enfield, Task Scientist, Automotive Crash Forces, by Dr. Bushnell, 13 October 1958).
 
43. Project 7850, Weekly Test Status Report, 7 June 1955; interview, Col. Stapp by Dr. Bushnell, 11 February 1958.
 
44. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data. . . 1 July through 30 September 1957," p. 3.
 
45. Ibid.; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data. . . 1 October through 31 December 1957," pp. 4, 5; interview, Lt. John A. Recht, Asst. Chief, Laboratory Services Branch, Aeromedical Field Laboratory, by Dr. Bushnell, 27 November 1957.
 
46. R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Space Flight, 19 March 1958, p. 4.
 
47. Hubert C. Feder, Specifications for Equipment for Testing Experimental Animals Under Rapidly Changing Pressure Conditions (AFMDC Technical Memorandum, October 1957), p. 1. The quotation is from an introduction by Capt. Patterson.
 
48. Interview, Capt. Donald F. Patterson, Task Scientist, Tolerance to Total Pressure Change, by Dr. Bushnell, December 1957; Aviation Week, 3 February 1958; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data... I January through 31 March 1958," p. 13.
 
49. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data... 1 April-30 June 1957," p. 5.
 
50. Feder, Specifications for Equipment, pp. i, ii; interview, Capt. Patterson by Dr. Bushnell, December 1957.
 
51. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Semi-Annual Progress Report. . . Project 7850," January-June 1955.
 
52. U. S. House of Representatives, Report of the Special Subcommittee on Traffic Safety (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1957), p. 2; New York Herald Tribune, 26 July 1956.
 
53. Ltr., Col. Stapp to Mr. Hugh de Haven, Director, Crash Injury Research, Cornell University Medical College, subj.: [Project Marionette], 7 December 1953.
 
54. R & D Project Card, Biodynamics of Human Factors for Aviation, 8 February 1957, pp. 8, 9; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, Automotive Crash Test Program, 17 May 1955. A small amount of similar work is being done at the Army Tank Laboratory, Fort Knox, Kentucky (Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Eighty-Fifth Congress, Hearings Before a Subcommittee ... on Crashworthiness of Automobile Sent Belts, Washington, 1957, p. 45), but otherwise the program of Task 785M was unique within the armed services.
 
55. Project 7850, Weekly Test Status Report, 1 and 15 March 1955, 17 May 1955; Test Report on Biodynamics of Human Factors in Aviation, for tests of 2 July and 21 November 1956 (Task 78507); interviews, Lt. Daniel L. Enfield, Task Scientist, Automotive Crash Forces, by Dr. Bushnell, 18 November and 2 December 1957.
 
56. Test Report on Blodynamics of Human Factors In Aviation, for tests of 3, 4, 16, and 17 August 1955 and 8, 13, and 14 June 1956 (Task 78W7); Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Hearings on Crashworthiness of Automobile Seat Belts (Washington, D. C., 1957), p. 25.
 
57. The very first task scientist was Major Joseph V. Michalski, who left Holloman in mid-1955, before the automotive crash program could gather much momentum. Lieutenant Lewis took charge of the program next, and remained as task scientist for approximately two years.
 
58. Test Report on Biodynamics of Human Factors In Aviation, for tests of 24, 29, and 30 August 1956 and 6, 13, 14 and 28 September 1956 (Task 78507); Lewis and Stapp, Experiments Conducted on a Swing Device, pp. 5-9; Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Hearings on Crashworthiness of Automobile Seat Belts, p. 39.
 
59. Lewis and Stapp, Crash-Restraint Demonstrator, pp. 1-2, 7-8; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data ... 1 July through 30 September 1957," p. 6; interview, Lt. Enfield by Dr. Bushnell, 18 November 1957; Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Hearings on Crashworthiness of Automobile Seat Belts, p. 38; Lt. Sidney T. Lewis and Col. John P. Stapp, "Human Tolerance to Aircraft Seat Belt Restraint," Journal of Aviation Medicine, Vol. 29, p. 190 (March 1958).
 
60. Interview, Lt. Enfield by Dr. Bushnell, 28 May 1958. On the primary uses of this contraption, see History of Research In Subgravity and Zero-G, p. 22.
 
61. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data...; 1 July through 30 September 1957," p. 6; Col. John P. Stapp, Lt. Sidney T. Lewis, and Prof. James J. Ryan, Preliminary Investigations of a Hydraulic Bumper and Boll-Over Structure (AFMDC Technical Note 58-5); James J. Ryan and Egons R. Podnieks, Final Report of Research on Safety Devices for Ground Vehicles, 31 July 1958.
 
62. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Operational Report ... I July 1956 through 28 November 1956;" J. H. Mathewson and D. M. Severy, "Automotive Impact Research," in National Safety Council, interview, Lt . Enfield by Dr. Bushnell, 13 October 1958. Transactions, Vol. 28, p. 94 (1954).
 
63. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, Automotive Crash Test Program, 17 May 1957.
 
64. Alamogordo Daily News, 1 November 1956 and 14 November 1957.
 
65. Alamogordo Daily News, 1 May and 7 September 1957; address by Col. Stapp to National Safety Forum, fall 1955.
 
66. Memo, Dr. Frank B. Berry, Asst. Secretary of Defense, Health and Medical, to Secretaries of Army, Navy, and Air Force, subj.: "Seat Safety Belts," 22 June 1955; Lewis and Stapp, Crash-Restraint Demonstrator, pp. 5-6; ltr., Lt. Col. Raymond E. Dockery to Lt. Sidney T. Lewis, subj.:(Safety Belts for Military Vehiclesl, 9 August 1956; Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Historical Data ... I April through 30 June 1957," p. 8; Holloman Rocketeer, 10 January 1958.
 
67. Aeromedical Field Laboratory, "Operational Report....; 1 July thru 28 November 1956;" ltr., Maj. George 0. Anderson, Chief, Engineering and Research Division, Office of Assistant for Ground Safety, Hq., USAF, to Col. Stapp, subj.: [Car Crash Program], 18 December 1956; ltr., Col. Stapp to Maj. Anderson, same subject, 13 August 1957.
 
68. Associated Press dispatch, Los Angeles, 27 June 1957; "Big Crash For Safety's Sake," Life, 15 July 1957; ltr., Mr. John 0. Moore, Director, Crash Injury Research, Cornell University Medical College, to Col. Stapp, subj.: (Crash Program Publicity], 11 July 1957.
 
69. Ltr., Col. Stapp to Mr. Moore, subj.: [Appearance Before Roberts Subcommittee], 8 August 1957.
 
70. Ibid.; ltr., Col. Stapp to Col. Harry G. Mosely, Chief, Aero, Medical Safety Division, Directorate of Flight Safety Research, Norton AFB, Calif., 8 August 1957; New York Times, 6 August 1957.
 
71. Interview, Capt. Mosely by Dr. Bushnell, 9 April 1958; memo, Lt. Col. C. C. Cain, Chief, Aero Medical Division, Directorate of Human Factors, ARDC, to Brig. Gen. Don D. Flickinger, Director of Human Factors, subj.: "Bear Used In Experiment," 15 November 1957.
 
72. Alamogordo Daily News, 12, 13, and 14 November 1957; Holloman Rocketeer, 15 November
1957.
 
73. Alamogordo Daily News, 14 November 1957; El Paso Times, 15 November 1957; Holloman Rocketeer, 15 November 1957; interview, Lt. Joseph Martin, Information Services Office, AFMDC. by Dr. Bushnell. 26 November 1957.
 

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