NASA History News and Notes
Vol. 16, No. 2
Spring 1999



 We are exploring the possibility of holding an historical symposium with the tentative title, "NASA-DOD Launch Vehicles: The Past, Present, and Future of a Governmental Partnership. We invite proposals for papers to be delivered at this one-day symposium, to be held in Washington, D.C., during the week of 8-12 November 1999. Special consideration for presentation will be papers that explore broad conceptual themes relative to the progress of access to space from the development of the first ballistic missiles through present and future launch systems. Presenters may expect their presentations to be published in a scholarly book on this subject. For further information contact Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, Code ZH, NASA History Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-0383, fax 202-358-2866, e-mail, Deadline for receiving proposals is 15 June 1999.


"Space Exploration at the Millennium: In Remembrance of Carl Sagan," was a symposium co-sponsored by NASA that took place on 24 March 1999 at American University in Washington, DC. The symposium featured presentations by Buzz Aldrin, Yvonne Cagle, Andrew Chaikin, Franklin Chang-Diaz, Hugh Downs, Ann Druyan, Timothy Ferris, Don Herbert, Homer Hickam, Ted Koppel, Bill Nye, Robert Pickardo, Ned Potter, Kim Stanley Robinson, Donna Shirley, Kathy Sullivan, and Jill Tarter, among others.

The symposium offered a retrospective on one of this century's crowning accomplishments: the genesis of space exploration. It included panel discussions, numerous exhibits and displays, and small session meetings with several panelists. It proved to be exceptionally popular. Total attendance was more than 1,800 people, including school groups and many students from American University. The symposium was broadcast live on NASA TV and simulcast on MS/NBC, CBA Interactive,, and several other web-based media outlets. Reports from all of the major daily newspapers and news magazines were quite positive. Local television coverage was also impressive.

Since the symposium numerous people have asked the History Division where they may obtain tapes of the symposium or a transcript of proceedings. Accordingly, six-hour long videotape of the symposium is now available from NASA's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). A VHS tape of the symposium is available for $36.50, including shipping and handling. CASI can be e-mailed at or on the World Wide Web at


 NASA sponsored a very successful session at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association in Washington, D.C., entitled, "New Views of Aerospace History: Research from the AHA Fellowship Program," on Friday, 8 January 1999. The lineup for the session was as follows:

The session was chaired by Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, and the commentator was Roger E. Bilstein, University of Houston-Clear Lake.

In 1984 the American Historical Association established the Fellowship in Aerospace History, funded by the NASA History Division, as a means of enhancing scholarly study in the field. Modeled on similar fellowship programs administered by the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations, the AHA aerospace history fellowship program has now passed its fifteenth year, and has succeeded admirably in its principal objectives of broadening research and writing in the field.

All of the papers given in this session present research sponsored through the AHA Fellowship in Aerospace History. It brought together senior scholars, public historians, and younger scholars to explore themes in the "New Aerospace History."


On 30 April 1999, NASA sponsored a very successful session entitled, "Aerospace History and the Challenge of Presenting the Past to Multiple Audiences," at the annual meeting of the National Council on Public History in Lowell, Massachusetts. The lineup for the session was as follows:

Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, chaired the session, and the comment was provided by Jannelle Warren-Findley, Arizona State University.


On 8 March 1999, NASA and the Space Business Archives entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for cooperative actions. The major provisions of the MOU call for collaboration in the preparation of inventories and finding aids; co-sponsorship of series of roundtables, workshops, focus groups, or other forums relating to the historical development of space business; collaboration in the preparation of on-line exhibits and publications of documentary materials; and ease of access to each facility by researchers sponsored by the other organization. We are pleased to enter into this partnership and look forward to a productive and mutually-beneficial relationship. This MOU is the first of several that we envision will be developed with a variety of outside organizations committed to the collection, preservation, and dissemination of the history of space exploration.


Two interesting sessions are set for major professional historical conferences this fall. First, at the Society for the History of Technology
(SHOT), scheduled for 7-10 October 1999 in Detroit, Michigan, Stephen B. Johnson of the University of North Dakota's Department of Space Studies has organized the session, "Organizing Research and Development for Missiles and Space." This session will describe the evolution of the social and legal milieu of research and development in the aerospace industry from the 1950s to the 1970s. Chaired by Howard E. McCurdy, American University, the session features the following four presentations:

Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, will offer the comment.

We will be holding a session entitled, "The Politics of Cancellation: Recent Science, the Public Policy Process, and Organized Protest," at the upcoming annual meeting of the History of Science Society. This conference will take place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on 3-7 November 1999. Chaired by Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, the session features the following three presentations:

The comment will be offered by Teresa L. Kraus, FAA Office of Public Affairs. We hope you will join us for these sessions at these two conferences.


On 1 March 1999, NASA's Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, was renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field. The official renaming ceremony took place on 8 May 1999 in the hangar, the first structure built at the Center in 1942. John Glenn expressed his honor at being associated with the Center and its historical contributions and bright future. He also challenged the men and women of NASA Glenn to expand horizons and open frontiers.

This name change was initially proposed by U.S. Senator Mike DeWine and written into the fiscal year 1999 VA-HUD Appropriation Bill. President Clinton signed this bill into law (Sec. 434, P.L. 105-276, 112 Stat 2461) on 21 October 1998. According to Senator DeWine, the name recognizes the contributions of two outstanding men, Senator Glenn and George W. Lewis. The reference to Lewis Field celebrates the legacy of Mr. Lewis.

George William Lewis, for whom the center had previously been named, was born in Ithaca, New York, on 10 March 1882. He graduated from Cornell University in 1910 with a master's degree in mechanical engineering. In 1919 he was appointed Executive Officer of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and became NACA's Director of Aeronautical Research from 1924-1947. Lewis was able to obtain funding and clear the path of bureaucratic obstacles so that NACA researchers could proceed on understanding propulsion and aerodynamics in order to improve aircraft performance. When George Lewis died in 1948, the NACA's Cleveland laboratory was named Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in his honor.


The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is now accepting nominations for its annual History Manuscript Award. This Award is presented for the best historical manuscript dealing with the science, technology, and/or impact of aeronautics and astronautics on society. The purpose of this award is to provide professional recognition to an author who makes a major and original contribution to the history of aeronautics or astronautics. The award is presented yearly at the AIAA Aerospace sciences meeting and exhibit, held in Reno, Nevada, each January. The deadline for nominations for this award is 1 July 1999. To request nomination forms or additional information, please contact Katy Scheuerman, Honors and Awards Liaison, at or (703) 264-7623; or Tony Springer, History Committee Co-chair at or (703) 406-5788.


Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, The First Forty Years (NASA SP-4312, 1999) is now available. Written by Lane E. Wallace, this beautifully illustrated history of NASA's Goddard Space Flight presents a cogent discussion of how space and Earth science gets done at this Field Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. It covers Goddard's origins as the Naval Research Laboratory and other facilities at the beginning of the space age and carries the story to the present. This book (stock number 033-000-01206-3) is available by calling the NASA Information Center at (202) 358-0000, or through the Government Printing Office at their site on the Web. The cost of the book is $33, including shipping and handling.

Originally published in the NASA History Series in 1966, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury (NASA SP-4201), by Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, is now in softcover with all the original text and images. This book,  including shipping and handling (stock number 033-000-01210-1), is $46 and also available by calling the NASA Information Center, or through the Government Printing Office. By Mail contact the Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Fax: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.)

Finally, Also Roger D. Launius' edited work, Innovation and the Development of Flight, from Texas A&M University Press is now available. This is a collection of case studies, each by a different historian, on aeronautical innovation in the context of both technological and organizational systems. The chapters include:

1.      "The Langley and Wright Aero Accidents: Two Responses to Early Aeronautical Innovation and Government Patronage,"
           Norriss S. Hetherington
2.      "Innovation in the American Aviation Support Infrastructure: The Evolving Relationship between Airports, Cities, and Industry," Janet R. Daly Bednarek
3.      "The Search for an Instrument Landing System, 1918-1948," William M. Leary
4.      "Higher, Faster, and Farther: Fueling the Aeronautical Revolution, 1919-1945," Stephen L. McFarland
5.      "Engineering Successful Innovation: Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines, 1925-1940," Bayla Singer
6.      "Three-Miles-a-Minute: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics    and the Development of the Modern Airliner," Deborah G. Douglas
7.      "An Airplane for Everyman: Aeronautical Innovation, the Department of Commerce, and the Light Airplane Industry, 1933-1937," Tom D. Crouch
8.      "Paths for Flight: Innovation and the Origin of Radar," Louis Brown
9.      "Rocket Aircraft and the 'Turbojet Revolution': The Luftwaffe's Quest for High-Speed Flight, 1935-1939," Michael J. Neufeld
10.    "Revolutionary Innovation and the Invisible Infrastructure: Making Royal Air Force Bomber Command Efficient, 1939-1945," Robin Higham
11.     "Riding England's Coattails: The U.S. Army Air Forces and the Turbojet Revolution," James O. Young
12.     "Command Innovation: Lessons from the National Aerospace Plane Program," Larry Schweikart

This work sells for $44.95. It is available from the press at the following address: Texas A&M University Press Consortium, John H. Lindsey Building, Lewis Street, 4354 TAMUS, College Station, TX 77843-4354,     Toll-free telephone (U.S. orders only): 800-826-8911, (Monday - Friday, 8-5 central time), Toll-free FAX (U.S. orders only): 888-617-2421.


We are pleased to announce the forthcoming publication of Beyond Mach 2: The D-558 Program (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4222, 1999). The Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak and D-558-2 Skyrocket were, with the Bell XS-1, the earliest transonic research aircraft built in this country. They were designed to gather data so the aviation community could understand what was happening when aircraft approached the speed of sound (roughly 741 miles per hour at sea level in dry air at 32 degrees Fahrenheit). The number 1 Skyrocket first flew on 4 February 1948.

We anticipate an early June publication of The Space Shuttle Decision: NASA's Quest for a Reusable Space Vehicle (NASA SP-4221, 1999), written by T.A. Heppenheimer. This study focuses on the development of the Space Shuttle, emphasizing both the technological process and political debate that occurred during the period between the early-1960s and the 1972 presidential decision to construct the vehicle.

We are also publishing this summer the fifth volume of an ongoing series of reference works, the NASA Historical Databook (NASA SP-4012). This volume is subtitled, NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, and Human Spaceflight, and deals with these subjects for the period, 1979-1988.

We are also pleased to announce the forthcoming publication of A History of Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research (Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 13). In this monograph, Albert L. Braslow, who spent much of his career at NASA's Langley Research Center, working with this research, presents a history of active laminar-flow control, which employs suction of a small quantity of air through airplane surfaces. This important technique offers the potential for significant reduction in drag and large increases in range or reductions in fuel usage for aircraft. For transport aircraft, the reductions in fuel usage may equal 30 percent of present consumption. Given such potential, it is obvious that active laminar-flow control with suction is an important technology. This monograph not only encapsulates a lot of history, but does so in language that is accessible to nontechnical readers.

Also forthcoming this summer is V.G. Perminov's The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union (Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 15). This is a first-person account of Soviet Mars exploration by a senior official working on the program. Stay tuned for announcements about the appearance of all of these works.


The thirtieth anniversary of the historic landing of Apollo 11 on the Moon, 20 July 1969, is fast approaching. In commemoration of the event, the NASA History Division is planning the production of several works. One product is a book, "Before this Decade is Out…": Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program (NASA SP-4223), a collection of oral histories compiled and edited by Glen E. Swanson. Also, we are producing a CD-ROM containing a significant number of key documents, reports, movies, images, and publications, and we also have underway several fact sheets.

In early June we will have a site dedicated to the 30th anniversary of Apollo 11. This site will not only have descriptions of the mission, biographies of the astronauts, mission photographs, and other areas of interest, but it will also serve to promote the events which will take place in commemoration of the event.

We have also been working on a monograph about Apollo's management, entitled Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo. Taken from proceedings of an Oral History Workshop conducted on 21 July 1989, it will be ready in time for the anniversary.

Finally, we are putting the final touches on an Apollo anniversary poster, a mosaic made up of images from the lunar landing missions. Stay tuned for more information on these materials.


New from Apogee Books are the NASA Apollo mission reports. Each book in this series will include a CD-ROM containing video from the mission. These books are available from CG Publishing Inc., (905) 637-5737, fax (905) 637-2631. Apogee Books can also be e-mailed at, and are located at on the Web. They can also be reached by mail at Box 62034, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4K2, Canada.

Homer Hickam (author of The Rocket Boys, made into the hit film October Sky) has a new novel coming out on 15 June. Entitled Back to the Moon, it offers a brilliantly imagined, endlessly entertaining return to the Moon adventure.

The missions of the Apollo astronauts to the surface of the Moon yielded 32,000 extraordinarily beautiful photographs, the record of a unique human achievement. In his book Full Moon, Michael Light has woven 129 of these stunningly clear images into a single composite voyage, a narrative of breathtaking immediacy and authenticity. For more information look at the Web site  http://www.projectfullmoon. com/.

Science writer David M. Harland has just published Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions (Wiley-Praxis, 1999), focusing on the exploration carried out by Apollo astronauts while on the lunar surface. This book may be obtained by ordering from Wiley-Praxis at

James Shefter has also published The Race (Doubleday and Co., 1999). This work tells in very readable form the story of the duel between the Soviet Union and the United States to be the first to land humans on the Moon.

Fly Me to the Moon: Lost in Space with the Mercury Generation (McGregor Publishing, 1999), by Bryan Ethier, is a memoir by a middle-aged of growing up with the Moon program. He combines stories and accounts from a wide range of people, from astronauts to others who grew up inspired by the space program, including some who went on to become astronauts and mission controllers.

One Small Step: Project Apollo and the Legacy of the Space Age (Smithmark Publishers, 1999), by Eugene Fowler, is a large-format "coffee table" history. Rather than be just a book about the Apollo program itself, the book splits its contents almost evenly between the history of Apollo and the cultural impact of the space age.


The final joint U.S./Russia report of the ISS Phase 1: Shuttle-Mir program is now located at on the Web.

Published in 1985, Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA SP-483) covers some of the most interesting, but least-documented, aspects of spaceflight: the biomedical and personal. Though not in the formal NASA History Series, this book by Mary Connors, Albert Harrison, and Faren Akins should prove to be useful and enjoyable reading for spaceflight enthusiasts, students, and scholars. The book can be found at on-line. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for scanning and formatting this book for the Web.

Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept (Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 4, 1995), by James R. Hansen is a fascinating story of how NASA decided to use the lunar orbit rendezvous mode to get to the Moon for Project Apollo. It is now available at In honor of the thirtieth anniversary of Apollo 11, we have also reprinted this monograph. A hard copy is available free of charge from the NASA History Division, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546, with a self-addressed 9x12" envelope stamped for 15 ounces ($3.20).

A Meeting with the Universe: Science Discoveries from the Space Program (NASA EP-177, 1981) is now available on-line at on the Web. Written by a group of NASA scientists for a popular audience, this attractive photo book is not a formal NASA history publication but a "history of space exploration-by NASA, by universities, by other government agencies, and by industries-all of whom have played major roles." Warm thanks to Hans-Peter Engel, who scanned and formatted this special book for the Web.

We are pleased to announce that a new set of Skylab technical diagrams and drawings is now available on the Web. This set, as well as the sets for Projects Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, is available through on the web. In the coming months, we hope to make available drawings and diagrams of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and the space shuttle. Special thanks to Kipp Teague who has scanned all the diagrams and put them in a convenient format for the Web.

NASA's Space Food and Nutrition, an educator guide with activities in science and mathematics, lists the menus for astronauts from Project Mercury to the International Space Station. The guide also includes information about space food preparation, types of space food, nutrition, and classroom activities. Space Food and Nutrition can be found the Spacelink site on the Web.

We proudly announce a new addition to our Web site. The fortieth Anniversary of the Formation of the Mercury Seven was celebrated on 9 April. offers biographies, documents, pictures and other items of interest about the formation of the first group of American astronauts. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for scanning and formatting these for the Web.

Also in celebration of the 40th anniversary of the Mercury Seven, we have added two more documents to our growing Internet resources. These works are the scientific and technical reports of astronauts M. Scott Carpenter and Walter M. Schirra's orbital flights. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Orbital Space Flight (NASA SP-6, 1962) are at, and Results of the Third U.S. Manned Orbital Space Flight (NASA SP-12, 1962) are at on the web. Included are air-to-ground communications and detailed analyses of the flights. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for scanning and formatting these documents for the Web.

Donald D. Baals and William R. Corliss cover the early wind tunnels from the days of the Wright brothers to "wind tunnels of the space age" in Wind Tunnels of NASA (NASA SP-440, 1981). This richly illustrated volume is highly recommended for lay readers, scholars, and all those interested in aeronautics history. It can be found at and is also a useful guide to one of the three fundamental ways that the aerodynamic properties of airplanes are tested: in flight, in wind tunnels, and with computer simulations. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for scanning and formatting this book for the Web.

Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story (NASA SP-4220, 1997). Written by R. Dale Reed with Darlene Lister, it tells of the fascinating history of eight NASA research airplanes without wings. This book's clear prose and exciting illustrations are recommended for a wide variety of popular and scholarly audiences and can be found at on the web. These lifting bodies, which were tested at NASA's (now Dryden) Flight Research Center at Edwards, California from 1963-1975, were important precursors of today's Space Shuttle, as well as the X-33 and X-38.


Appearing at Florida Today Space On-Line site,
Richard Orloff presents his book Apollo by the Numbers, a statistical reference for the manned phase of Project Apollo. It will provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo.


The University of North Dakota's Space Studies Department has assumed publication of Quest, the magazine now considered a journal and exclusively covering the history of spaceflight. It has been renamed Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly.

Quest seeks and publishes diverse articles on the history of humanity's endeavors in space. Quest includes historical articles on topics such as ground systems technology, European and Asian space programs, and media coverage of space activities.

The cost for subscription is $29.95/year for U.S. residents, $35/year in Canada and Mexico, and $45/year for overseas residents. To subscribe, please contact UND-Quest, Space Studies Department, Box 9008, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9008. More information about Quest can be found on the Internet at, or via email at, or contact Suezette Bieri at (701) 777-4856.


Dr. Anne Millbrooke has been selected as an American Society for Engineering Education summer faculty fellow for the NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Millbrooke was the corporate archivist for United Technologies Corporation for many years and now teaches at the  University of Alaska. She will be working with the High Speed Research (HSR) Office and the Office of External Affairs to create an archival collection documenting the history of NASA's HSR program. The HSR Office will close later this year, so Millbrooke will be performing archival "triage" to save correspondence, organizational documents, budget records and other artifacts for future historians.


The NASA History Division currently has an internship program for undergraduates. We are looking for interns for both the academic year and the summer. The unpaid internship provides approximately 20 hours per week, and college sophomores and juniors are preferred. Interns have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, doing research, answering information requests, and preparing documents in HTML for the World Wide Web. See on the Web for more information.

We currently have one intern in our office, Nicole Garrera. Nicole is a junior at The College of New Jersey and majoring in Technology Education. We welcome her and extend to her our gratitude for all of her hard work.


We are pleased to announce the inauguration of a "Centennial of Flight" series of books to be published by Texas A&M University Press. This series is intended as a cohesive set of volumes, written for a general readership, that will synthesize the development of flight in the twentieth century. The series editor, Roger D. Launius, invites proposals for a series of relatively small, general interest paperbacks on the history of flight to be published between 2001 and 2003 for the centennial of the first powered flight by the Wright brothers on December 17, 1903. Proposals are especially welcome for syntheses relating to the following subjects: · The idea of flight before the airplane

Interested persons should contact the series editor: Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, Voice (202) 358-0383, fax (202) 358-2866, e-mail


The "Space 2000" conference, which is largely a technical conference with the theme, "Space in the Service of Humankind," also invites proposals for historical papers on a host of space themes. Among them, the organizers seek papers on lunar and planetary exploration, bases on the Moon and Mars, visions of the future, space transportation, analogies of space exploration with previous Earth activities. The deadline for abstracts is 1 June 1999. Please contact Dr. John Bertin, HQ USAFA/DFAN, USAF Academy, CO 80840, (719) 333-4010, fax (719) 333-4013.

Two scholars in the United Kingdom are inviting contributions to Stories from Space- Reading and Writing the Cosmos, a collection work. The aim of the book will be to explore the meanings of space exploration from a range of cultural and disciplinary perspectives and to analyze the kinds of stories which space exploration tells about itself. Please send proposals of 500 words to either Megan Stern at or Debbie Shaw at by 30 July 1999.

The American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) has created a new conference, the Delta Forum, which will be held in Washington, DC, on 7-8 December 1999. The program committee invites proposals for papers in history, management, society and aerospace technology, economics, and legal issues relating to the theme of "Issues for the Millennium." The committee is especially seeking presentations on the space infrastructure, the on-orbit economy, and aviation. Contact Dee Ann Divis, 1200 G. St., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005-3518, e-mail:


On 2-3 June 1999, the Third National Space Forum at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. The forum is sponsored by the American Astronautical Society and the National Space Club. For more information call (703) 866-0020.

From 22-24 June 1999, The Society of Automotive Engineers and the Aeronautical and Astronautical Association of France, with the patronage of the European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment, will sponsor the International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, to be held at the Palais de Congress in Toulouse, France. For more information contact SAE at (724) 772-7199, fax (724) 776-1830, or e-mail

From 25-26 June 1999, the Canadian Aviation Historical Society's annual meeting will be held at CFB Borden, located 60 miles north of Toronto, Canada. The theme of this year's conference will be "The Evolution of Military Aviation in Canada." Contact: Don Evans, CAHS Sec'y/Treasurer, CAHS National Headquarters, P.O. Box A, Willowdale, Ontario M2N 5S8, Canada, Telephone (416) 410-9774, e-mail: cahstor@idirect.comm.

From 25-26 June 1999, the British Society for the History of Science and the Institute of Contemporary British History will join with the Science Museum in London, England, to present a conference titled "Defiant Modernism." The conference will examine the effects of World War II technologies as they were exploited in wartime and adapted to civilian use thereafter. Contact: Robert Bud, e-mail:

From 14-17 July 1999, the Eleventh Biennial International Conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society for Philosophy and Geography in San Jose, California. The theme will be "Technological Spaces." Contact on the Web.

From 19-23 July 1999, UNISPACE III will take place. A global gathering of United Nations member states to discuss the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the meeting will be held in Vienna, Austria. Its purpose is to support an exchange of ideas among space agencies, space industries, and other space-related organizations. Contact: Howard O'Brien, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, #1801, Reston, Virginia 20191, 800-639-2422, e-mail:

From 12-15 August 1999, the Mars Society's Second Annual Convention will be held in Boulder, Colorado. Contact: The Mars Society, P. O. Box 273, Indian Hills, CO 80454, e-mail:

From 15-19 August 1999, the AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Conference, sponsored by the American Astronautical Society, will be held at the Westin Alyeska Prince Hotel in Girdwood, Arkansas. For more information call (703) 866-0020.

From 16-21 August 1999, the annual meeting of the International Committee for the History of Technology will be held in Belfort, France. The theme will be "Technological Change." Contact: Prof. Carroll Pursell, History Dept., Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, (216) 368-2261, e-mail:

From 22-25 September 1999, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots will hold its Forty-Third Annual Symposium and Banquet at the Beverly Hills Hilton in Beverly Hills, California. Contact: Society of Experimental Test Pilots, P.O. Box 986, Lancaster, CA 93584, fax (805) 940-0398, e-mail

From 28 September-1 October 1999, HELITECH, sponsored by the European Helicopter Association and the British Helicopter Advisory Board, will meet. For more information contact Spearhead Exhibitions Ltd., 44(0) 181-949-9222; fax 44(0) 181-949-8168/8193; e-mail: or go to their site at on the Web.

From 4-8 October 1999, the Fiftieth International Astronautical Congress will take please in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. For additional information contact: The IAF Secretariat, 3/5 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris-France, e-mail

From 7-10 October 1999, the annual meeting of the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) will be held in Detroit, Michigan. Contact: Lindy Biggs, SHOT Secretary, History Department, 310 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5259, (334) 844-6645, fax at (334) 844-6673, or e-mail:

Also on 7-10 October 1999, the annual meeting of the Oral History Society will be held in Anchorage, Alaska. Contact: Susan Armitage, Women's Studies Program, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164-4007, (509) 335-8569, e-mail:

From 19-21 October 1999, the IAA/SAE World Aviation Congress will meet at the Hyatt Regency San Francisco Airport in San Francisco, California. Contact AIAA, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr, Ste. 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, phone (703) 264-7500, fax x7551, or go to the site for more information.

From 22-24 October 1999, the Ninth Biennial Conference of Historic Aviation Writers (CHAWS #9) will be held in St. Louis, Missouri. The conference has no specific theme but there will be a "keynote" focus on aviation in the greater St. Louis area, with speakers from the region. Contact David C. Montgomery, Department of History, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, (801) 378-6338, e-mail for further information.

From 2-4 November 1999 the International Space Business Assembly (ISBA) will be held at the Reagan International Trade Center, Washington, DC. A joint meeting of the United States Space Foundation and the American Astronautical Society, please contact those organizations for additional information. The AAS Business Office is located at 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, (703) 866-0020, e-mail:

From 3-7 November 1999, the seventy-fifth anniversary meeting of the History of Science Society will be held in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.  Contact: Fred Gregory, e-mail: or Edith Sylla, e-mail:

On 4-7 November 1999 the American Assoc. for the Rhetoric of Science and Technology, an affiliate of the National Communications Association, will host panels at the NCA annual conference in Chicago, Illinois; topics will include rhetorical analysis of science and technology policy debates, scientific and technical texts, and the impact of popular representations of science. Contact: Alan Gross, e-mail:

On 7-10 November 1999 the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) will host its annual Users and Training Meeting in Washington, D.C. It also sponsors regional presentations at various times during the year. Contact Julia Foscue, (703) 767-8236, DSN 427-8236, e-mail

From 15-19 November 1999, the International Symposium & Exhibition on Ballistics, sponsored by the National Defense Industrial Association in cooperation with the International Ballistics Committee, will be held at the Municipal Auditorium in San Antonio, Texas.  for more information please refer to event # 021 when calling NDIA at (703) 522-1820, fax (703) 522-1885,e-mail

From 16-18 November 1999, the American Astronautical Society will hold its Forty-sixth Annual Meeting and Conference at the Pasadena Hilton Hotel in Pasadena, California. For more information contact the AAS Business Office, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, 703-866-0020, e-mail:

From 7-8 December 1999, the AIAA will hold its first annual Delta Forum in Washington, DC. Contact AIAA, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr, Ste. 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, phone (703) 264-7500, fax x7551, or go to the site for more information.

From 7-10 January 2000, the American Historical Association will hold its annual meeting in Chicago, IL. Contact AHA, 400 A Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003, phone (202) 544-2422.

From 30 March-2 April 2000 the Organization of American Historians and the National Council on Public History will hold a joint annual meeting in St. Louis, MO. Contact OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.

From 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) will hold its annual meeting at the Munich Center for the History of Science and Technology, Munich, Germany. Contact Lindy Biggs, SHOT Executive Director, 310 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5259, (334) 844-6645, fax at (334) 844-6673, or e-mail:

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

You can now receive NASA History: News and Notes via e-mail. To subscribe, send a message to Leave the subject line blank. In the text portion simply type "subscribe history" without the quotation marks. You will receive confirmation that your account has been added to the list for the newsletter and to receive other announcements that may interest you. We also post the latest issue of this newsletter on the World Wide Web at

More questions about NASA History in general? Please see our NASA History Division Home Page at The general public is also invited to come to our office to do research. For further information, please contact our office at 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866. Send e-mail to Roger D. Launius at, or Steve Garber at We also welcome comments about the content and format of this newsletter.