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DoD focused on three areas of aeronautics research and development in FY 1998. The first demonstrated technologies that offer the best potential for increasing the capability and affordability of future aircraft and missile systems, such as the Joint Strike Fighter and Joint Transport Rotorcraft. The second area enhanced emerging aircraft systems, such as the F-22, F-18 E/F, and V-22, to reduce program risk. The third area extended the service life for the full spectrum of currently fielded systems. Specific aeronautics technology highlights for FY 1998 included transonic wind tunnel validation of an advanced compact inlet system, which offers the potential for a 35-percent reduction in inlet weight and volume for a typical fighter aircraft inlet. Another highlight was the evaluation of bonded repair techniques on afull-scale fatigue test article, which demonstrated the capability to arrest fatigue cracks on metallic

aircraft structures. A third highlight was the evaluation of an advanced rotorcraft airfoil concept, which demonstrated stall-free operation in a dynamic stall environment. Modelers also developed a low-speed data base for tailless fighter aircraft to improve modeling accuracy and reduce development time and cost, as well as the Control Designer's Unified Interface software package for optimizing helicopter control system laws.

laboratory testing  
This XTE66/SE "CAESAR" engine is operating on a test stand.

In aircraft propulsion, the joint DoD-NASA-industry Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology program successfully completed the testing of Pratt & Whitney's turbofan/turbojet core engine demonstrator, which indicated a significant increase in engine thrust-to-weight ratio. The program also successfully completed component and engine structure assessment research with core engine testing, which verified component durability in an experimental engine relevant to a broad spectrum of applications, including the Joint Strike Fighter and F-22. In aircraft power, DoD personnel successfully transferred technologies demonstrated under the More Electric Aircraft initiative—including an engine external starter/generator, an auxiliary power starter/generator, an electric actuator controller, and electric power distribution technologies—to the Joint Strike Fighter program.

During FY 1998, DoD's evolving space capabilities to provide communications, surveillance, reconnaissance, navigation, and weather data continued to support U.S. national security objectives. In terms of direct support to military operations, DoD's space systems played a crucial role as a force multiplier everywhere U.S. forces were deployed, particularly in Bosnia.

In FY 1998, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence became responsible for space management functions. The Secretary of Defense disbanded the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Space, and its functions were transferred to the new Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Space Systems.

During FY 1998, several milestones were accomplished in the Military Satellite Communications (MilSatCom) area. The Global Broadcast Satellite Service (GBS) system was awarded, and a GBS payload was successfully launched. A UHF Follow-On satellite, a Defense Satellite Communications System spacecraft, and a Polar Adjunct program payload were successfully launched. Also, Milstar II began its initial operational test and evaluation.

In terms of surveillance and warning capability, the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) made significant progress during the past year. Technicians began the manufacturing development of the high-altitude component of SBIRS, proceeding on schedule for deployment during FY 2002. DoD managers updated mission requirements for SBIRS in FY 1998, and the low-altitude element underwent a program review in preparation for the start of program definition. Two flight demonstrators, designed to test new technologies for the low component, have made significant progress toward their scheduled launch in FY 2000, with one of the demonstrators beginning sensor and bus assembly and integration.

In FY 1998, DoD led an interagency Global Positioning System (GPS) modernization effort to document the evolving needs of all GPS users and identify effective modifications to the system to satisfy those needs well into the next century. As part of this effort, DoD personnel performed a significant amount of analysis to satisfy the requirement for a second GPS signal for civil use.

In the area of meteorology, DoD's ongoing interagency and international cooperative efforts made great strides during FY 1998. A milestone toward the convergence of U.S. civil and military polar-orbiting weather satellites was reached during FY 1998 when the command and control of both military and civil weather satellites were consolidated.

During FY 1998, DoD continued to work on the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program to develop a national launch capability that satisfies Government requirements and reduces the cost of a space launch by at least 25 percent. In November 1997, DoD approved a revision to the EELV acquisition strategy, which included awarding launch services instead of purchasing launch vehicles and operations. In June 1998, DoD released a request for proposal (RFP) that reflected this strategy. A month later, the two contractors submitted proposals for engineering and manufacturing development, as well as for the provision of initial launch services from FY 2002 to FY 2006.

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) continued to contribute substantially to the expanding flow of vital information to the warfighter, its national customers, and a growing set of "nontraditional" users, such as civil, environmental, and diplomatic customers. The NRO began work on one such program, Eagle Vision II, a mobile commercial imagery satellite ground receiving and processing system. During FY 1998, the NRO also joined with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Air Force in the Discoverer II program, an initiative to prove the feasibility of using a space-based radar for moving target indication. Finally, the NRO issued two RFP's on the Future Imagery Architecture to officially begin the acquisition process.

The NRO continued to work with its mission partners—the National Security Agency, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, the Central Measurement and Signature Intelligence Office, the U.S. Space Command, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the Central Intelligence Agency—to ensure support for intelligence analysis, policy enforcement, and military operations. To also ensure improved organizational communication, requirements analysis, and architecture review, the NRO established both a Systems-of-Systems Architect and the Air Force-NRO Integration Program Group. In addition, the NRO assigned personnel to the newly formed National Security Space Architect's Office.

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