A majority of the world's commercial air carriers are involved in a profit-motivated business venture in competition with other carriers. Achievement of a favorable profit picture requires good management, a good route structure, aircraft that will operate reliably and economically, service to maintain a satisfied clientele, and an active promotional campaign to maintain and, hopefully, expand the volume of service.
The airframe manufacturer is directly involved in the design and production of an aircraft that will operate reliably and economically and incorporate features that will permit the airline to provide service of a quality necessary to maintain a satisfied clientele. Reliable and economical operation is a direct result of establishing design criteria commensurate with the operational use of the aircraft, developing sound structural and functional system design, selection or development of qualified components, conducting a comprehensive test program leading to certification, and providing postdelivery field-service logistic support. These factors must obviously be backed up by adequate levels of in-service maintenance provided by the air carrier. The airframe manufacturer's involvement in providing service of a quality to maintain a satisfied clientele is indirect since the ultimate responsibility must lie with the individual carrier. The airframe manufacturer is directly responsible for producing equipment incorporating features with the capability of providing services within a latitude acceptable to the carrier's customers. Quick-change kits, cargo systems, and food service equipment are typical examples of this area of responsibility.
The introduction of the passenger into the operational environment adds complexity almost beyond belief to the air carrier's normal equipment concerns. The bulk of passenger fare revenue is paid by the experienced traveler and generally to support business activities. Surveys have indicated that this experienced traveler is not always aware of the number of engines that propel the aircraft, is less aware of the airframe manufacturer, and smiles politely when made aware of the number of hydraulic systems, the advantages of full power over manual reversion flight controls for large aircraft, and the flexibility of the electric system where the generators may operate either in parallel or isolated. This passenger is mainly concerned about his immediate surroundings, the cabin crew, and the food and beverage service. Adherence to flight schedules and prompt baggage delivery round out the passenger's criteria for evaluation of the air carrier.
 The air carrier whose services are oriented toward the fare-paying passenger is compelled to seek ways to cause these passengers to wish to return for subsequent trips. Since, from the passenger's viewpoint, there is little to offer in the area of differences of basic equipment, or aircraft, between carriers, individuality must be expressed in terms of the cabin decor, spacious accommodations, in-flight entertainment, and food and beverage service offered. Food and beverage service provides an excellent source of in-flight entertainment, especially on short-duration flights, and complements the in-flight motion pictures to occupy virtually the entire time required for a transcontinental flight. In terms of support requirements, the food and beverage service is fully as complex as many other aircraft functional systems when compared to their interface with both the aircraft and ground equipment. Recognition of this service and its importance places the airframe manufacturer in the position of system integrator with prime responsibility in the area of the aircraft and a secondary role for ground equipment and support facilities.
Developing an operational food service must be a joint responsibility of the airframe manufacturer and the air carrier. The economics of most air carrier operations would preclude acquisition of all new equipment and facilities especially designed for the new generation of aircraft. New support equipment must, obviously, be acquired to support the requirements unique to new aircraft, but the major portion of the equipment and facilities will be upgraded only as required as the new aircraft is integrated into parallel operation with the carrier's fleet. As the older aircraft are phased out of operation and their facilities and equipment become obsolete, the ground-based part of the system will be upgraded systematically to, or perhaps beyond, the requirements desired for the most efficient operation with the aircraft.
The major elements comprising the air carrier's food system are the aircraft galley, the service vehicle(s), and the commissary. Although the integration of the galley and the aircraft is primarily the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer, it is design oriented toward current operational equipment and facilities to minimize obsolescence, improve system efficiency, and improve airborne equipment performance. Cooperative pooling of equipment by air carriers can impact this process of optimization for both airborne and ground equipment as well as for facilities. The air carrier, necessarily, has the primary responsibility for adapting the ground equipment and facilities to accept the new aircraft as it enters service. This adaptation or upgrading of facilities must be accomplished in a timely and systematic manner to accept not only the new aircraft but subsequent models. The airframe manufacturer must contribute to this planning effort by defining the interface between the aircraft and the ground equipment and facilities.
The design of a galley system and its integration into the aircraft requires that the airframe manufacturer define the objectives of the system, develop equipment performance and aircraft support requirements, describe the elements of the airborne system, and specify the details of the interface between the aircraft and the ground equipment and facilities.
 The objective of the aircraft food system is to provide high-quality, palatable, nutritious food in an attractive manner to the passengers within the constraints of time as established by the specific flight segment. The food that is to be served to the passenger must be of a quality at least as high as that served in a good restaurant. The food must be attractively arranged, at the appropriate temperature, and presented to the passenger in a manner reflecting a personal interest in him. The nutritional value of the food is subject to debate, but it is anticipated that this quality should fall into the same general pattern of food service objectives.
Food service system requirements will be based upon the above objectives and will consider the aircraft as it is to be placed in service. Establishment of these requirements will be accomplished after a review of the air carrier's route structure, commissary facilities, support equipment, and operating personnel. This process becomes more complicated when the galley system is provided as an integral part of a type of aircraft to be delivered to several carriers. Providing a common galley system is not as impossible as it may appear. Equipment performance is generally determined by the time constraints of the shortest flight on a carrier's route structure and the storage volumes and weights established by the quality of food service. Since most carriers feel that the 60-min block time is the shortest flight for a full hot-meal service, this time becomes the design point for the airborne equipment. The minimum cabin crew requirements are established by the cognizant Government regulatory agency and generally the carriers are able to perform all food service to the passengers with this crew complement. Short, high-density flights may require additional cabin attendants to perform an adequate and timely food service. The storage volumes required by most carriers to support their food service do not vary appreciably and when one analyzes the flow of food service to the passengers, equipment location, and storage space allocation, the standard galley starts to come into focus. For carriers whose service requires storage volumes in excess of those available, optional galley support units can be provided, possibly by removing passenger seats or reducing seat pitch to gain the required space.
The commissary plays a vital role in the food system and, although its operation and equipment is the prime responsibility of the air carrier or his caterer, the airframe manufacturer must consider the capability of this facility in designing and equipping the galley. The food prepared in this commissary must be tailored to the capability of the airborne equipment, and the food must be prepared prior to the loading of the galley. When precooked hot food is brought aboard the aircraft, the capability to hold this food at the proper temperature must be provided. Cold foods must be kept cool either by insulation or by refrigeration. Hot foods must be kept at temperature without overcooking or excessive drying. Cooking of raw foods and reconstituting of frozen foods is gaining in popularity, and improved ovens are required to perform this task. Beverage service presents requirements for coffeemakers, water boilers, ice making or storage, soft drinks and liquor. The commissary is charged with the responsibility of providing the food and beverages, tailored to the capability of the galley and its operating personnel. Additionally, the commissary is responsible for refurbishing galley equipment on the return cycle from the aircraft and disposal of waste. The handling of the galley equipment in this ground-based pipeline presents some rather rigorous design criteria for the airframe manufacturer supplying the galley and for the commissary operator in procurement of handling and processing equipment.
 The United States Public Health Service regulations cross all boundaries from the commissary to the galley and establish handling, cleaning, and food processing requirements.
The commissary van or galley transporter is required to close the gap between the aircraft galley for both the galley loading and unloading cycles. This vehicle must contain adequate facilities to store all food and support equipment in a manner that will not degrade the quality of the airborne food service. In the event that one vehicle is used so that traffic and congestion about the aircraft is minimized, it must also be capable of providing adequate volume to accept the returning galley equipment and waste. This return-cycle volume is generally greater than that required for loading the galley because of the disarray typical of the hurried postservice pickup aboard the aircraft. The commissary van must also be capable of positioning itself properly to permit loading and unloading of galley equipment.
The airframe manufacturer is responsible for integrating the galley into the aircraft after the basic requirements have been established in conjunction with the air carrier. The type of service is, necessarily, established by the carrier and is, in turn, reflected in food service system requirements. These requirements are the basis for establishment of the design criteria for the galley system and its equipment.
The galley system and its elements will be developed to permit performance in compliance with customer requirements. The galley concept, as related to food preparation and service capability, must then be established. Once the concept is determined, galley size and location will be established. The size of the galley will be partially dependent upon the concept of food service mode, handcarried tray or cart delivery service, but principally established by the heating, cooling, storage, and beverage support equipment. The location of the galley facilities will consider factors such as potential seat loss, service class divisions, traffic flow during food service to the passengers, ground-service access, weight, and cost. For either cabin-level or lower-deck galleys the number of units will be determined by ground-servicing and cabin-traffic flow during passenger service. The location of the galley on the cabin level or lower deck will be based on tradeoffs involving the comparative value of passenger seats, cargo capacity, and anticipated load factors. The Lockheed L-1011 underfloor alley releases sufficient cabin-level space to permit increasing seating capacity by 20 seats. When the lower-deck galley is adopted, food service carts are required to transport the food and beverage to the passengers. Elevators are used to move the carts between the cabin and the galley. These carts may be used in service to individual passengers or secured in a convenient position and so that they function as a satellite from which food is served to the passenger and to which waste is returned. Hot beverage service will be provided from the cabin-level galley units. When the lower-deck galley concept is utilized, hot beverage service from the galley is impractical and it is advantageous to locate food service support units at strategic locations on the cabin level.
Once the galley size and location have been established, the equipment and storage arrangement will be configured. Individual pieces of equipment will be located with consideration to their  frequency of use, working height, weight of material handled, and other factors. When locating equipment one should also consider grouping the electric, water, drain, and communication services to achieve minimum complexity and weight and maximum safety. The design of the galley units and the equipment must be in compliance with certain Government regulator documents. Federal aviation regulations are primarily concerned with the structural and flight safety aspects of the galley units and require qualification through test or analysis, in some instances, for certification. The U. S. Public Health Service establishes the standards for galley sanitation, and aircraft operated by carriers within this country must operate galleys certified by this agency.
The galley system as installed in the aircraft interfaces with the electrical, environmental control, water, lighting, and possibly hydraulic systems. Structural attachments are required, and the units must be trimmed in a manner compatible with the area of the aircraft in which they are located.
Electric power is required by virtually all functional equipment within the galley system. The load requirements of the ovens will be the greatest single factor. This load will depend on the types of food to be prepared and the amount of time allocated for cooking or heating. The air carrier's philosophy for entree preparation can grossly impact this oven requirement by requiring power only for holding hot food at temperature or cooking of raw frozen food. The trend of improving quality of food will result in a greatly increased use of precooked frozen foods and later, raw foods, as ovens with improved performance are developed. Coffeemakers and water boilers used to support the hot beverage service will probably be the next largest electric power users. Brew time or water heating rates will establish peak loading and the old-mode power will fall within these peak requirements. The use of an icemaker aboard the aircraft will present a fairly large electric power requirement almost completely dependent upon ice production rates. The electric power consumption by the cold-storage units is relatively small by comparison, as is that of bun warmers, hotplates, and hot cups. The total electric load analysis for the galley system will consider all individual loads and the typical duty-cycle characteristics in the flight service environment. Peak loads and equipment duty cycle will then be integrated into the electric system total power loading and control. The electromagnetic interference characteristics of the galley equipment ms t also be considered for compliance with standards established for the aircraft.
The galley and its equipment will be dependent upon the environmental control system (ECS for cooling and ventilation. Heat generated by the ovens, coffeemakers, hotplates, etc., will be rejected to the cabin area. For the lower deck galley this heat will be rejected to the galley itself, which will be established as a separate temperature zone of the ECS. Mechanical refrigeration systems must be provided with condenser cooling air and equipment cavities in galley cabinetry will be ventilated. Cabin exhaust air can be utilized for this function before it is ducted overboard through the pressurization outflow valves. Greasy or moisture-laden vapors generated by the galley must be ducted overboard in a manner that will preclude accumulation of grease with a resultant fire hazard and that will minimize condensation within the aircraft in inaccessible areas that will promote corrosion.
 Water and drain facilities will be required at all water stations and to the coffeemakers and water boilers. Flow rates for the water supply must be established along with the acceptable pressure range. Equipment characteristics and water system performance must be properly established to ensure compatibility. The types of connections to these services must be specified with consideration for the reliability, maintenance characteristics, and installation peculiarities. Special attention must be given to the design of all equipment to insure proper draining when the aircraft is subjected to cold-climate environments. Design of the equipment and the water system interface must also consider U. S. Public Health Service standards.
The task of integrating the galley installation with the aircraft structure will vary considerably with the galley location. The greatest variance will be between the cabin-level and lower-deck galleys. Cabin-level galley units must be designed to resist crash loads while lowerdeck installations will be designed on the basis of limit flight loads. Cabin-level installations will vary somewhat in mounting requirements between centerline and side-wall units. The structural integrity of the floor beams must be ascertained or provided for the cabin-level installation. Generally, overhead stabilizing structure will provide the lightest weight cabin-level installation. The lower-deck installation is of a quite different character since the galley becomes an integral part of the aircraft with somewhat simpler equipment installations. The larger centralized volume of this type of galley permits a more localized and efficient equipment installation. Corrosion and odor control practices consist of eliminating areas that could trap liquids and sealing off areas that could absorb or trap liquids. Special paints or coatings may be utilized in areas likely to be exposed to liquids to minimize corrosion. Design standards should be established to facilitate cleaning by providing smooth surfaces and rounded corners, sealing all faying surfaces, and utilizing the maximum practical number of flush fasteners. Spillage and condensation should always accumulate in accessible locations where cleanup is readily accomplished.
The successful integration of a galley system into an aircraft requires that a few basic ground rules be followed. These rules are common to installations involving two or more systems and are as follows:
Lockheed-California Company organized the L-1011 Preliminary Design Group early in September 1966. At this time, studies were conducted out of which the basic galley system evolved. The Lockheed L-1011 incorporates a galley under the floor of the passenger cabin. This galley is but one part of the airborne food service system which also includes two elevators, three cabinlevel service centers and the food and beverage service carts. This galley system is included as an integral part of the basic aircraft.
 The underfloor galley occupies an envelope 239 in. long, 164 in. wide, and 74 in. high and is located forward of the wing box. The lower corners of this volume are cut off by the main structural rings and leave a flat floor width of 96 in. The total usable volume of this envelope is 1 584 cu ft. The entire compartment is sealed off from the aircraft and liquid flow paths follow down the sidewalls along internal contour and lead out onto the galley floor, where spillage is observable for easy cleanup. All galley equipment is hung from the floor beams or mounted on standoffs from the sidewalls to maintain an uninterrupted flow path down the walls and out onto the sealed floor. A secondary seal in the form of plastic pans is provided beneath the galley floor to insure against possible leakage through the galley floor reaching the bilge area of the aircraft where it would create corrosion problems. Warm air from the electric load center, which is located between the secondary seal and the galley floor, is circulated to dry any leakage and to keep the galley floor warm.
The underfloor galley is equipped with ovens, cold-storage units, an icemaker, drystorage cabinets, a work counter, a bun warmer, a waste-disposal area, an intercom, and a cabin interphone. The galley is air-conditioned and lighted and provides parking areas for 18 food and beverage service carts. The ovens to be developed for the galley will be of an advanced design capable of reconstituting frozen entrees, or cooking raw frozen entrees, in a nominal 20 min. The oven will also be capable of cooking raw chilled food or heating chilled precooked food. Cold-storage units installed in the galley will be capable of holding chilled foods at 38° F or frozen foods at -10° F An icemaker provided as a part of the galley equipment will have a bin capable of maintaining ice in a dry condition and will hold 50 lb. The icemaker has a production capacity of 30 lb clear ice/hr. A special cold storage (38° F) compartment with a capacity of 10 cu ft is an integral part of the icemaker.
Dry-storage cabinets are installed for items that can be stored at ambient temperature. Storage compartments are provided for miscellaneous waste in compartments on both sides of the galley in the bottom of the storage cabinets. These compartments have a fire rating of Class D. A work counter including a wash basin is located on the left side of the aircraft at the aft end of the galley. Through a window over the work counter the No. 1 engine and leading edge of the wing are visible.
The galley intercom system connects to a station in each of the cabin-level service units. This system permits unattended area-type communication in the galley area and provides handsets at the cabin stations. Any station may signal and call any other station. A cabin interphone, one of 10 stations, is located in the galley. The galley is provided with 500 CFM of fresh air and is a separate temperature control zone.
The galley is lighted with flush ceiling lights utilizing cold-cathode lamps. These lights are approximately 48 in. long and are spaced on 20 in. centers. Parking space is provided for the food and beverage service carts beneath the equipment and storage cabinets on both sides of the galley. The carts are parked and secured in a transverse position with respect to the aircraft and are accessible to service while parked.
The L-1011 galley is serviced through a door located midway in the right side of the galley. This door incorporates a window through which the No. 3 engine and leading edge of the wing can be  seen. Food service carts are loaded singly into the galley from the commissary van through this 32-in-wide door. The door opens inward and upward into the galley. The attendants will not occupy the galley during takeoff and landing. They will be provided with rough air seats outboard on either side of the elevator enclosure and mounted on the aft galley bulkhead. In-flight access to the electric load center will be provided through the aft galley bulkhead.
Two enclosed elevators are used to transport either personnel or food service carts between the underfloor galley and the cabin level. The elevators are powered indirectly by the four aircraft hydraulic systems. Two systems are normally allocated to each elevator to provide power source redundancy. Cross manifolding of the elevator hydraulic systems permits operation of each elevator from any one of the four systems. The elevators can be controlled from both the galley and cabin levels as well as from within the car. Safety features preclude operation when the enclosure doors are open or when other potentially hazardous conditions exist. Emergency egress hatches are provided in the top of the elevator cars. A ladder is provided in each car for access to the hatch. Lights are provided within the elevator car as well as in the shaft. Food cart tiedown fittings are provided within the car and on the car top. When the elevator cars are in the down position, food service carts may be stored on top of the car and accessible to the cabin level. The elevator will travel from the galley to cabin level in approximately 8 to 10 sec.
The midcabin service center is at the cross aisle immediately forward of the wing. This unit encloses the elevator shaft on the cabin level. The unit is approximately 42 by 90 in. and is situated transverse in the aircraft symetrically about the aircraft centerline. Four 32-oz coffeemakers are installed in this unit, two on each side of the elevator enclosure. A small work counter is provided under each coffeemaker installation and one wash basin. Storage space is provided above each coffeemaker. Storage space during takeoff and landing for two food service carts is provided, one on each outboard face of the service center. The entire service center is trimmed to be compatible with the cabin decor.
A forward service center is installed immediately aft of the flight station with the operating face forward. This unit contains a 32-oz coffeemaker and an extra hotplate. Space is provided for a hot cup and a water station is installed in the right-hand outboard side of the unit. Miscellaneous storage space is provided to support the beverage service. Space is provided to store one beverage cart within the unit transverse with respect to the aircraft centerline. The top of the unit opens upward to 90° exposing shelf space shielded from the passengers" view and providing a partial storage space for two food carts within the unit and secured in a longitudinal position. The single cart is stored for takeoff or landing. A galley intercom handset is installed in the service center.
An aft coffee bar is installed forward of the aft service door on the right-hand side of the aircraft. This unit is a configuration similar to the overhead coat-storage compartments and lower storage unit. This unit incorporates one 32-oz coffeemaker and two extra hotplates. Space is provided for a hot cup. Storage space is provided in both the overhead unit adjacent to the coffeemaker and in the lower floor-mounted enclosure. A galley intercom handset is installed in the coffee bar.
 A total of 18 food and beverage carts are provided with the galley system. This cart complement includes 6 beverage carts, 8 coach-class carts, and 4 first-class service carts. These carts are to be utilized for 56 first-class and 200 coach passengers. The carts are 16.5 in. wide, 36 in. long, and 36 in. high. The service carts carry insulated containers on top of the basic cart. These containers are used to carry entrees, salads, or desserts. The cart incorporates 6 swiveling casters, arranged in pairs at the sides of the cart, on each end and in the middle. The center casters are lowered l/8 in. to enhance cart maneuverability. The carts incorporate a retention system that will engage a flat-headed bolt or mushroom mounted in the floor for unattended storage positions. A jack-pad type of brake is provided for attended positioning and a tether system for In-aisle service. This tether attaches to the passenger seat arms, which are stressed to accept in-flight loads imposed by a tethered cart. The cart's structure and doors are symetrically arranged with respect to the ends of the cart.
The beverage cart supports the food service with soft drinks, liquor, wine, beer, ice. garnishes, etc. This cart has the capacity to serve 50 passengers. The cart incorporates a pressurized cobra-head dispenser system that provides carbonated water, sweet water, drink mix, and four cola syrups. A liquor module carries 105 liquor miniatures in dispenser tubes. This liquor module is removable and lockable. Space is provided for glasses, 10 pounds of ice, drink garnishes, quart bottles, beer, miscellaneous soft drinks, napkins, and a cash drawer. A stowable top provides a sanitary dust cover when the cart is not in use.
The first-class food cart incorporated features necessary to accept a variety of modules necessary to support cold food, entree, and dessert courses. When the cart is set up for cold food, it contains the table supplies such as tablecloth, napkin, silverware, salt and pepper, wine glasses, coffee cups, cold and dry food, bread, butter, china, and wines. The lower portion of the cart is allocated to waste pickup from the beverage service. When this cart is arranged for the entree course, it will contain the hot food, china, coffee cups, and wine and provide waste pick up space in the bottom portion of the cart. After completion of service, this cart will be used for this course-waste pickup and receptacles and containers are provided for this purpose. After the initial cold food service, this cold food cart will be returned to the galley and reconfigured to a dessert cart. In this configuration, the cart will carry the desserts, coffee cups, extra silverware, liquer glasses, liquers, wines, and miscellaneous afterdinner items. The lower portion of the cart is available for waste.
The coach food cart contains both preset trays with cold and dry foods and the hot-entree portion of the passengers' meals. The cart has a top-mounted container or holding oven that is insulated and electricly heated when connected to the ship's power. This holding oven's insulation helps maintain the temperature of the entree portions during the period of transit from the galley to the passengers. This configuration of cart permits the cabin crew to serve the passenger his complete meal in one operation, thereby reducing in-aisle traffic and delays in passenger service. Each cart serves 27 coach-class passengers. This cart will be utilized to serve first-class passengers on short flights with a cruise time of less than 1 hour.
 The L-1011 galley system has been developed to provide the air carrier with a more efficient and cost-effective food system, maximum service flexibility, and the simplest interface with ground equipment and the commissary. Efficiency is inherent with the utilization of the advanced food preparation facilities and of food service carts to localize passenger food service and waste pickup. Cost effectiveness is derived from the relocation of the galley from the high-priced seating area of the cabin to the relatively less expensive cargo area. Costs are also reduced by the utilization of advanced cooking and cold storage equipment in the galley, permitting maintenance of frozen entree inventories, and cooking only actual food service requirements. Maximum service flexibility is offered the carrier through the variety of entrees that may be offered to the passenger and through the integrated use of the carts and cabin-level galley units. Finally, the features of single-cart loading through a separate galley service door combined with latitudes in on-board equipment operation simplify the ground equipment and facility requirements by reducing needs for special handling equipment and storage facilities.
Galley system developments have resulted from analysis, design, and construction of functional galley system elements and from actual food service testing. Efforts are continuing in all areas to refine the system to the optimum point by the time the L-1011 enters service in 1971.