SP-4206 Stages to Saturn
 
 
[501-511] Index
 
The appendixes are not included in the index.
 
 
 
Acceptance Test or Launch Languages (ATOLL), 237, 256, 398
Actuator (Highs control system), 182
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 31, 39, 56, 133, 135
defense funding, 26-27, 29-30, 35, 76, 299
and NASA programs, 33, 34, 38
and Saturn program, 23, 37
Advanced Vehicle Team (LaRC), 61
Advent (communications satellite), 135
Aero Spacelines, Inc., 309-17
Aerobee (sounding rocket), 17
Aerojet General Engineering Corp., 60, 130-31, 210
Air Force, U.S., 13-14, 17, 25, 35, 37, 135, 137, 149
civilian space program, aid to, 19, 35, 36, 98, 111
contractor relations, 194-95, 288-89
F-1 engine program, 26, 105, 123, 127
liquid hydrogen research, 131, 135-36
Pregnant Guppy detention, 317-18
and Saturn program, 39-40, 43, 57
Air transport, 293, 302, 308-18
Airlock module (Skylab), 382
Alabama Space and Rocket Center, 394, 395 ill.
Aldrich, David E., 110
Aldrin, Edwin E., 3, 5, 6 ill., 363, 369, 371-72, 373 ill.
All-up concept, 347-49, 351, 356 ill., 357, 360, 377
Allen, William M., 360
Alloy, 194
aluminum, 101, 119, 165, 201, 203, 217, 396
beryllium 248, 250-51, 257, 398
magnesium-lithium, 250-51, 257, 397-98
nickel, 102, 119
Anders, William A., 367
Animals in space, 19, 327
Apollo Applications Program (AAP), 382
Apollo Applications Program Office, 382
Apollo Executive Group (contractors), 276
Apollo Program Office, 230, 254, 278, 285, 291, 295
Apollo Saturn (Apollo space vehicle and flight). See Apollo Saturn IB, Apollo Saturn V.
Apollo Saturn IB:
AS-201, 148, 187, 253, 338-39, 340, 349
AS-202, 339, 340, 341, 343
AS-203, 339-40, 341, 349
AS-204 (Apollo 1), 340-41
AS-204 (Apollo 5), 340-41, 343-44
AS-205 (Apollo 7), 343 ill., 344, 345
AS-206 (Skylab 2), 383-84
AS-207 (Skylab 3), 383-84
AS-208 (Skylab 4), 149, 383-84, 385 ill.
AS-209 (ASTP Skylab), 384, 389
AS-210 (ASTP), 385
Apollo Saturn V:
AS-501 (Apollo 4), 223, 228-32, 254, 321, 347-49, 351-55, 356 ill., 357-60, 364
AS-502 (Apollo 6), 321, 364, 377
AS-503 (Apollo 8), 321, 349, 363-68, 377-78
AS-504 (Apollo 9), 149, 364, 368
AS-505 (Apollo 10), 368-69
AS-506 (Apollo 11), 3, 321, 369-72, 378
AS-507 (Apollo 12), 374-75
AS-508 (Apollo 13), 375-76
AS-509 (Apollo 14), 376
AS-510 (Apollo 15), 376
AS-511 (Apollo 16), 376
AS-512 (Apollo 17), 376, 377 ill.
AS-513 (Skylab 1), 384
Apollo-Saturn program, 184, 285, 360, 370- 71
booster-payload coordination, 61-62, 274
existing technology use, 21, 87, 131
growth, 267, 382
objectives, 261-62, 264, 381
problem prevention efforts, 103, 184, 262, 330, 374
success factors, 262, 264, 282, 288-89, 318, 337, 377, 397-99. See also All-up concept, Budget (NASA), Logistics program, Quality control, Technology transfer.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), 127, 291, 379">379, 385, 386, 388, 389 ill., 401
Apollo spacecraft and missions:
Apollo 1 (AS-204), 340-41
Apollo 4 (AS-501), 340-41, 347-49, 351-60, 364
Apollo 5 (AS-204), 341, 343-44
Apollo 6 (AS-502), 344, 360
Apollo 7 (AS-205), 343 ill., 344, 345
Apollo 8 (AS-503), 321, 363-68, 378
Apollo 9 (AS-504), 364, 368
Apollo 10 (AS-505), 368
Apollo 11 (AS-506), 3, 4, 6 ill., 7, 125, 363, 369-72, 373 ill.
Apollo 12 (AS-507), 374-75
Apollo 13 (AS-508), 375-76
Apollo 14 (AS-509), 376
Apollo 15 (AS-510), 376
Apollo 16 (AS-511), 376
Apollo 17 (AS-512), 376, 377 ill.
Apollo telescope mount (ATM), 382-83
Appold, Norman C., 34, 45
Armstrong, Neil A., 3, 5, 6 ill., 363, 369, 371-72, 373 ill.
Army, U.S., 25, 35, 391
civilian space program, aid to, 19, 35-36, 298
liquid propulsion rocketry, 14, 131
missile development, 13-15
and Saturn program 39-40
Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), 15-16, 18, 25
booster programs, 25-30, 33-34, 298
civilian space program, aid to, 19-20, 33-40
and NASA program, 81, 157-58, 193
and Saturn program, 41-44, 69, 74, 76, 136, 243
Army Ordnance Missile Command (AOMC), 14, 30, 31, 42, 299
Arnold Engineering Development Center, 149, 390
Astrionics Laboratory (MSFC), 247, 328
Astronauts, 19, 20 ill., 383. See also names of individual astronauts.
Atlantic Missile Range, 16 ill.
Atlas (ICBM missile), 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 34-36, 164, 189
liquid fuel use, 14, 44, 91
satellite payloads, 17, 134-35
and Saturn program, 37, 43, 120, 127, 141, 146
Atlas (launch vehicle), 17, 19, 20 ill., 21, 25, 44, 61 ill., 161, 134-35
Atlas-Agena, 61 ill.
Atlas-Centaur, 135
Atmospheric research, 17
ATOLL (Acceptance Test or Launch Languages), 237, 256, 398
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 13, 17
Atwood, J. Leland, 224, 226, 229, 231
Automation, 241
automated checkout, 186, 235-40
and welding, 218, 221 ill., 222
Auxiliary propulsion system (Saturn guidance and control system), 182, 256
 
B-377 (cargo aircraft), 309
B-377 PG. See Pregnant Guppy.
B-377 SG. See Super Guppy.
BARC amphibious vessel, 298
Balch, Jackson L., 74
Balsa wood insulation, 175
Barge, 298
Compromise, 305
Little Lake, 305
Palaemon, 302-03, 304, 305, 306 ill., 307
Pearl River, 305, 306 ill.
Poseidon, 305, 306 ill., 307
Promise, 305, 307
Base heating phenomena, 78-79
Bauer, H. E., 167, 171, 189, 240, 302
Bauer, Raymond A., 394-96, 399
Baykonur Cosmodrome, 388
Bean, Alan L., 374
Belew, Leland F., 99, 148
Bendix Corp., 245, 248
Bergen, William B., 231
Bill Dyer (tugboat), 308
Bob Fuqua (tugboat), 303, 304, 307
Boeing Co., 116, 200, 352, 360
contracts, 105, 284
MSFC staff, work with, 192-96, 207, 239-40
NASA facilities use, 71, 73, 166, 194
production innovations, 201-03, 206
Booster. See Launch vehicle and Missile.
Borman, Frank, 367
Bostwick, Leonard C., 95-96, 104, 112
Bramlet, James B., 65, 193
Brand, Vance D., 389
Brennan, William J., 108, 113, 115
Budget (NASA), 54-55, 188, 297
logistics costs, 293, 295
long-range plans, 48, 50, 53. See also All-up concept.
Bumper (atmospheric research probe), 14
 

Camera capsules, 328, 338, 340

Canright, Richard B., 39, 134
Cape Canaveral, 14, 15, 70, 73, 80, 323. See also Cape Kennedy.
Cape Kennedy, 21, 101, 123, 125, 239, 317, 318, 332, 388-89
Cargo aircraft, 309-18
Cargo Lift Trailer (CLT), 315
Castenholz, Paul, 113
Centaur (launch vehicle upper stage), 36-38, 43
liquid hydrogen fuel, 44, 46, 51, 61 ill., 92, 131-35, 136 ill., 137
tank structure, 164, 167
Cernan, Eugene A., 368, 369
Chaffee, Roger B., 231, 340-41
Chance-Vought Corp., 82
Chrysler Corp., 15, 71-72, 81-83, 98, 102, 103, 196, 210, 331, 333, 385
Civilian space program, 41, 55
Cluster concept, 34, 35, 324
engine, 30, 36, 43, 51, 76, 79-80, 83, 97, 137, 160, 164, 334, 337, 345, 400
tank, 30, 43, 76, 77, 82 ill., 155
Collins, Michael, 3, 5, 363, 369-72
Combustion instability, 99, 101, 113-16, 398
Comet Kohoutek, 385
Command and service module (CSM), 5, 83, 161, 236, 247-48, 344, 359, 361, 363, 368, 369, 372, 384
Apollo 1 fire, 340-41
production delays, 226-27, 230-31
Committee for Evaluating the Feasibility of Space Rocketry (CEFSR), 130, 131
Compromise (barge), 305
Computer language, 236-37, 256, 398
Computer, 155, 235, 236 ill., 246 ill., 294-95
automated checkout, 236-41
guidance, 243, 249
innovations, 250-51, 398
PERT, 286-87
Conrad, Charles ("Pete"), Jr., 374, 384
Conroy, John M., 309-14
Contractor, 15, 96, 102, 268 ill., 281, 283, 360. See also Apollo Executive Group, Government-contractor relations, Management, Marshall Space Flight Center, Resident Manager's Office, and names of individual contractors
Contract (NASA), 15, 42, 68, 284, 309
engine, 104-05, 137, 141, 143, 148
maintenance, 73-74
stage, 81, 157-59, 160, 210-11
Control Data Corp., 240
Convair Astronautics Div., General Dynamics Corp., 159, 173, 188, 210
Cook Technological Center, Cook Electric Co., 328
Cosmonaut, 19, 21, 54, 388. See also names of individual cosmonauts.
Crocco, Luigi, 114
Cronkite, Walter, 357
Cryogenics, 89, 90, 91, 94, 127, 130, 184, 198, 297, 398
Cummings Research Park, 395 ill.
Cunningham, R. Walter, 343
 
Dannenberg, Konrad, K., 263, 264
Davis, Wilbur, S., 211
Debus, Kurt H., 38 ill., 70, 231, 277 ill.
Defense, Dept. of, 15, 23, 282
booster program, 26, 36, 37
space program, 25, 27, 32, 55
and Saturn program, 38-42, 57, 297
Development Operations Div. (ABMA), 42
Direct ascent (Nova), 63, 65, 66, 83
Donn, William, 357
Doolittle, James H., 34
Dornberger, Walter R., 11, 12
Douglas Aircraft Corp., 169 ill., 182, 210, 240, 279 ill., 283, 309, 382
insulation innovations, 172-77
S-IV stage, 81, 136-37, 157, 158-59, 188-89, 331
S-IVB stage, 143, 147-48, 157, 160, 162, 168, 185-87, 278, 280
tank, 165-67, 170-72, 184-85
Draper, Dr. C. Stark, 242
Dryden, Dr. Hugh L., 32 ill., 34, 39, 40, 53, 55, 58, 67, 113
"Dry workshop." See Orbital Workshop.
Dyna-Soar, 35, 43, 47, 57, 58, 60
 
E-1 engine, 26, 27, 111
Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR), 59, 63, 65-67, 84, 162, 349, 400
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif, 68-69, 106, 107, 116, 123, 124, 126, 136
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 19, 27, 32 ill., 33, 41, 42, 43 ill., 50
Eisele, Donn F., 343
Electronics Communications Inc., 254
Engine Program Office (MFSC), 108, 140, 270
Explorer (satellite), 16 ill.
Explorer 1, 18, 26, 70, 354
Explorer XVI, 330
 
F-1 engine, 26, 48, 51, 52, 87, 105, 110 ill., 122 ill., 142, 210, 302, 370, 397-98
innovations, 107-08, 119, 120-21, 127
problem phases, 95, 108-09, 112-114, 116, 153
Saturn V, C-5 configuration, 58-59, 65, 192-93;
Saturn V, S-IC stage, 5, 106, 196, 198-99; 207-08, 348, 352, 354, 357
testing program, 106-07, 108, 111-12, 115, 117, 119, 123-26. See also Combustion instability, Fuel injector, Pogo effect, Thrust chamber, Turbopump.
Fairchild Corp., 333
Felix, Harold E., 185
Flight Operations Office (GEM box), 274
Ford Instrument Co., 243
Frietag, Robert F., 313
Friendship 7, 20
Fuel injector, 109-16, 138, 142, 145, 151 ill.
Fuller, Paul N., 144
 
Gagarin, Yuri A., 19, 54
Gates, Thomas S., Jr., 41
Gayle, J. B., 185
Geissler, Ernst D., 38 ill., 59, 163
GEM boxes, 270, 272 ill., 273, 289, 290, 292
Gemini program, 21, 161, 294, 330, 336, 355, 381
General Accounting Office, 159
General Dynamics/Astronautics, 132, 134-35,138
General Electric Co., 14, 73-74
Gilruth, Robert R., 61, 62, 63, 65, 229, 277 ill., 364, 373 ill.
Glenn, John H., Jr., 20
Glennan, T. Keith, 32 ill.. 33, 38, 40, 41, 43, 50, 51, 53, 57, 141, 159, 209
Goddard, Robert H., 8-9, 10 ill., 91
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), 61
Godfrey, Ron, E., 162, 190
Goett, l Harry J., 41
Golovin, Nicholas E., 63, 67, 351
Goodrum, John C., 296, 307, 310, 311, 314, 318
Gordon. Richard F., 374
Government-contractor relations,15, 358, 397-400
MSFC. contractor monitoring, 81, 98, 102-03, 107, 113, 116, 124, 141, 184-85, 193-95, 200-02, 213, 222-23, 226-27, 230, 232, 257, 275, 277-78, 280-82, 292, 296, 358, 361-62
NASA contractor management, 104, 159, 222, 224-32, 245-56, 274, 288-89, 292
Grace, Clinton, H., 245-46
Grau, Dieter. 350, 366
Greer, Robert E.. 227, 228.232
Grissom, Virgil I., 231, 340, 341
Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp., 68
Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 10
Guidance and control system, 7, 8, 52, 241, 242, 247, 278, 250, 251
Gyroscope, 242
 
H-1 engine, 29, 39, 48, 87, 91, 94 ill., 100 ill., 105 ill., 120, 125, 127, 142, 153, 398
innovations, 99, 119
problem phases, 95, 101-04
Saturn 1, 77, 97, 324, 325, 326, 328-29, 336
Saturn IB, 83, 97, 338, 344
testing program, 98, 113, 115, 126. See also Combustion instability, Fuel injector, Teflon, Thrust chamber, Turbopump.
Haeussermann, Walter, 38 ill., 350
Haise, Fred W., Jr, 375
Hall, Eldon W., 45, 47
Hamilton, Julian S., 311
Harrje, David, 114
Haynes Satellite Co., div. of Union Carbide, 103-04
Heimburg, Karl L., 38
Helicopter, 308, 316 ill.
Helium, 177-78, 198, 199
Hellebrand, Emil A., 183-84
Hello, Bastian, 231
Hermes C-1, 14
Hermes program, 14
High Altitude Test Vehicle (HATV), 130-31
Highwater, Project, 325, 336, 345
Hjornevik, Wesley L., 35, 36, 40, 41
Hoelzer, Helmut, 38 ill.
Hoffman, Samuel K., 34
Holaday, William M., 27
Holmes, D. Brainerd, 63, 65, 67, 114, 160, 192, 211, 312, 349, 359-60
Hoppes, R. B., 396
Homer, Richard E., 45, 47, 50
Hornig, Donald F., 113
Houbolt, John C., 63, 64 ill.
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 159
Hueter, Hans, 38 ill.
Huntsville, Ala., 379, 390-94
Hyatt, Abraham 34, 36, 41, 45, 158
 
International Business Machines Corp. (IBM), 240, 245, 246 ill., 247, 252-53, 386
Industrial Operations Div., (IO, .MSFC), 182, 269-70, 286. 290
Inertial guidance systems, 242, 243
Injector, See Fuel injector.
Instrument unit (IU), 161, 241-57, 315, 386
automated checkout. 239-40
production procedures, 242-54
Saturn 1, 244-45, 249
Saturn IB, 245, 246 ill., 247, 344
Saturn V, 241-42, 246 ill., 247-50, 255-56, 358-59, 360-61
Insulation, 149, 172-77, 212, 213-15, 22223, 358
Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), 13, 91, 386, 400-01. See also Atlas, Minuteman, and Titan.
Intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBM), 16, 91. See also Jupiter and Thor.
International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), 17
Invar piping, 152-53
IU-204 (instrument unit), 254
IU-205, 254
IU-503, 254
 
J-2 engine, 5, 58-59, 144, 151 ill., 187 ill., 240:
failure, 360-63
liquid hydrogen technology, 127, 141, 143, 146-47, 359
problem phases, 144-45, 149-53, 372-73
Sell stage, 177, 210, 212, 216, 240, 348, 357;
S-IVBstage, 160, 164, 171, 177-78, 180-82, 186, 256
Saturn IB, 87, 143, 338-40, 343-45,
Saturn V, 143, 368, 371
testing program, 142-43, 147-49, 216. See also Fuel injector, Pogo effect
 
JATO project (let-Assisted Take-Off), 10
James, Lee B., 278-79, 280, 289, 399
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 18, 33, 130, 132
Johnson, Lyndon B., 31, 53, 54, 68 ill., 348, 369
Johnson, Roy W., 27, 31, 33, 38, 40, 44
Johnston, Herrick L., 131, 133, 147
Jones, Robert E., 390
Juno (launch vehicle), 18, 34
Juno II, 25, 36
Juno III, 27
Juno IV, 27
Juno V, 27-28, 31, 35, 36, 74, 76, 79, 191
Juno V-A, 37
Juno V-B, 37
Jupiter (IRBM missile), 14, 15, 16, 30, 35, 70, 77, 83, 91, 95, 99, 127, 195, 244, 350
Jupiter C (launch vehicle), 16 ill., 17, 18, 36
 
Kennedy, John F., 53-56, 67, 68 ill., 348
Kennedy Space Center (KSC), 3, 4, 6 ill., 184, 236 ill., 239, 332, 349, 351, 356 ill., 386, 390
Kerosene-based propellant, 5, 89, 99, 102, 105, 127, 129, 232, 386, 387
Kerwin, Joseph P., 384
Killian, James R., 27, 31
Killian committee, 27, 31
Klute, Dan, 113
Kroeger, Herman W., 311
Kubasov, Valery, N., 388
Kuers, Werner R., 219, 392
 
Lambert, H. L., 301
Land transport, 298-99, 300, 301, 318
Lange, Oswald H., 136, 210, 211, 275
Langley Research Center (LaRC), 44, 61-63
Launch Complex 34, 70, 338, 343 ill.
Launch Complex 37, 332, 334-35, 341
Launch Complex 39, 4, 6 ill., 11 ill., 223, 347, 356 ill., 365 ill., 385 ill.
pad A, 383
pad B, 383
Launch Operations Center (LOC), 70
Launch Operations Directorate (LOD), 70
Launch vehicle, 3-4, 17-21, 25-29, 33-41, 51-53, 56, 74. See also names of individual vehicles.
Launch window, 293, 367
Leonov, Aleksey A., 21, 388
LEV-3 (inertial guidance system), 242-43
Lewis Propulsion Laboratory, 44
Lewis Research Center (LeRC), 44, 79, 84 ill., 132-134, 136-138, 145, 153, 173
Liquid hydrogen, 8, 53, 127, 129-30, 184-85, 297
Centaur, used in, 36-37, 131, 133-35
J-2, used in, 127, 141, 144-45, 149-50, 177-82, 339-40, 345, 361
Lewis Laboratory research, 44, 132-33
RL-10, used in, 127, 137, 140, 144, 334
Saturn design, effect on, 44-47, 51, 58, 89, 134, 400
tanks, effect on, 147, 163-64, 167, 172, 174-78, 180, 192, 211-12
Liquid oxygen (LOX), 5, 8, 12, 132, 151 ill.
multistage rockets, used in, 44, 45, 85, 162, 177, 386
liquid hydrogen, used with, 44, 51, 145, 147, 162
tanks, effect on, 77, 144, 149, 164, 167, 177-78, 181, 185, 198-99, 200, 202, 211, 213
Little lake (barge), 305
Lockheed Aircraft (Corp., 210
Logistics Management Office (NASA Hq.), 296
Logistics program, 292-96, 300-01, 318, 319, 398
Lovell, James A., Jr., 367, 375
Low, George M., 63, 226, 365-66, 373 ill.
LOX. See Liquid oxygen.
LR-115 engine, 137
LR-119 engine, 137, 160
LSD (Navy Landing Ship, Dock), 305, 319 ill.
Lubricant, 147
Lucas, William R., Jr., 185, 396
Lunar excursion module (LEM), 5, 68, 83, 193
Lunar module (LM), 161, 163, 236, 341, 343, 344, 345, 368-69, 372
Lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR), 59-61, 63, 64 ill., 65-68, 83, 84, 161, 162, 349, 367, 400
Lunar roving vehicle, 376, 377 ill.
 
M-1 engine, 60
McDonnell Douglas Corp., 383, 386
McDivitt, James A., 368
McElroy, Neil H., 27
McKinsey and Co., 42
McNamara, Joseph P., 107
McNamara, Robert S., 68 ill.
Management, 261, 263-65, 272 ill., 290
NASA Hq-center relations, 257, 265, 270-271, 274-75
von Braun policies, 261, 263-65, 289, 291. See also GEM boxes, Government contractor relations, Reorganization, Schedule delay.
Manned earth orbital missions, 54, 160, 363, 364
 
Manned Flight Awareness Office, 279 ill., 283
Manned lunar landing, 7, 34, 36, 41, 48-49, 50, 52, 56, 57, 59, 65, 66, 83, 105, 161, 267, 336, 344, 357, 360, 364, 372, 381
Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), 62, 63, 65, 66, 70, 231, 313, 349, 390
Manned spaceflight, 7, 9, 19, 21, 32, 33, 51, 141, 349, 367
Mariner mission, 137
Marshall, Mrs. George C., 42, 43 ill.
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), 23, 42, 43 ill., 59, 71 ill., 210, 246 ill., 261, 302, 305, 310, 379, 396, 399, 400
NASA Hq, relations with, 160, 257, 266, 269-70
inhouse capabilities, 70-71, 74, 81, 85, 124, 136-37, 144, 192-93, 333
production facilities, relations wish, 68-73
research centers, relations with, 61-67, 79, 267, 390
Skylab program, 379, 382-83
testing program, 144, 148-49, 184, 188, 337, 349, 367. See also Government-contractor relations, Resident Manager's Office.
Mathews, Charles W., 373 ill.
Mattingly, Thomas K., 11, 375
Maus, Hans H., 38 ill., 65, 193
Mechling Barge Lines, Inc., 303, 304
Medaris, John B., 15, 31, 34
Mercury, Project, 19, 21, 61, 161, 294, 355
Meteoroids, 329, 330, 331, 334
Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), 68, 71-73, 75 ill., 84 ill., 208 ill., 301, 383, 385, 390
Boeing, used by, 166, 192, 194, 195, 196, 201-03, 206
Chrysler, used by, 81-82
Military rocketry, 9-16, 25, 31-32, 35, 39, 40, 41, 53, 137
Minuteman (ICBM missile), 349, 351
Missile, 9-17, 21, 25, 54, 161. See also names of individual missiles.
Mississippi Test Facility (MTF), 68, 72-74, 75 ill., 125, 144, 207, 208 ill., 221 ill., 229, 301, 306 ill., 390
F-1 testing, 125, 206-07, 363
J-2 testing, 216, 224, 363
Moog Industries, 182
Mrazek, William A., 29, 30, 31, 38 ill., 43, 45, 46, 65, 193, 307
Mueller, Fritz, 243
Mueller, George E., 226, 228-29, 276, 277 ill., 289, 334, 341, 360, 364, 366, 373 ill., 382
all-up concept, 348-51
GEM boxes, 270-71
Murphy, James T., 271
Muse, Thomas C., 45
Myers, Dale D., 225
 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), 19, 31-34, 68, 132, 134
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, 19, 32, 39, 54, 294
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 21, 32, 258 ill., 383, 398-400
booster program, 33-36, 39-43, 58-60
liquid hydrogen program, 44-47
NACA, created from, 18-19, 31-34
planning, 48, 50-53, 55, 57, 265. See also Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Apollo-Saturn Program, Budget (NASA), Contracts (NASA), Government-contractor relations, Manned lunar landing, Reorganization, Saturn program, and names of individual program offices.
Navaho (cruise missile), 13-14, 15, 16 ill.
Navaho project, 13-14, 15
Navy, U.S., 13, 15, 16, 17, 25, 27, 35, 130, 131, 211, 305
Nelson, Richard H., 194
Neubert, Erich W., 38 ill.
Noise, 80, 357
North American Aviation, Inc. (North American Rockwell Corp. from Sept. 1967), 73, 146, 283, 371
contracts, 209-11,
management problems, 225-32
production facilities, 166, 195, 212
production innovations, 213-15
production problems, 215, 217, 222, 230-33, 352
Nova (launch vehicle), 37, 39, 50-53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 67
Nozzles, 92-93, 121-22
 
Oberth, Hermann, 8, 9, 10 ill.
O'Connor, Edmund F., 188, 224, 225, 231, 254, 269, 289, 292, 295
Odishaw, Hugh, 58, 113
Office of Launch Vehicle Programs (NASA Hq.), 47
Office of Manned Space Flight (NASA Hq.), 63, 66, 113, 230, 275-76, 296, 366
Office of Program Planning and Evaluation (NASA Hq.), 51
Office of Space Sciences (NASA Hq.), 325
Orbital Workshop (Skylab), 126-27, 382, 383, 385 ill.
Ordnance Guided Missile Center, 15
Ostrander, Donald R., 48, 209
Oxidizers, 89, 91, 127, 149, 198-99
 
Paine, Thomas O., 366, 373 ill., 383
Palaemon (barge), 302-05, 306 ill., 307
Pall Corp., 138
Panama Canal, 309
Parker, William F., 228
Pearl River (barge), 305, 306 ill.
Pease, Robert E., 145, 150
Peenemuende, 11, 12, 291
Pegasus Meteoroid Project, 329-36, 337, 345
Pegasus I, 331-33, 334
Pegasus II, 333-34
Pegasus III, 333-35
Performance Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), 141, 286-88, 297
Phillips, Samuel C., 188, 254, 278, 289, 339, 373 ill.
and Apollo 4, 351-53
and Apollo 8, 364-65
and NASA budget, 188
and S-II program, 223, 230-32
Phillips report, 225-26
Piland, Robert O., 61
Pogo effect, 360-61, 362-63, 367, 368, 372
Point Barrow, (LSD), 305, 319 ill.
Polaris (missile), 16
Polyurethane insulation, 175
Posiedon (barge), 305, 306 ill., 307
Powell, James T., 247
Powell, Luther E., 253
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co., 134, 135-38, 139 ill., 145, 152, 160, 189
Pregnant Guppy (cargo aircraft), 310-13, 315, 316 ill., 317-18
Prentice, R. W., 310
President's Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC), 53, 67, 68, 113, 225
Priem, Richard J., 114
Program Control Center (MSFC), 283-85, 286 ill., 287-88, 289, 290-91, 292, 399
Program Control Office (GEM box), 273
Project Logistics Office (MSFC), 296, 303
Promise (barge), 305, 307
Propellant dispersion system (PDS), 255
Propellant utilization probe (PU probe), 181-82
Propellant utilization system (PU system), 177, 180-82, 338
Propellant, 7, 8, 11, 14, 25, 93
cryogenic, 89, 127, 129, 145, 149, 165, 174, 175, 177, 181, 182, 184, 188, 216, 345
gaseous, 89, 129
kerosene-based, 5, 89, 99, 102, 105, 127, 129, 232, 386-87
liquid, 7, 8, 36, 44-49, 51, 77, 107, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135, 137, 386, 400
Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory (MSFC), 328
Public Affairs Office (NASA Hq.), 353
 
Quality and Reliability Laboratory (MSFC), 367
Quality control, 183, 281-83, 366-67
F-1, 108, 109-100
H-1, 102-04
tank, 165, 207, 231-32
welding, 186, 217, 230
Quarles, Donald A., 40
 
 

Raborn, William F., Jr., 284

RD-107 (Russian propulsion system), 386-87
RD-108, 386-87
Redstone (missile), 14, 15, 17, 19, 77, 83, 94, 141, 182, 195, 244, 350
Redstone (launch vehicle), 19, 20 ill., 21
Redstone Arsenal, 14-15, 30, 42, 69, 70, 311, 390
Redstone program, 15, 327
Rees, Eberhard F.M., 38 ill., 62, 158, 226, 230, 264-65, 277, 281, 282, 289, 296, 339, 350
Reliability and Quality Office (GEM box), 274
Reorganization: Douglas Aircraft, 278-80
NASA, 266-67, 269-71, 291
North American, 233-32
Research and Development Operations (R&DO, MSFC.), 269, 270, 274, 286, 289, 290
Research Institute, University of Alabama, 395 ill.
Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight (Goett Committee), 41
Resident Managers Office (RMO), 277-78, 283
Rigi-mesh, 138, 145
RL-10 engine, 87, 127, 139 ill, 144, 326 ill., 334, 336
Centaur used in, 134, 188
J-2, contributions to, 144, 147, 153
S-IV stage, used in, 137-38, 140, 188-89, 325 See also Cluster concept.
Rocketdyne Div., North American Aviation, Inc. (North American Rockwell Corp from Sept. 1967). 15, 26, 76, 105 ill., 126 ill., 151 ill., 191-200, 280, 344, 361-62, 398
contracts, 29, 97, 104-05, 106, 141. 143, 148
production facilities, 98, 142-43
production innovations, 101, 118, 120 -21
production problems, 101-04, 111-16
testing, 107, 111, 115, 1223-24, 126, 142, 147, 152-53
Rockets, early, 7-14
Rosen, Milton W., 36, 39, 63, 65, 192, 193, 195
RP-I (kerosene-based propellant), 5, 89, 164, 177, 192, 232:
F-1, used in, 105, 107-08, 114-20, 127, 200,
H-1, used in, 99, 102, 127
tanks, effect on. 192-93, 198
Rudolph, Arthur, 223. 273 ill., 293, 297. 351, 364, 399:
and AS-501, 351-54, 357
and S-II program, 226, 231
management policies, 270-71, 275, 283-84, 288, 290-92
Ruud, Ralph II., 219, 231
 
Sacramento Test Facility (SACTO , Douglas Aircraft Co.), 184-87, 280
Safety, 141, 185, 227. 229, 231
Salyut space station, 381, 387
Sanchini, Dominick, 110
Santa Susanna Field Laboratory, 142
SA-T (test booster stage), 79-80
Satellites, 17, 47, 161, .330
communications, 35, 38, 134, 394
weather-, 25, 35, 135, 394
Saturn (launch vehicle), 21, 23, 56, 90 ill., 92, 99, 183, 396
in civilian programs, 39-41, 57
in military programs, 38-40, 57
nomenclature 28, 36, 37, 60, 106, 161
Saturn A:
A-1, 47, 49
A-2, 47, 44
Saturn B, 28 ill., 43
B-1, 47, 49
Saturn C, 28 ill., 43
C-I, 48, 49, 51-53, 58, 59, 60 ill., 137, 160, 161, 209. See also Saturn 1.
C-IB, 59-60, 143, 160, 161. See also Saturn IB.
C-2, 28 ill., 48, 49, 51-53, 57, 58, 209, 210
C-3, 28 ill., 48, 49, 58, 63, 210
C-4, 28 ill., 58, 157
C-5, 58-59, 60 ill., 65, 67, 160, 161, 162, 192. See also Saturn V.
Saturn I, 3, 23, 28 ill., 30 ill, 61 ill., 70, 83-85, 139 ill., 161 ill.. 183, 321-29, 331-36, 338, 381
design, 74-79, 189, 191, 324-27. 345
engines, 95, 97-98, 101, 137, 157, 256, 336
guidance system, 243-45, 249, 329, 349
liquid hydrogen fuel, 87, 89, 91, 325, 400
production, 196, 265, 299, 399
testing, 79-81, 323, 337. See also Air transport, Land transport, Pegasus project, Water transport .
Saturn IB, 3, 20 ill., 23, 28 ill., 61 ill., 77, 84 ill., 85, 126-27, 155, 161 ill., 169 ill., 179 ill., 209. 278, 291, 306 ill., 316 ill.. 321, 342 ill., 345, 377, 385 ill., 389 ill.
and ASTP program, 388-89
design 38, 157, 162, 189, 191, 337-38
engines, 87, 94, 97, 98, 103. 143, 256, 338, 339
guidance system, 244, 245, 247. 249 254, 329, 339, 344
liquid hydrogen fuel, 89, 91, 400
production, 71, 83, 185-86, 196, 266:
and Skylab program, 382-83
testing, 38, 148, 338. See also Air transport, All-up concept, Land transport, Water transport.
Saturn IB Program Office (MSFC.). 270
Saturn V, ii ill., 3-4, 7, 20 ill., 23, 28 ill., 61 ill., 70, 75 ill., 85, 126-27, 161 ill.. 197 ill.. 271, 297, 321, 354-55, 365 ill., 367-71, 378, 381
design, 157, 177, 189, 278, 288, 372, 400
engines, 87, 89, 101, 123, 125, 143, 148, 256, 339, 354, 357, 376-77
guidance system, 155, 241, 243-45, 247-49, 329, 357-59
liquid hydrogen fuel, 89, 91, 162, 400
production, 71, 185-86
and Skylab program, 379, 382
testing, 73, 188, 338, 345. See also Air transport, All-up concept, Manned lunar landing, Noise, Pogo effect, Quality control, Schedule delays, ST-124, Water transport, Welding.
Saturn V Program Office (MSFC), 270-71, 273, 286 ill., 290-92 See also Government-contractor relations, Program Control Center, Quality control
Saturn 500-F (interim facilities test vehicle), 351-52
Saturn-Apollo space vehicle (See also Apollo Saturn IB and V):
SA-1 (Saturn 1), 98, 304-05, 323-24, 326, 327, 328
SA-2, 324, 325, 336
SA-3, 324, 325
SA-4, 324, 326 ill., 328
SA-5, 185, 244, 312, 323, 324, 326 ill., 327. 328
SA-6, 104, 327, 328, 329, 338
SA-7, 101, 104, 327, 329, 331
SA-8, 327, 331, 338, 334
SA-9, 244, 327, 331, 332
SA-10, 326, 327, 335
SA-201 (Saturn IB), 97
SA-202, 97
SA-203, 97
SA-204, 97
SA-205, 97
SA-206, 97
SA-209, 389
SA-211, 389
SA-514 (Saturn V), 389
SA-515, 389
Saturn Apollo Systems Integration office (MSFC), 266
Saturn Booster Branch (Michoud Assembly Facility), 194
Saturn program, 39, 42, 47, 50-52, 59, 240, 272 ill., 262-63, 294, 400
contributions, 379, 397-99
cryogenics. advanced by, 134, 136-37, 143, 161-62, 398. See also F-1 engine, Government-contractor relations, H-l engine, Management, Reorganization, Schedule delay.
Saturn stages:
S-I, 58, 77, 81, 82 ill., 89, 185, 189, 244, 325-27
Chrysler product, 83, 331, 333
MSFC product, 81, 334
S-IB, 77, 83, 89, 98, 102-03, 126, 148, 189
S-IC, 5, 6 ill., 75 ill., 89, 106, 111 ill., 127, 155, 189, 190, 197 ill., 205 ill., 208 ill., 212, 300 ill., 306 ill., 344. 352;
flight performance, 212, 344, 357
proportions, 191-92, 196, 201, 206, 222. 354, 398
RP-I fuel, 164, 192, 200, 232
testing, 69, 71-72, 73, 74, 196, 207, 209
S-II, 5, 6 ill., 58, 69, 127, 143, 155, 162, 189, 190, 191-92, 220-21 ill., 303 ill., 306 ill., 319 ill., 353, 398, 399;
destruction of, 224, 229-30
flight performance, 212, 233, 357-58, 360-61, 367-68, 370-71;
liquid hydrogen fuel, 43, 89, 209, 211
testing, 73, 74, 223-24
S-IV, 48, 49, 77, 81, 137, 139 ill., 161 ill., 169 ill., 182, 184, 189-90, 316 ill., 319 ill., 326 ill., 382
destruction of, 185, 186
flight performance, 183-84, 328
liquid hydrogen fuel, 89, 163-64, 325
S-IVB, 5, 83, 89, 143, 155, 157, 161 ill., 169 ill., 179 ill., 183, 186, 187 ill., 279 ill., 306 ill., 316 ill., 319 ill., 374
design, 162-64, 190, 212, 222.
flight performance, 144, 147, 338-40, 343-44, 358-59, 361-62, 367-69, 371, 375
liquid hydrogen fuel, 164, 174
testing, 148-49, 184, 188
S-V, 48, 58, 137, 159, 265, 324, 325
Saturn Systems office (SSO, MSFC), 265-66, 270
Saturn Vehicle Team (Silverstein committee), 45, 47-51, 140
Schedule delay, 52-53, 68, 153, 160, 209, 223-32, 349, 352-54, 364-65, 376
Scheer, Julian W., 353
Schirra, Walter M., 343, 344
Schmidt, Dalton M., 238
Schneider, William C., 347, 357
Schomburg, August, 42
Schriever, Bernard A., 34, 228
Schweickart, Russell L., 368
Schwenk, Francis C., 47
Scott, David R., 368
Seal Beach Production Facilities, 69, 212, 215, 221 ill.
Seamans, Robert C., Jr., 55, 63, 67, 68, 113, 160, 312, 351
Shea, Joseph F., 65, 66, 226
Shepard, Alan B., 19, 20 ill.
Sidey, Hugh, 55
Siebel, Mathias P., 202, 262 ill.
Silverstein, Abe, 41, 44, 45, 46 ill., 62, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137
Silverstein committee. See Saturn Vehicle Team. Skylab, 291, 317, 379, 381-85
Skylab 4, 385 ill.
Skylab program, 126, 127, 383-84
Slayton, Donald K., 389
Slidell Computer Facility, 68, 72, 390
Sloop, John L., 132, 133, 134
Smith, Robert G., 287
Smith, Ted, 167, 189
Smith, Whitney G., 201
Smithsonian Institution, 332
Smolensky, Stanley M., 296
Sneed, Bill H., 267, 291
Solar cells, 332, 384
Solar Div. International Harvester Co., 102, 254
Sorensen, Theodore C., 54
Sounding rockets, 14, 17
Soviet Union, 18, 53, 54, 55, 381, 386, 387, 388, 400
Soyuz spacecraft, 381, 387, 389 ill.
Soyuz 10, 381
Soyuz 11, 381
Space and Information Systems Div. (S&ID), North American, 222, 223, 224-27, 231
Space race, 17, 19, 21, 33, 53, 54, 55, 104, 381, 401
Space Shuttle, 291, 400
Space Task Group (STG, forerunner of MSC), 61, 62, 63
Sparkman, John J., 390
Speer, Fridtjof A., 323
Spent stage laboratory. See Orbital Workshop.
Spider beam, 78, 82 ill.
Sputnik I, 18, 26, 381, 386
Sputnik II, 18
ST-80 stabilized platform, 243
ST-90 guidance platform, 243. 244, 245
ST-142 stabilized platform, 243, 244 ill., 245, 248, 249, 251, 253
Stafford, Thomas P., 368, 369, 389
Stever, H. Guyford, 33, 34
Stewart, Donald L., 317
Stewart, Homer J., 51
Stoner, George H., 194, 195
Storms, Harrison A., 225, 227, 229, 230, 231
Stress corrosion, 101
Studhalter, W. R., 150
Stuhlinger, Ernst, 38 ill., 74, 335
Super Guppy (cargo aircraft), 314-15, 316 ill., 317-18
Super-Jupiter (launch vehicle), 25-27
Surveyor mission, 137
Sutton, George P., 45
Sweat, Sidney J., 253
Swigert, John L., Jr., 375
Symington, Stuart, 390
Systems Engineering Office (GEM box), 274
 
Tank, 29, 30 ill., 81, 82 ill., 122, 155, 169 ill., 180, 187 ill., 195, 354
design, 76-78, 146-47, 164-65, 177, 199, 211-12, 213, 387-88
problem phases, 185, 218-19, 223, 231, 282, 324;
production techniques, 166-68, 170-71, 206, 213-14, 216
pressurization of, 144, 177-78, 180, 198, 211-17. See also Cluster concept, Insulation, Propellant utilization system.
Taurus (LSD), 305
Technology transfer, 379, 394-396
Technology utilization program, 397
Teflon, 102, 353
Television, 327, 347, 356, 357, 368, 369-70
Test Office (GEM box), 273
Testing, 187 ill., 236, 238, 282, 353, 358
flight, 184, 323
ground, 183, 184, 196, 347
hydrostatic, 171, 206, 223
load, 195, 206
static test firing, 148, 149, 184, 187, 188, 206, 216, 230, 367
test stands, 186, 206, 207
x-ray tests, 170-71, 206
Thompson, Jerry, 113, 145
Thor (IRBM Missile), 14, 17, 19, 309
in civilian programs, 21, 34
adapted to Saturn program, 91, 95, 127, 141, 164-65, 177, 189-90
Thor (launch vehicle), 19, 21, 25
Thor-Able (launch vehicle), 36, 101
Thor-Agena, 61 ill.
Thor-Delta, 61 ill., 240
Thor-Jupiter engine (S-3D), 29, 95, 97, 100
Thrust chamber, 16, 119, 122 ill., 145
Tiny Tim (air-to-ground rocket), 11
Titan (ICBM missile), 17, 21, 34, 35, 37, 43, 44
Titan (launch vehicle), 17, 43, 44, 161, 361, 388
Titan C, 39
Titan I, 36, 91
Titan II, 20 ill., 61 ill., 243, 349
Titov, Gherman S., 20
Transport. See Air transport, Land transport, Water transport.
Trott, Jack, 201
Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin E., 8, 129-30
Tugboat, 303, 304, 307, 308
Turbopump, 93, 94 ill., 116-17, 118, 119, 146
Tyson, Overton S., 188
 
Unexcelled Chemical Corp., 317
United Aircraft Corp., 134
Urlaub, Matthew W., 194, 207, 209, 263
U.S.S. Hornet (Apollo 11 recovery ship), 372
 
V-2 (rocket), 9, 12, 14, 15, 16 ill., 91, 195, 242, 244, 350, 386, 400
Vanguard (launch vehicle), 16 ill., 18, 19, 34, 36, 91, 141, 236
Vanguard I (satellite), 16 ill., 19
Vanguard, Project, 17-18, 19, 26
Venus (planet), 54
Viking (launch vehicle stage), 17
Viking (sounding rocket), 17
Vladimirov, Leonid, 387, 388
Vogt, Paul, 231
von Braun, Werner, 10 ill., 20 ill., 38 ill., 68 ill., 69, 262 ill., 277 ill., 287, 373 ill.
ABMA research, 26, 28, 33-34, 37
all-up concept doubts, 348, 350-51
early career, 11, 14-15
Huntsville, influence on, 391-95
liquid hydrogen fuel doubts, 44-46, 400
management policies, 62, 261-67, 287, 289-90, 293-94
MSFC director, 42, 57, 124, 245-46, 355, 357, 359-61, 391
Pegasus program evaluation, 334, 336, 337
Pregnant Guppy, support for, 310-11
schedule delay handling, 157-58, 223-24, 227-29, 231, 364, 366
von Braun team, 14, 38 ill., 56, 259, 261, 391
ABMA research, 18, 23, 27-28, 31, 33
conservatism, 15, 333-34, 349
contractor relations, 82, 266
inertial guidance development, 242, 244
NASA, transfer to, 21, 40-42, 44, 69
von Karman, Theodore H., 130
Voshkod 1, 21
Voshkod 11, 22
Vostok launch vehicle, 387
Vostok (satellite), 387
Vostok I, 19
Vostok II, 20
 
Wac Corporal (sounding rocket), 11, 14
Water transport, 253-54, 293, 298, 301, 302, 318
Webb, James E., 54, 55, 67, 68 ill., 210, 288, 290-91, 348, 353, 366, 399
Weidner, Hermann K., 141, 268
Welding, 186, 221 ill., 396-97
defects, 103, 207, 224, 230, 254, 282, 352
innovations, 202-03, 218-19, 222
quality control, 191, 194, 212, 217, 282
techniques, 118, 166-67, 170, 191, 195
"Wet workshop." See Orbital Workshop.
White, Edward H., 11, 231
White Sands Proving Ground, N. Mex., 14, 16 ill.
Wiesman, Walter F., 393
Wiesner, Jerome B., 53, 67, 68 ill.
Williams, Frank L., 264, 350
Wilson, Earl, 188-89
Wilson, Norm, 218
 
XLR-15 engine. See RL-10 engine.
Xerox, 287
 
Yarchin, Sam, 224, 226, 230, 231
York, Herbert F., 38, 39
Young, John W., 368
Young, Robert, 269, 289, 350