Source Notes

[291-292] Chapter 4: Hydrogen Technology from Thermonuclear Research



1. Edward Teller with Allen Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962), chap. 3; Herbert York, Race to Oblivion; A Participant's View of the Arms Race (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970), p. 35; Richard G. Hewlett and Francis Duncan, Atomic Shield, 1947-1952, vol. 2 of A History of the Atomic Energy Commission (University Park: Penn. State Univ. Press, 1969).


2. Interview with Dr. Willard P. Berggren, Univ. of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT, 21 Mar. 1974; interview with William L. Doyle, Redondo Beach, CA, 26 Apr. 1974, and addendum submitted by Doyle, 8 Nov. 1974.


3. Telephone interview with Dr. David White, Philadelphia, 18 June 1974; Doyle interview.


4. Eduard Farber, Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry, 1901-1961, rev. ed. (New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1963), pp. 208-11.


5. Interview with Dr. Bernard Rubin, NASA, Washington, 23 Jan. 1974. Rubin took undergraduate chemistry courses from Prof. Johnston.


6. White interview; telephone interview with Prof. Clyde A. Hutchinson, Chicago, 23 June 1974; interview with Prof. Thor A. Rubin, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, 5 June 1974; Dr. Ed Mack, Jr., to Dean W. Paul Hudson, Graduate School, 5 June 1952, OSU Archives.


7. Johnston file, OSU Archives; Rubin interview.


8. White interview; interview with Arthur A. Brooke, OSU, 5 June 1974; interview with Gwynne A. Wright, Howard A. Altman, and Charles Weisend, CV1 Corp., Columbus, 4 June 1974.


9. Brooke interview; Wright, Altman, and Weisend interview.


10. Johnston file, OSU Archives.


11. Wright, Altman, and Weisend interview; Johnston file, OSU Archives.


12. Johnston file, OSU Archives; Wright, Altman, and Weisend interview; York, Race to Oblivion, p. 40.


13. Rexmond C. Cochrane, Measures for Progress: A History of the National Bureau of Standards (Washington: GPO, 1966), pp. 83-84.


14. F. G. Brickwedde, "A Few Remarks on the Beginning of the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory," Cryogenic Engineering Conference, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO, 8-10 Sept. 1954, in K. D. Timmerhaus, ed., Advances in Cryogenic Engineering (New York: Plenum Press, 1960), 1:1-4; Cochrane, Measures for Progress, p. 446.


15. Brickwedde, "A Few Remarks," pp. 2-3.


16. "Research Facilities of the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory," Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 1:5-22.


17. C. B. Hood, Jr., H. W. Altman, M. L. Yeager, N. C. Hallett and L. D. Wagner, "The Herrick L. Johnston Air Tactical Dewar," Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 1:44-48; B. W. Birmingham, E. H. Brown, C. R. Class, and A. F. Schmidt, "Experimental Dewars Developed by the National Bureau of Standards," Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 1:49-61.


18. Wright, Altman, and Weisend interview.


19. T. Stearns, D. J. Sandell, and J. S. Burlew, "The Refrigerated Transport Dewar," Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 1:35-40.


20. H. L. Johnston, C. B. Hood, Jr., H. W. Altman, J. G. Pierce, and C. W. Weisend, "Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Plant," Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 1:324-28.


21. Wright, Altman, and Weisend interview.


22. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, vol. 1.


23. Ibid., vol. 2.


24. Ibid., vol. 3, K. D. Timmerhaus, ed. (New York: Plenum Press, 1960).


25. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, vols. 4-6, K. D. Timmerhaus, ed. (New York: Plenum Press, 1960-1961). The growth of cryogenic technology during the 1950s is summarized by Russel B. Scott, Cryogenic Engineering (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1959). Technology and Uses of Liquid Hydrogen (New York: Macmillan, 1964), edited by Scott, is an excellent collection on liquid hydrogen technology.


26. A textbook, Nuclear Rocket Propulsion by R. W. Bussard and R. D. Delauer, was published in 1958 (New York: McGraw-Hill). Bussard, a nuclear rocket pioneer, and DeLauer do not cover the history of nuclear rockets. That has been ably done by a latter-day James Dewar in a doctoral thesis: James Arthur Dewar. "Project Rover: A Study of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. 1953-1963." Ph.D. dissertation, History Dept., Kansas State Univ., Feb. 1974.