Source Notes

[296-298] Chapter 7: New Initiatives in High-Altitude Aircraft



1. Col. John D. Seaberg (USAF ret.) to author, 28 June 1976.


2. U.S. Air Force, Wright Field, "Design Study Requirements," 27 Mar. 1953, declassified 6 July 1976.


3. Fairchild, Hagerstown, MD, AF 33(616)-2182, 1 July-31 Dec. 1953; Bell Aircraft, Niagara Falls, NY, AF 33(616)-2160, 1 Jul-31 Dec. 1953: G. L, Martin. Baltimore, AF 33 (600)-25825, 1 Jul.-31 Dec. 1953; information supplied by John D. Seaberg, 20 July 1976.


4. Weekly reports, New Developments Off., Bombardment Aircraft Br., Wright Air Development Center, 2, 23 Feb. 1954 (declassified by USAF 7 July 1976).


5. Weekly report, New Developments Off., 23 Mar. 1954.


6. Travel confirmation sheet, John D. Seaberg, 12 Nov. 1954; Lt. Gen. T. S. Power to Maj. John D. Seaberg, 14 June 1955, with attachments; Seaberg to author. 28 June 1976.


7. Seaberg to author, 28 June 1976.


8. Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1965), pp. 544-48. See also interview of Richard Bissell as quoted by George C. Wilson in the Washington Post, 6 Jan. 1975.


9. Interview with Lt. Gen. Donald L. Putt (USAF ret.), Atherton, CA, 30 Apr. 1974. Putt was deputy chief of staff for development.


10. Clarence L. Johnson to Monte D. Wright, NASA History Office, 12 May 1976.


11. Eisenhower, White House Years, 1956-1961, p. 548. Eisenhower commented that "NASA was purposely kept in the dark as to the unit's intelligence activities." NACA Press Release 7 May 1956, -NACA Announces Start of New Research Program."


12. Interviews with Randolph S. Rae, Silver Spring, MD, 15-16 Apr. 1974.


13. Interview with Homer J. Wood, Sherman Oaks, CA, 3 May 1974.


14. Lt. Col. L. F. Ayers, statement on the Rex engine project, 13 Aug. 1956, tab 27 of "Addendum to Case History of Garrett Contract (07-58669)," a file in the Archives of the Command Historian, Hq. Air Force Systems Command, Andrews AFB, MD; cited hereafter as USAF Garrett File. The author examined this classified file and excerpted a chronology which has been declassified by the USAF.


15. "REX-1, A New Aircraft System" by R. S. Rae, Summers Gyroscope Co., Santa Monica. CA, Feb. 1954. Copies are in the files of R. P. Carmichael, Dir. of Advanced Systems Design, WADC, Wright Patterson AFB, OH, and of H. J. Wood, Consultant, Sherman Oaks, CA.


16. "The REX-I Propulsion System," Summers Gyroscope Co., Santa Monica, CA, I Mar. 1954; copy no. 48 is in the files of Mr. Rae.


17. To WSCP, Attn: Mr. E. B. Bell, from WCLPP, comment no. 2 by W. Worth, R. E. Roy, R. P, Carmichael on "Project REX-1 Proposal from Summers Gyroscope Co.," 21 May 1954. Draft of incomplete document in the files of R. P. Carmichael, Wright Patterson AFB, OH.


18. Interviews with Rae, 15-16 Apr. 1974.


19. J. M. Wickham, "A Hydrogen Powered Strategic Bomber." Boeing Airplane Co.. Apr. 1954, as quoted by Worth. Roy, and Carmichael. 21 May 1954.


20. A. D. Baxter, "Investigation of Walter-Werke, Kiel." tech. note no. Aero 1667. Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Aug. 1945, A. M. Nelson, "Cycle Study of Rocket Driven Turbine Compressor Engine," memo. report TSEPP-506-151. 3 Dec. 1946, in files of Dir. of Advanced Systems Design. WADC, Wright-Patterson AFB. OH. The Sept. 1953 proposal by W. C. House to the Air Force is mentioned in a WADC staff reply to a letter by the Garrett Corp. to Sec. of the Air Force Sharp on 3 July 1956 (tab 25 of USAF Garrett file), The information on House is from a letter to the author from House, 22 May 1974, and an attached. undated brochure. "Air-Turborocket ATR Supersonic Engine," Aerojet General Corp. House believes that the brochure was prepared , "around 1964."


21. Tab 3 of USAF Garrett file.


22. Tab 4a, tab 25, and staff reply to Garrett's letter to Sharp. 3 July 1956. USAF Garrett file.


23. Tab 6, USAF Garrett file.


24. Statement by Lt. Col. L. F. Ayers, 13 Aug. 1956, tab 27. USAF Garrett file.


25. "Minutes of Meeting of Fuels and Propulsion Panel of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, USAF, Pentagon"; information on hydrogen excerpted by author 17 June and declassified by USAF 8 Aug. 1974.


26. Rae interviews, 15-16 Apr. 1974.


27. Ibid.; Wood interview, 3 May 1974.


28. According to Philip J. Richie, Dir. of Procurement. Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, in a memo for the record 9 May 1956, Richie noted that Clifford Garrett, in discussions with Air Force officials, repeatedly stated that he did not want to buy into the Rex interest unless he could stay all the way. According to Richie, Garrett was assured "on all levels" that this would be the case: tab 21, USAF Garrett file.


29. Philip J. Richie, "Rex Program Procurement," 1-7 Dec. 1955, reference 13 in USAF Garrett file.


30. Ibid.


31. "Minutes of Meeting of Fuels and Propulsion Panel of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board," Mar. 1955, reproduced Apr. 1956. Excerpts related to hydrogen made by the author and declassified by the USAF 8 Aug. 1974.


32, Interview with Richard E. Homer, Washington, 13 Mar. 1974. Horner was Asst. Sec. of the Air Force for R&D.


33. Ibid.


34. nter-view with Col. Norman C. Appold (USAF ret.), Marietta. GA, 4 Jan. 1974.


35. Richie, "Rex Procurement," 27 Dec. 1955.


36. Project record book of Frank Patella, Power Plant Lab., Wright Air Development Center, extracted 21 Aug. 1956, tab 26. USAF Garrett file.


37. Staff reply to Garrett letter to Sec. Sharp. 3 July 1956, tab 25, USAF Garrett file.


38. Tab 26, USAF Garrett file.


39. Ibid.


40. Tab 10, USAF Garrett file.


41. Tab 26, USAF Garrett file.


42. Lt. Col. Ayers's statement of Aug. 1956. tab 27, USAF Garrett file.


43. Tab 26, USAF Garrett file.


44. Memo by E. C. Phillips, 16 Aug. 1955. tab 12. USAF Garrett file.


45. Tabs 26, 14. 15, 27, USAF Gariett file; Richie. "Rex Procurement.- 27 Dec. 1955.


46. According to Aaron Shaffer in a group interview with John L. Mason and Harvar Starck of the Garrett Corp., Los Angeles, and George E. Hlavka, Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena. at the Garrett Corp., 25 Apr. 1974.


47. George Hlavka, Garrett group interview, 25 Apr. 1974.


48. The Garrett problem statement of 7 Nov. 1955 is quoted in Lockheed report 11195, which is appendix F of Garrett report RD-14-R, 15 Feb. 1956.


49. Lockheed report 11195. appendix F. Garrett report RD- 14-R, 15 Feb, 1956.


50. Garrett's selection of the Rex III was reported to the Air Force on 15 Feb. 1956 (report RD-14-R). However, Frank Patella, the Power Plant Laboratory manager for the Garrett contract, sensed on 21 Nov. 1955 that Garrett had chosen the Rex 111. The Garrett data to Lockheed Aircraft on 7 Nov. 1955 also indicated a selection of Rex 111. J. L. Bartlett, Jr., L. M. Goldsmith, and Aaron Shaffer, "Rex Engine Cycle Study and Selection," contract AF 33 (616)3143 task 30303, report RD-14-R, Rex Div., Garrett Corp., 15 Feb. 1956; Patella log, USAF Garrett file; Lockheed report 11195. Included as appendix F of Garrett report RD-14-R.


51. Aaron Shaffer, Garrett group interview, 25 Apr. 1974.


52. Tab 26, USAF Garrett file.


53. Ibid.


54. Tab 20, USAF Garrett file.


55. Tab 19, USAF Garrett file.


56. Tab 21, USAF Garrett file.


57. Tabs 22 and 26, USAF Garrett file.


58. Tabs 27, 25, and 24, USAF Garrett file.


59. J. L. Bartlett, Jr., 1. M. Goldsmith, and A. Shaffer, "Rex Engine Cycle Study and Selection," contract AF 33 (616)3143, task 30303, report RD-14-R, Rex Div., Garrett Corp., Los Angeles, 15 Feb. 1956.


60. G. Hlavka, "Rex Model 301-1 Engine Preliminary Design Report," contract AF 33 (616)-3143, task 30303, report RD-21-D. Rex Div., Garrett Corp., Los Angeles, 11 May 1956.


61. G. E. Hlavka and H. G. Starck, "Phase III Final Report," contract AF 33 (616)3143, report RD-97-R, Rex Div., Garrett Corp., Los Angeles, 3 Mar. 1958.


62. Tab 27, USAF Garrett file.


63. "Minutes of Meeting of Panel on Fuels and Propulsion, USAF Scientific Advisory Board," 21 Oct. 1955.


64. R. P. Carmichael, "Cycle Performance of Some Selected Engine Configurations Using Liquid Hydrogen Fuel," technical note 55-687, Power Plant Laboratory, Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, 8 Nov. 1955; interview with R. P. Carmichael, Dir. of Advance Systems Design, AFSC, Wright-Patterson AFB, 6 June 1974.