Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience
 

Source Notes: Chapter Nine

 
 
1. C.H. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report. Simulation of Manned Space Flight for Crew Training, NASA MSC-07036, 1972, p. 2.
 
2. Interview with John Erickson, Johnson Space Center, June 14, 1983.
 
3. Interview with Robert Emull, Johnson Space Center, June 16, 1983.
 
4. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 6.
 
5. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 47.
 
6. H.I. Johnson, Facilities for Manned Spacecraft Development Simulation and Training, NASA Fact Sheet 132, Houston, TX, Manned Spacecraft Center, February 1963, Johnson Space Center History Office, p. 4.
 
7. N.R. Cooper, "X- 15 flight Simulation Program," Aerospace Engineering, 77 (November 1961).
 
8. D.K. Slayton, Apollo Computer Software Report, memorandum, Manned Spacecraft Center Houston, TX, June 20, 1967, Johnson Space Center History Office; Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 48 Interview with Ken Office; Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 48; Intervie with Ken Mansfield, Johnson Space Center, June 1, 1983.
 
9. Interview with Ray Palikowsky, Singer, Johnson Space Center, June 10, 1983.
 
10. Mansfield interview, June 1,1983.
 
11. Erickson interview, June 14, 1983.
 
12. A.W. Vogeley, Piloted Spaceflight Simulation at Langley Research Center, NASA-TM-X-59598, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, 1966, p. 11.
 
13. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 3.
 
14. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 50.
 
15. Ivan Ertel, News release, September 21,1966, Johnson Space Center.
 
16. J.L. Raney, Feasibility StudyóUse of a Simulated AGC in the Apollo Trainers, February 24,1966, p. 4, Johnson Space Center History Office.
 
17. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report, p. 49.
 
18. Interview with James Raney, Johnson Space Center, May 31, 1983.
 
19. Woodling et al., Apollo Experience Report. p. 10.
 
20. Mansfield interview, June l, 1983.
 
21. Raney interview, May 31, 1983.
 
22. Warren J. North, memorandum to chief, Computational Analysis Division, "Simulation of Spacecraft Guidance Computer in the CM and LEM Mission Simulators," April 5, 1966, files of James Raney.
 
23. Raney, Use of a Simulated AGC In the Apollo Trainers, February 24, 1966.
 
24. Raney interview, May 31, 1983; Raney, ISCMC, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, April 1, 1969, Johnson Space enter History Office, pp. 5,11, 13, 14; Raney, Use of a Simulated AGC In the Apollo Trainers, February 24, 1966.
 
25. Interview with Stan Mann, Johnson Space Center, June 8, 1983.
 
26. Palikowsky interview, June 10, 1983.
 
27. A.C. Bond, Training and Simulation Requirements for Future Programs, memorandum, October 23, 1969, Johnson Space Center History Office.
 
28. R.F. Thompson, Shuttle Engineering/ Training Manned Simulation Program Definition, memorandum, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, TX, September 9, 1970, Johnson Space Center History Office.
 
29. Raney interview, May 31, 1983.
 
30. Erickson interview; June 14, 1983.
 
31. Singer Corp., Shuttle Mission Simulator Requirements Report, vol. II, Rev. C, December 21, 1973.
 
32. Raney interview, May 31, 1983.
 
33. Raney interview, May 31, 1983.
 
34. Erickson interview, June 14, 1983.
 
35. Raney interview, May 31, 1983.
 
36. Erickson interview, June 14, 1983.
 
37. Emull interview, June 16,1983; Raney interview, May 31, 1983.
 
38. Emull interview, June 16, 1983.
 
39. J. Boehm and H.H. Hosenthien, "Flight Simulation of Rockets and Spacecraft," in From Peenemunde to Outer Space, eds. E. Stuhlinger, et al., Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, March 23, 1962, p. 437.
 
40. See James E. Tomayko, "Helmut Hoelzer's Fully Electronic Analog Computer, Ann. Hist. Comput., 7(3)227-240 (July, 1985).
 
41. W.K. Polstroff and F.L. Vinz, "General-Purpose Simulation At Marshall Spaceflight Center," Presented to American Institute of Aeronaut. and Astronaut. Working Group on Flight Simulation Facilities at Marietta, Georgia, April 22, 1974, pp. 1-4; Interview with Jack Lucas, Marshall Space Center, June 21, 1983.
 
42. Lucas interview, June 21, 1983; Polstroff and Vinz, "General-Purpose Simulation At Marshall Spaceflight Center," April 22, 1974, p. 9.
 
43. Interview with Frank Vinz, Marshall Space Center, June 21, 1983.
 
44. P.W. Hampton and H.G. Vick, Space Shuttle Main Engine Hardware Simulation, Marshall Spaceflight Center, Huntsville, AL, no date, pp. 1,2,7,8.
 
45. T.V. Chambers, "Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory," AIAA Paper, 1977, p. 212.
 
46. Mansfield interview, June l, 1983.
 
47. Chambers, "Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory," 1977, pp. 219-220.
 
48. J.T.B. Mayer, "The Space Shuttle Vehicle Checkout Involving Flight Avionics Software," AIAA Paper no. 1981-2141, pp. 174-l75.
 
49. Chambers, "Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory," 1977, p. 216.
 
50. Mansfield interview, June 1, 1983.
 
51. Kenneth R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, p. 389. Castleman's book contains an excellent short history of the development of image processing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in his Appendix I, pp. 383-400, including an effective selected bibliography.
 
52. Interview with Robert Nathan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, May 30, 1984.
 
53. J. A. Dunne et al., "Digital Processing of the Mariner 6 and 7 Pictures," J. Geophys. Res., 395(1976).
 
54. Interview with Albert Zobrist, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, May 23, 1984.
 
55. W.B. Green and D.A. O'Handley, "Recent Developments in Digital Image Processing at the Image Processing Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Proc. IEEE,60(7)822 (July 1972).
 
56. R.F. Stott, "Mariner Mars 1971: Real-Time Video Data Processing," April 4, 1972, from the files of R.F. Scott, p. 3A.
 
57. Stott, "Mariner Mars 1971: Real-Time Video Data Processing," April 4, 1972, p. 6.
 
58. Green and O'Handley, "Recent Developments in Digital image Processing," July 1972, pp. 821-823.
 
59. Stott, "Mariner Mars 1971: Real-Time Video Data Processing," April 4,1972. p. 4.
 
60. For a description of VICAR and its subroutines, see Chambers, Digital Image Processing, pp. 52-67, 401-411.
 
61. Zobrist interview, May 23, 1984.
 
62. Nathan interview, May 30, 1984.
 
63. R. Nathan, "Large Array VLSI Filter," Reprinted from 1983 IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Computer Architecture for Pattern Analysis and Image Database Management-CAPAIDM, Silver Spring, MD, p. 15.
 
64. Nathan interview, May 30, 1984.
 

 
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